APPLICATION OF PROBLEM SITUATIONS OF COMMUNICATIVE ORIENTATION IN THE PROCESS OF PREPARING FUTURE MANAGERS FOR INTERCULTURAL INTERACTION IN CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING (CLIL)

Research article
DOI:
https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2022.125.10
Issue: № 11 (125), 2022
Suggested:
17.08.2022
Accepted:
17.10.2022
Published:
17.11.2022
106
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Abstract

This article discusses the problem of preparing future managers for intercultural interaction, which is relevant in today's multilingual and multicultural world. The hypothesis is that the preparation of future managers for intercultural interaction will be effective if content and language integrated learning and problem situations of a communicative orientation are used. The purpose of the article is to substantiate the use of problem situations of a communicative orientation in the preparation of future managers for intercultural interaction. The following research methods were used: analysis of scientific literature devoted to the use of problem situations of a communicative orientation; as well as diagnostic techniques, including questionnaires, testing and methods of statistical data processing. In the process of experimental work, problematic situations of a communicative orientation were created and tested. During the implementation of this study, the final testing for the assimilation of the material showed the level of preparation of the experimental group for the assessment "excellent", as a result of which it can be concluded that the use of problem situations of a communicative orientation is effective in preparing future managers for intercultural interaction and contributes to the development of competitive specialists. Problematic situations of a communicative orientation develop creative thinking and tolerance to other cultures of future managers.

1. Introduction

Problematic situations of communicative orientation in teaching are an effective tool that allows students to prepare for real intercultural interaction.

In their professional activities, managers often face problematic situations in the field of communication. Intercultural communication for managers is a professional necessity in the era of globalization.

Intercultural interaction in the modern world is the most urgent problem, because the survival of civilization depends on it. It is necessary to teach intercultural interaction. The use of problematic situations of a communicative orientation can help to develop productive actions in case of intercultural conflicts.

Content and language integrated learning as a joint teaching of a foreign language and a subject can be effectively used in preparation for intercultural interaction.

2. Research methods and principles

To achieve the goal of the study, the developed problem situations of a communicative orientation were tested in the process of preparing first-year student managers of the Chelyabinsk State Institute of Culture.

The following groups of methods were used: empirical (questionnaire, testing), interpretation (quantitative and qualitative analysis, methods of mathematical data processing).

3. Main results

This article discusses the preparation of future managers for intercultural interaction with the help of problem situations of a communicative orientation. A situation is a communicative event produced by the subjects of communication. The communicative situation is the interaction of communication participants, differs in levels of complexity, heuristics and creativity [2, P. 9–12], [11, P. 198]. To use problem situations, it is necessary to take into account the age, psychological and mental characteristics of students, the personality of the teacher, the means of creating problem situations [7, P. 99–100]. The use of problem situations is effective if they have a logical connection with the material, contain cognitive difficulties and cause a feeling of surprise [11, P. 199–200]. The problem method and the use of problem situations of a communicative orientation is a means of increasing the effectiveness of teaching a foreign language, as the cognitive and independent activity of students is activated, a creative approach develops [21, P. 192]. The introduction of communicative tasks in the educational process is associated with many factors [8, P. 54]. This paper describes the preparation of future managers to solve problem situations.

A manager is a leader in an organization who organizes the activities of employees and performs the functions of distributing responsibilities, creating an organization's development strategy and solving emerging problems. Modern managers in their professional activities are constantly faced with intercultural interaction.

