Research article
Issue: № 4 (142), 2024


The article discusses the issues of effective organization of didactic material, which plays a leading role in linguodidactics. One of the important components in the organization of educational material are exercises and their practical orientation in solving communicative tasks. The purpose of the article is to theoretically analyze and substantiate the methodological advantages of using different types of exercises in learning a foreign language by students of technical fields of study. The methods of linguodidactic analysis and description, interpretation are used. It has been established that the effectiveness of teaching a foreign language to a certain extent depends on the nature, sequence and interrelation of the exercises performed.

1. Introduction

The study of methodological literature demonstrates the accumulated rich experience of teaching students speech activity in a foreign language

. The issues of the organization of educational material occupy an important place in the methodology of teaching oral speech, therefore, addressing them remains relevant
. Exercises are one of the forms of methodical organization of educational material. The effectiveness of training to a certain extent depends on the nature, sequence and interrelation of the exercises performed.

We share the point of view of famous scientists E. I. Passov, I. V. Rakhmanov, S. F. Shatilov that exercises are the main means of organizing educational activities of students and teachers studying with each other

. We find confirmation of this idea in A. N. Shchukin, who assigns a significant role to exercises "to consolidate, activate educational material and organize control over the quality of its assimilation"
. According to N. D. Galskova, N. I. Gez, "any speech skill is based on automated fixed operations developed under the control of consciousness using a variety of training/preparatory and speech/communication exercises"
. Therefore, the term "exercise" includes purposeful, systematic and cyclical performance of actions, the purpose of which is to master these actions or improve their quality. To implement the tasks set, the exercise provides for repeated repetition in order to master the students of the formed speech actions in different educational conditions.

Thus, by an exercise acceptable for the methodology of teaching a foreign language, we mean a single or multiple performance of a separate or a series of operations or actions of a speech/ linguistic nature specially organized in educational conditions.

The purpose of the article is to theoretically analyze and substantiate the methodological advantages of using different types of exercises in learning a foreign language by students of technical fields of study. The methods of linguodidactic analysis, description, and interpretation are used.

2. Discussion

There are certain stages in learning how to express your thoughts in a foreign language, and each stage involves the use of special exercises. At the first stage, the exercises are aimed at automating the form, and the last stage includes the development of students' ability to independently solve speech-thinking tasks.

It should be noted that there are different approaches to the issue of exercises specific to the intermediate stage. Thus, the traditional approach is based on the juxtaposition of language and speech and involves dividing exercises into language and speech. Language exercises are aimed at mastering the form and meaning of language material, and speech exercises are aimed at using the mastered material

. When switching to speech exercises, the degree of difficulty increases, since the operations practiced in language exercises cannot serve as a support for speech actions. The temporary non-synchronicity in the development of language material outside of communication and the introduction of language material into speech has a negative effect. It is well known that when working on language material outside of communication, students' attention is focused on the formal side of the phenomenon and does not take into account in which typical situations this phenomenon is used. Memorizing language material outside of a situation often creates the illusion of speaking it. In order to communicate by foreign language means, students should have the skills of automated command of language material in speech conditions, in typical communication situations defined by the topic of the work program in a foreign language

Therefore, it is advisable to use exercises that bring the process of skill formation as close as possible to the conditions of communication, to give a speech orientation to exercises aimed at mastering language material

. Given this situation, the researchers began to search for new types of exercises to reduce the gap between the stage of working on language material and the stage of using it in oral speech. At the stage of skill formation, communicative tasks were set to give the process of training linguistic material a speech character. For the maximum possible combination of the process of purposeful activation of language material and the process of speech practice, all exercises are proposed to be divided into such types as exercises for purposeful activation of language material and exercises for unregulated activation. The first type of exercises involves training exercises within the framework of microtext, in the act of coherent speech, and a gradual transition to exercises of non-directional activation. Therefore, the division of exercises into types is carried out according to the principle of purposeful activation of the material. In another classification, the main criterion is the stages of formation of skills and abilities and exercises are divided into conditional speech and speech. These types of exercises are determined by a set of parameters, including the speech task, the situational relevance of phrases, and the conditionality of the utterance. The transition to speech exercises is determined by the conditionality of the speech task and the utterance itself, as well as the presence of real or conditional situationality
. The classification under consideration is not clear enough, since the speech task, the situational attribution of phrases and the conditionality of the utterance can be both inherent in exercises that form a skill and exercises for skill development.

