METHODOLOGY OF DYNAMIC STUDY OF SCHOOLCHILDREN'S SPEECH ACTIVITY AND ITS IMPACT ON EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT
METHODOLOGY OF DYNAMIC STUDY OF SCHOOLCHILDREN'S SPEECH ACTIVITY AND ITS IMPACT ON EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT
The purpose of the study, the results of which are presented in this article, was to create, test a methodology for studying the speech activity of schoolchildren, which makes it possible to formulate conclusions on improving this activity in the context of general education. The achievement of this goal was based on the assumption that the content of pedagogical work, based on the results of a study of this activity studied in dynamics, contributes to the increase in the effectiveness of schoolchildren's speech activity, i.e. in the process of its formation, characteristic of each individual student. This is on the one hand. On the other hand, it was necessary to collect the texts of essays composed by the same schoolchildren studying from the fifth to the ninth grades.
The article describes the results of using such a research method as the implementation of a model of speech mechanisms, which appeared in the form of a corresponding doctrine. In addition, the genetic study of linguistic facts turned out to be involved in the process of obtaining a product of the speech activity of schoolchildren, the text of essays. In addition, the striving changes in this activity, its tendencies, were subjected to comprehension. Thus, the dynamic methodology for studying the speech activity of schoolchildren was made up of methods for the practical implementation of modeling the work of choosing language means when expressing thoughts by schoolchildren, diachronic comparison of language means in speech activity, and the directed aspiration of the process of constructing the product of the activity under study.
The article also includes data obtained by applying the described methodology, general, transient signs of schoolchildren's speech activity, its shortcomings. It outlines the theoretical foundations of the teacher's work on the organization of teaching in the field of improving the researched activity. In particular, the principles and corresponding methods for improving the efficiency of expressing thoughts in the context of school education are disclosed.
According to the national project "Education", the efforts of the state are aimed at improving the quality of education. The main direction of achieving this is the updating of its content. Moreover, such content should function in the format of a student-oriented developmental learning model. One of these models can be created on the basis of research data.
New in teaching Russian as a native language is the application of the theory of speech activity. On the one hand, you can start implementing its postulates. On the other hand, there are prerequisites for the organization of the study, taking into account the approach formed on the basis of this theory. But how to organize the study of this activity?
The purpose of the study, the results of which are presented in this article, was to create, test a methodology for studying the speech activity of schoolchildren, which makes it possible to formulate conclusions on improving this activity in the context of general education. The achievement of this goal was based on the assumption that the content of pedagogical work, based on the results of a study of this activity, studied in dynamics, contributes to the increase in the effectiveness of the speech activity of schoolchildren, in the process of its formation, characteristic of each individual student.
To create a dynamic methodology for studying the speech activity of schoolchildren, the approach that developed in the methodology of teaching Russian as a native language (linguomethodology) in the second half of the twentieth century was used. This approach is made up of the works of Russian linguomethodists such as T.A. Ladyzhenskaya, M.R. Lvov, . The features of the works of these scientists is the linking of the facts of speech reality, derived through their procedural study, with the teaching of schoolchildren. In the twenty-first century, this approach to solving the problems of school education began to be used by S.V. Yurtaev , .
2. Research methods and principles
In the linguistic methodology of M.R. Lvov developed the doctrine of the mechanisms of speech, tested the genetic method of cognition of pedagogical realities.
M.R. Lvov distinguishes pre-communicative and communicative stages of speech generation.
At the first stage, the mechanisms of speech motivation, speech intention, semantic-grammatical structuring work. During the operation of the first mechanism, a comprehension of the life situation occurs, the birth of a motive, for the sake of which speech is carried out, its goals. The action of the mechanism of speech intention is associated with the formation of the content of the statement. It includes the situational orientation, the choice of the addressee, the mental plan of the utterance, the choice of language. The action of the mechanism of semantic-grammatical structuring leads to the choice of words, to the establishment of the order of words in a sentence, to grammatical marking.
Analyzing the communicative stage, M.R. Lvov thinks about code transitions, about the transition from the code of semantic units to the code of external speech.
The proposed scheme is subject to concretization. Thus, the results obtained in the study correlate with the conditions in which their author was. In addition, the plan for the generation of an utterance can be represented as a choice of topics for the utterance, subjects of speech, and their naming. In addition, the approximation of the statement to its expression is correlated with the assignment of material, lexical meanings to the form of a word, and the beginning of speech is correlated with the arrangement of the forms of the nominative case, with the spread of these forms.