Culture is a system of knowledge and values, a set of norms passed down from generation to generation [4, P. 35]. Intercultural interaction is a form of communication between people of different cultures, during which information and cultural values ​​are exchanged [18, P. 153]. Since language is the main means of communication, the interaction of language and culture is the basis of intercultural interaction [9, P. 216]. Intercultural interaction has been studied since antiquity [10, P. 51] to the present day [17, P. 145-146], [5, P. 1-152]. The main function of communication is to achieve a social community while maintaining the individuality of each of its elements [15, P. 77]. In modern society, there is a process of formation of a new communicative consciousness for the effective interaction of cultures [1, P. 11]. One of the most important characteristics of the modern world is the close interaction and at the same time the diversity of states, ethnic groups, geographic regions [23, P. 272]. Currently, the question of the boundaries of culture, its core and periphery is being actively studied. There are two types of intercultural interaction - culturally direct and indirect [19, P. 107–108]. There are three approaches to the study of communication: linguistic, sociological and communicative [6, P. 144]. In intercultural interaction, individual cultures act as subjects of relations [16, P. 51]. The interaction of cultures has such consequences as synthesis, mutual enrichment and understanding of the fundamental differences between the participants [13, P. 236–237]. Intercultural interaction is based on the following principles: the presence of sociocultural differences, the mutual exchange of sociocultural meanings, readiness to perceive "alien" sociocultural information, the development of mutually acceptable communication mechanisms, the inclusion of tolerance [14, P. 36], [24, P. 106]. A feature of intercultural interaction is its huge semantic potential, it can be a means of educating a multicultural personality [12, P. 83, 89]. This article discusses the preparation of future managers for intercultural interaction through comprehensive content and language integrated learning.

Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), developed by D. Marsh, provides for the development of subject knowledge and foreign language competence at the same time [3, P. 80, 81], [20, P. 30] through content, cognition, communication and culture [22, P. 74]. An indication of the types of CLIL tasks should be developed in accordance with the level of complexity, built with an emphasis on the content of the subject, its comprehension, verification and subsequent discussion [25, P. 360]. CLIL allows you to solve the following educational goals and objectives to increase the motivation of students, teach them to use a foreign language to solve everyday problems, develop an understanding of cultures, language and communication competencies of students [25, P. 361]. CLIL aims to develop students' language competencies such as receptive skills, vocabulary, morphological knowledge, fluency and loudness of speech, and academic vocabulary. CLIL implementation principles good educational base, active teacher assistance, productive knowledge of a foreign language, multiculturalism, development of cognitive skills, sustainable learning [22, P. 75]. The disadvantages of CLIL are the lack of educational and methodological complexes and methodological manuals in the specialty and foreign language [25, P. 361–362]. The advantages of CLIL are the formation of foreign language competence of students, knowledge of professional discipline, the ability to communicate and solve problems, independence, tolerance, interaction of teachers [3, P. 93], intercultural communication skills, internationality, the ability to consider a subject from different points of view, the development of terminology, increasing the motivation of students [22, P. 73–77].

Below are examples of problem situations of a communicative orientation, created by the author of the article. These problem situations are a short list of controversial issues from various areas of life that are relevant to managers (culture, business etiquette, politics, economics, etc.).

Purpose: to acquire the skills of solving various problem situations of a communicative orientation in English.

Tasks:

– improvement of students' foreign language skills;

– extension of special terminology in a foreign language;

– formation of skills to respond to stressful situations;

– formation of creative approach to problem-solving.

Player roles: Representatives of CIS countries and English–speaking countries (Great Britain, Republic of Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand).

Auxiliary authentic materials: newspapers, magazines, dictionaries, news feeds, websites of organizations.

1. Problem situation "Charity evening".

At a charity event, an LGBT representative was approached with the wrong pronoun, and he changed his mind about donating a large amount of money.

2. Problem situation "Opinions".

A British feminist at a business meeting spoke negatively about the economic situation in Russia and the CIS countries, and the conclusion of a major international contract with the UK is about to be disrupted.

3. Problem situation "Price".

The Irish businessman is dissatisfied with the fact that the Russian organizers of the international forum have made a big discount on hotel accommodation for representatives of the CIS countries.

4. Problem situation "Exotic cuisine".

The English lord is outraged that the banquet after the completion of international business negotiations was decorated in an oriental style and the parties observed the norms of oriental etiquette, about which the English side was not warned.