The scientist M. S. Ilyin, in his proposed classification of exercises, proceeds from the fact that the linguistic concepts of "language" and "speech" cannot be directly used in the methodology for separating exercises, and divides exercises into analytical and synthetic ones. In analytical exercises, situational relatedness is not taken into account, there is an appeal to the form. The second type includes analytical exercises that include a situation and direct the consciousness of students to the content

. The main criteria, according to the scientist, are the level of educational difficulties, the educational situation and the pace of speech. The learning difficulties of the pre-speech level include automated components of operations, and the exercises of the pre-speech and speech levels include non-automated components/skills. The author assigns the role of a method and means of mastering operations with language material and attributes to these exercises the separation of language material, slow pace and the presence of learning difficulties
. The slow pace of performing operations with language material characterizes speech exercises to a greater extent, because programming the content of an utterance requires a certain amount of time for reflection
. In the process of mastering the language material, one difficulty is worked out, that is, one grammatical phenomenon, which means that the students' attention is focused on a certain operation being performed at a fast pace. Therefore, the pace of speech cannot be considered a relevant sign of attributing an exercise to a specific type.

There is a common drawback in the above classifications of exercises – the lack of a gradual process of transition from automating the form to complex mental tasks and working with a meaningful component. To achieve this goal, tasks should include creative processing of the mastered language material in such exercises that have a communicative coloring and bring them closer to communication. Based on this point of view, methodologists divide exercises into speech preparation and speech exercises. When performing speech preparation exercises, students' attention is focused on the content component of the actions they perform to work out a given linguistic phenomenon. The purpose of speech preparation exercises is to use language material in students' speech. The task is formulated depending on what material needs to be worked out. The basis of speech exercises is a communication situation that provides communication, taking into account the language training of students.

The experiment was conducted with a group of students of Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University. French language teaching was conducted within the framework of a mixed learning model – digital format (using authentic educational platforms for learning French) and traditional. One of the ways to activate and stimulate a speech activity for the formation of the communicative competence is using of specially selected texts with a problematic nature. As an example, they can offer the following story in French:

À la porte d’un petit restaurant de province, on lit: "Entrez et mangez tout ce que vous voulez. Votre arrière-petit-fils qui paiera l’addition pour vous". Un monsieur entre, prend place à une table, appelle le garçon et commande un déjeuner copieux... (Devoir: Finissez le dialogue vous-même!) Puis, quand il a mangé, il se lève et se dirige vers la porte. – Vous oubliez l’addition! – dit le garçon. – Mais c’est bien mon arrière-petit-fils qui devra payer mon addition? – Parfaitement! Mais... Finissez la réplique du garçon! (Clé: celle, devez, de, arrière-grand-père, vous, payer, votre). On the door of a small province restaurant a tourist sees an inscription: "Come in and eat whatever you want! Your great-grandson will pay for you!" The traveler comes in, sits down at a table, calls the waiter and orders a sumptuous lunch. Having had a great dinner, the guest gets up and goes to the door. "You forgot to pay,– the waiter stops him. – But my great-grandson will pay for me, right? – the tourist is surprised... What did the waiter say? (Key: "Of course. But you have to pay for your great-grandfather!").

Stopping at the words "orders a sumptuous lunch", you can invite students to act out a scene between a waiter and a tourist who makes an order. Then the students offer various responses from the waiter. Each student can offer their own version.

The results of the study confirmed that the process of creative thinking captures students and turns into an exciting game, and the desire to express their version creates a natural speech situation.

3. Conclusion

Thus, due to the increased attention to the communicative orientation of teaching a foreign language, the problem of exercises has not lost its relevance. Exercises determine the activity of students and model it. Exercises should be aimed at the realization of acquired knowledge and formed skills and abilities. The development of each type of speech activity is carried out by a system of exercises aimed at the realization of a communicative function. At the same time, both the content and the structure of the exercises are not random. The study of foreign languages not only forms students' language skills and abilities, but also enriches them with the cultural heritage of the ethnic group, which also arouses scientific interest from researchers of national languages


Article metrics