The doctrine of the mechanisms of speech appears as an abstract model. This model has the property of a kind of matrix superimposed on a real event.
The essence of the genetic method is that the action of speech mechanisms is considered in time, for example, within five years. The application of this method allows you to establish the trends of the phenomenon under study. In our case, it becomes possible to cognize the tendencies of the speech activity of schoolchildren.
The word ''trend'' means the direction of development, aspiration.
It is often found in reports on the socio-economic development of the country, as a result of sociological surveys. At the same time, their authors strive to convey the essence of the ongoing changes.
Sometimes, without any explanation, it functions in the statements of leading linguists, methodologists of the Russian language. So, Reformatsky A.A. formulates the following idea: ''From the predominance of one or another tendency, the nature of the word in the language changes'' . Prokopovich N.N. writes: ''One of the reasons for syntactic simplification is the tendency noted in the language to be lapidary, and on this basis to ellipse in various syntactic constructions and constructions''. Solovyov I.M., reflecting on the need to study the language of school-age children, notes: “At present, we see a certain tendency to outline truly scientific ways in the study of this complex and difficult problem” .
The word ''trend'' denotes a directional striving.
In the methodology of teaching the Russian language, the study of trends made it possible to learn the patterns of age-related changes in the use of the language. In comprehending these patterns, we notice the common and the different.
The general takes place in obtaining quantitative characteristics. Quantitative characteristics have a digital expression. The numerical expression shows the number of the analyzed indicator. This expression is in many cases accompanied by a percentage illustration.
We observe different things in the interval of studying age-related changes, in the methods of obtaining quantitative data, in applying the results of the study.
In particular, Rybnikov N.A. studies the process of formation of oral speech of children in the period from birth to eight years. He uses a sample from observation diaries. This sample contains examples of the age at which the first words and sentences appeared. It allows the author to show the percentage expression of words naming various objects, some parts of speech. The researcher shows the methods of shortening words by children, concludes that there is a pattern of minimal expenditure of energy.
Ladyzhenskaya T.A. explores changes in the syntactic structure of students' oral speech during their education in the fifth – in the seventh grades. The author analyzes the quantitative use of simple and complex sentences, separate members of the sentence, complicated constructions. At the same time, he notes that the statements become more meaningful, the description occupies an increasing place, an increase in the words, phrases, phrases of an evaluative nature used by students is manifested. At the same time, there are violations of coordination and control. Subsequently, the characteristic of the formation of students' oral speech allows the researcher to develop a system of work on its development.
Lvov M.R. refers to the processes of mastering individual specific elements of the grammatical structure of written speech. The author, using a sample of essays by students of the third – tenth grades, traces the nature of changes in the field of syntax, morphology from year to year. He subjects the received data to mathematical processing, fixes the results in tables, in graphs. Then, having discovered a trend, he analyzes its features: direction, stability, uniformity, intensity. Further, the researcher describes the age periodization, reflects on the influence of the school course on the use of grammatical forms, critically examines the state of teaching grammar.
Tracking trends in speech activity cannot be a complete copy of existing approaches for a number of reasons.
Firstly, their search is aimed at solving the problem that appeared as a result of the analytical thought going beyond the sentence. Secondly, the trends of various phenomena do not have a strict temporal manifestation. Thirdly, since the process of choosing a language is largely hidden from direct observation, you reflect on the course of this process by analyzing the already finished product - the text, putting forward a certain assumption.
Carrying out the indicated work consists in identifying not only individual specific elements of the grammatical structure of speech, but also in identifying the meanings realized by these elements, the place, purpose of grammatical elements, links in syntactic constructions more extensive than a sentence, the correlation of grammatical design and speech design.
Let's skip the intermediate reasoning and name the generalized data. To do this, we will use a variety of trends, progressive trends, showing an increase in the number of units of use, the share of the studied phenomenon from class to class. Note that their striving orientation can be progressive, falling into a state of rest for some time, with recessions, more or less intense. Moreover, as a starting point, we will take the potential of speech activity of students moving to the second stage of education, i.e. to the fifth grade.