5. Problem situation "Different costumes".

A representative of the Maori people dressed in a national costume for the international trade forum, the children of the Russian participants of the forum were afraid of his appearance, after which he raised the issue of intolerance of Russian society.

6. Problem situation "Collectors".

An American multimillionaire wanted to buy an Amur tiger in his personal zoo and, having heard about Russian corruption, is outraged that the official authorities refused him.

7. Problem situation "Traditions and innovations".

A New Zealand doctor who respects the alternative medicine of aborigines was offended when, in response to his speech at the International Medical Congress, Russian neurosurgeons advised him to treat all diseases with Russian folk remedies, such as garlic, burdock root and plantain.

8. Problem situation "Vice Police".

An American private detective investigating the infidelity of the wife of a famous athlete from the United States while traveling abroad, faced a misunderstanding from the Russian police. He was very loudly indignant at his detention for checking documents.

9. Problem situation "World Map".

The children of the Canadian writer, who bequeathed to scatter his ashes over the Siberian forests, send requests to various Russian authorities with a request to fulfill the last will of the deceased. Explain to them that geographically Siberia is not the whole of Russia, and in this case it is useless to write requests to two cities known to foreigners – Moscow and St. Petersburg.

10. Problem situation "The reality of global problems".

A Welsh representative of a society that believes in the existence of fairies (the magical people of the British Isles) was offended when his report was not taken seriously at a congress on global issues held in Russia.

Reflection: At the end of classes, the results are summed up and grades are given for students' participation in solving problem situations.

4. Discussion

In the course of this study, a survey was conducted before (questionnaire 1) and after the experiment (questionnaire 2), as well as final testing of 3 options for mastering the studied material. Each questionnaire contained 15 questions, each test 10 questions. As a result of the experiment in the 1st year group of 31 students (15 students in 2021, 16 students in 2022), improved results were obtained in the final testing. In the course of work, five criteria were identified for assessing the degree of readiness of students for intercultural interaction: motivational, knowledge, activity, ​effective, r​eflexive. According to the level of assimilation of knowledge, students were divided into groups with low, productive and creative levels (Table 1).

Table 1 - The results of an experiment on the use of problem situations of a communicative orientation in the process of preparing future managers for intercultural interaction in CLIL

Criteria

Questionnaire 1

Questionnaire 2

Testing

Low level

Productive

level

Creative level

Low level

Productive

level

Creative level

Motivational, %

3,3

19,4

77,3

48,8

9,4

41,8

93,5

Knowledge, %

0

38,8

61,2

48,7

15,9

35,4

 

Activity, %

0

67,9

32,1

45,4

35,2

19,4

Effective, %

3,2

67,9

28,9

45,4

38,8

15,8

Reflexive, %

10

83,5

6,5

64,6

28,8

6,6

 

On average, the level of students' knowledge acquisition in tests corresponds to the "excellent" rating (from 90 to 100%). Based on the foregoing, it can be concluded that the use of problem situations of a communicative orientation and CLIL contributes to the effective memorization of the studied material and its development in practice. Problem situations of a communicative orientation have an impact on the personal development of students, affecting their motivation, knowledge, activity, results and reflection, which is reflected in Table 1. As a result of the experiment, it was concluded that problem situations of a communicative orientation increase the motivation, independence and creativity of students, promote preparing future managers for intercultural interaction in content and language integrated learning by modeling professional situations.

5. Conclusion

It can be concluded that the hypothesis that the preparation of future managers for intercultural interaction will be effective when using CLIL and problem situations of a communicative orientation has been confirmed. Problem situations of a communicative orientation and CLIL improve the knowledge of a foreign language and special terminology, develop creativity and tolerance of students. Intercultural interaction must be taught in higher educational institutions to future managers, as today they must be able to competently conduct a dialogue with representatives of other cultures in an international language. The beginning of the XXI century is characterized by the aggravation of intercultural and interethnic conflicts, and at this time, more than ever, specialists are needed who are able to carry out equal, tolerant and productive intercultural communication.

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