3. Main results
Speech activity begins with its motivation, which includes the life situation, motive, purpose of speech. The task of the teacher can become a product of the motive of students' speech, and their motive can be their desire to tell about a case from life. If this desire is conscious in schoolchildren, then it acts as the goal of speech.
The continuation of speech activity falls on speech intention. This mechanism is responsible, first of all, for the choice of the topics of the statement, for the creation of substantive content.
The average number of speech subjects in student essays can be 7.8. Their minimum number can coincide with the number 5, and the maximum – with the number 12. Some values are reproduced by students several times, others – only in one predicative unit. Consequently, their share in the subject content of essays is not the same. Here's how it looks in % terms: "subject of action" – 67.9; "an object belonging to a person" – 0.7; "object of the animal world" – 14.3; "object of the plant world" – 1.3; "object of inanimate nature" – 3.5; "process" – 8, 7; "phenomenon of nature" – 2.5; human condition” – 1.1.
The thought of students reveals mainly the meaning of "subject of action". Such disclosure, with some exceptions, affects more than half of all subjects of speech. Other meanings are not disseminated by students' thoughts to the same extent. This is first. Secondly, among other meanings, students often refer to the meaning of "an object of the animal world"ю Thirdly, the proportion of values other than those mentioned above rarely exceeds ten percent. Fourthly, schoolchildren use the meaning “an object belonging to a person” least of all.
The above gives grounds for some judgments. In narrative essays, students talk about themselves, their friends, relatives, and people around them. Their monologues are devoted to animals. They rarely remember objects of inanimate nature, natural phenomena, flora. Sometimes called feelings. Rarely describe a person.
The next stage of speech activity falls on the mechanism of semantic-grammatical structuring, the work of which we will characterize in terms of the linguistic design of the subject content. One of the components of this mechanism is grammatical marking. The essence of this component is the combination of morphemes that have meaning with formal morphemes
The development of individual topics dictates to schoolchildren the need to reproduce the semantic units of objectivity through the choice of names of speech objects. The names of the subjects of speech receive the endings of the nominative case (i.p.) in the RAM. Such a synthesized phenomenon appears in external speech as the corresponding form.
Another component of this mechanism is the arrangement of grammatical forms, in particular, the forms of i.p. The study of his work requires the establishment of their place of use, the order in which they follow.
On average, the volume of forms of the nominative case can be 20, the minimum number is 13, the maximum is 31.
An increase in the number of forms of the nominative case, the number of predicative units (simple sentences) indicates the presence of a pattern, which consists in an increase in the volume of the text.
The appearance of ever new groups of sentences (complex syntactic wholes), independent individual sentences, paragraphs shows that there is an increase in the number of links between sentences, leading to a complication of the text.
At the same time, the desire of students to design a paragraph in a group of sentences or in the form of an independent, separate sentence increases. This desire is the desire to unify the grammatical design of semantic content.
The convergence of the number of groups of sentences, independent individual sentences with the number of its paragraphs allows us to state the following: in the process of text formation, students gradually become aware of the grammatical design of speech intention. The older the students, the higher the degree of comprehension of speech behavior.
The indicators of the study, which formed the basis for tracing trends in speech activity, can be specified by their types. The types of indicators under study have dynamics of changes that cannot be reduced to the dynamics of changes in the generic indicator. They are often characterized by progressive, regressive, progressive-regressive, spasmodic changes. At the same time, their cumulative dynamics of development gives the picture that is typical for a generic indicator. It follows from this that the dynamics of the development of a generic research indicator is made up of the dynamics of the development of its species, each of which has its own pattern of development, sometimes opposite or unclear at a certain period of time.
Establishing trends in speech activity allows you to notice stable transient signs, its shortcomings.
Repetitive, transient in the process of creating a narrative text are the following signs of students' speech activity:
1. Primary story about the subjects of the action. Isolation of the central subject of action.
2. Inclusion in the narrative of additional subjects of action.
3. The use of related subjects of speech.
4. Attraction of single objects of speech.
5. The spread of forms of ip that goes beyond the boundaries of one sentence.
- with general semantics: ... A small child was playing on the balcony of the fifth floor. After playing, he crawled between the iron bars and fell down. Falling from a height, the child touched the clothesline stretched on the lower floors, fell on a lush bush that grew near the house. After the fall, the boy got up and, as if nothing had happened, ran home ...;
- with different semantics: ...A woman named Clara had a one-room apartment in which she did not live. Once, old acquaintances turned to her and asked her to rent this apartment ...;
- with common and different semantics: ... Fortunately, the rescuers landed safely on the runway. When they got off the plane, they couldn't believe their eyes. The plane's skin was torn off... (Ira I.)
6. Establishing parallel, chain, semantic, mixed connections between sentences.
7. Not going beyond the boundaries of one sentence, the spread of a repeating or non-repeating form of sp. The generation of independent individual sentences (simple and complex): ...The fire department, the police, the ambulance arrived ...; ... We asked everyone how it caught fire, no one knows ... (Ira I.)
8. Isolation of paragraphs that combine complex syntactic wholes, independent separate sentences, coinciding with a complex syntactic whole, with an independent separate sentence, dismembering a complex syntactic whole.
Let us illustrate the manifestation of these features with an example of an essay, highlighting the elements of its text into paragraphs.
This meeting happened in the summer.
It was a sunny day.
My sister and I went to haymaking. Lounging on the green lawn, we talked.
Near the meadows where the grass was mowed, there was a forest. Suddenly, the crackling of branches was heard in the forest. Olya and I were worried.
Here, a beautiful, majestic elk, two meters high, runs out from behind the trees. On the head are large branched horns.
The elk looked at us with its dark and sad eyes. Hearing the voices of people, he turned and ran down the hill, looking back for the last time, disappeared behind the hill.
As we walked back through the forest, we heard the crunch of branches. It must have been the moose walking around.
I will never forget the meeting that happened to me on that July day. (Katya M.)
Note that the girl is not aware of the elements of the structure of the text, but she builds these elements. In its generation, the text appears as a single paragraph.
One of the shortcomings of the speech activity of schoolchildren is logical errors. These errors represent violations of the laws of logic. These include the laws of identity, excluded middle, sufficient reason.
According to the law of identity, every concept, judgment is identical to itself. They are used in some statement in one of the meanings.
The Law of the Excluded Middle implies that the statement is either true or false at a given time. It cannot be true and false at the same time.
In accordance with the law of sufficient reason, every thought is justified.
Consequently, the laws of logic require a consistent expression of thoughts, the completeness of logical unities, the transition from one logical unities to others, their specific location. The expression of these requirements is a correctly constructed group of sentences, i.e. sequence of sentences without gaps between them.
In the text of students' essays, gaps in links between sentences of one group of sentences are filled with sentences from another group or independent separate sentences. Thus, the interpenetration of syntactic constructions takes place. Let us illustrate the presence of this phenomenon with an example.
Once, when we went to the village, dad took a gun. And it was dark outside. We were driving, and dad saw a fox, and the weather was warm, there was no wind. It was snowing that warm evening. This fox was sitting right on the road. She didn't seem to see us. Then dad got out of the car, took out a gun and took aim, but the fox suddenly ran along the road. And then the fox jumped over the side of the snow. Dad fired twice, but missed. I was sorry that my dad didn't make it. He got into the car and put the gun next to him. Dad moved on. Suddenly we saw another fox, but he did not stop because he already knew that he would not hit, and we drove on. We came to the village and told this amazing story to our grandmother. (Andrey I.)
We isolate groups of sentences, independent individual sentences, arrange them in paragraphs. And this is what we get:
Once, when we went to the village, dad took a gun.
And it was dark outside... and the weather was warm, there was no wind. It was snowing that warm evening.
and papa saw a fox,... This fox was standing right on the road. She didn't seem to see us.
Then dad got out of the car, took out a gun and took aim.
but the fox suddenly ran down the road. And then the fox jumped over the side of the snow.
Dad fired twice, but missed... He got into the car and put the gun next to him. Dad moved on.
I was sorry that my dad didn't make it.
Suddenly we saw another fox, but he did not stop because he already knew that he would not fall, and we drove on. We arrived in the village and told this amazing story to the grandmother.
The grammatical reasons for the appearance of constructions with breaks in links between sentences are the distant arrangement of forms of sp, their contact arrangement at a distance from each other.
The identified shortcomings of speech activity allow us to formulate the theoretical foundations of methodological work to improve it.
Principles of improving the speech activity of schoolchildren:
1. Inducing speech activity in students.
The speech activity of students is manifested in their general communicativeness, in the absence of constraint, silence, fear of speaking. Such a state should be the result of expressing the results of understanding the statement, the result of expressing its understanding or misunderstanding.
2. Deepening the semantic perception of the educational text.
Educational is a text designed to solve educational problems. Its most important feature is that it is limited to a language selected and minimized in a certain way, i.e. freed from unimportant and secondary features for this purpose.
To implement this principle, the texts of reading anthologies are used. But only those of them that satisfy such criteria: the text should be dominated by the narrative, the dialogue occupies an insignificant place in it, the subjects of speech are clearly presented, and clear transitions from one part to another can be traced.
The structure of texts of anthologies can consist of a part, a chapter, a chapter, a break (marked by the omission of several lines), a paragraph.
The elements of the text structure, which are more extensive than a complex syntactic whole or a paragraph coinciding with it, have not yet found application for the purpose of studying them at school. Nevertheless, for several decades, in the lessons of speech development, the text has been divided into semantic parts for their heading. The semantic parts coincide in volume with the elements of the text structure named above. Their selection is predetermined by the definition of sub-themes.
Adapted texts are another means of realizing this principle. The structure of these texts consists of complex syntactic integers. Complex syntactic integers coincide, as a rule, with paragraphs. It is sometimes represented by independent, separate sentences that act as beginnings or endings.
These texts are found in teachers' manuals, in textbooks.
Thus, the texts of reading anthologies and adapted texts belong to the educational ones. Work on the elements of the structure of the first allows you to more deeply comprehend the role of subtopics in the design of syntactic constructions, comprehend the articulation of syntactic constructions, comprehend the role of subtopics in preparing a speech statement with a varying degree of detail of events, a speech statement of a generalized nature. Work on the elements of the structure of the second gives an example of connecting sentences, an example of grammatical design of minimal semantic unity, an example of giving semantic completeness to expressed thoughts, this work teaches schoolchildren to a consistent grammatical design of thoughts.
3. Formation of some concepts of text linguistics.
It is known that concepts appear as a set of features, the presence of which one language unit differs from another. Such signs constitute a certain amount of knowledge about the construction of the text. Mastering them creates conditions for increasing the awareness of speech actions.
4. Conducting exercises that develop coherent speech in the system.
Traditionally, these include retelling (exposition), story (composition). Some contribute to the work on oral speech, others – on written speech.
A systematic approach to their implementation involves the teacher's appeal, primarily to those that contribute to the work on oral speech. This is first. Secondly, it is necessary to choose the bases for the distribution of these exercises in time. Thirdly, exercises that involve the reproduction of a sample should precede exercises that rely on greater independence of students.
The described principles of improving the speech activity of students are implemented by the following methods of pedagogical work:
1. Creation of problem speech situations.
This method is able to cause students' speech activity. After all, the problematic situation is described as a vague, not yet very clear and little conscious impression, signaling that something is wrong, something is not right.
To create a problematic speech situation means to create conditions that are sufficient and necessary to evoke an impression signaling that something is wrong, something is not right. Their creation is facilitated by asking the question ''Why?'', deliberately changing the composition of the text, assisting an imaginary class in completing the task, comparison leading to the choice of an option that meets the teacher's requirements, pronouncing the task performed with a deviation from the topic, using deformed text.
2. Analysis of the content of the educational text and planning the statement.
These methods are aimed at deepening the semantic perception of such a text.
To analyze its content means to organize the comprehension of the subject, semantic content, leading to the definition of the topic, subtopics (microthemes), semantic parts (groups of sentences). The main methods for implementing this process are teacher questions.
Comprehension of the subject content is guided by the questions ''What? Where? When?”, semantic content – “How? Why?''
Comprehension of the subject, semantic content is carried out at reading lessons. And few of them do without such work. Therefore, reading lessons are lessons that prepare schoolchildren to master the elements of the structure of educational texts.
3. Communication of signs of the concepts being studied, exercises to consolidate them.
These methods provide the formation of some concepts of text linguistics. Such concepts are a complex syntactic whole, an independent separate sentence, a paragraph, a type of text (narration, description, reasoning).
4. Types of presentations, essays, complicating the process of constructing a text.
These methods assist in the application of knowledge about text construction. Their implementation is based on the deployment of micro-themes, requires the grammatical design of the expressed content, the establishment of syntactic links between sentences. The implementation of these methods is preceded by the assimilation by schoolchildren of the differences in retelling, storytelling, the use of various types of the latter.