Teaching Chinese on the base of Digital Platforms
Teaching Chinese on the base of Digital Platforms
The relevance of this topic is to do with the popularization of digital gadgetization. Communicative competence is moving further towards digital literacy, so playing an important role in the process of education and the study of foreign languages. With the growing skills mastered by students in the digital environment, they help to master foreign languages, which are one of the important components of the professional training of a future specialist.
The purpose of this article is to analyze the possibility of formation of communicative competence when you use digital educational platforms for learning Chinese as a foreign language. Accessibility from anywhere in the world, the convenience and simplicity of the site's functionality facilitates the exchange of information.
In the modern world, education can be divided into two types: traditional and digital. With the popularization of digital teaching of foreign languages, many teachers have to adapt to a new generation of students who have grown up in the era of gadgetization. Teachers should be prepared in such a way that they are close to the last generation of pupils, students who were born and raised in a high-tech environment. Information and communication technologies with modern educational technologies, have formed a new set of tools for the implementation of various educational goals, also methods for learning in a digital educational environment.
Communication is an inseparable process from human existence, because the functioning of the personality in society is based on the indispensable process of communication.
2. Methods and principles
The purpose of this article is to analyze the possibility of formation of communicative competence when you use digital educational platforms for learning Chinese as a foreign language. We used an analysis of scientific literature and a descriptive method to convey practical results, when writing this article. During the study, we made the following conclusions. Firstly, the use of digital resources to get communication skills, not only in the digital environment, but also in real interactions. Written texts, gestures, the faces of the surrounding people, audiovisual and graphic materials, all of this can be referred to the elements of communicative competence. Secondly, the use of a platform such as Moodle helps the interaction of teachers and students in the educational process. Accessibility from anywhere in the world, the convenience and simplicity of the site's functionality facilitates the exchange of information.
Purpose: The use of digital educational platforms for the formation of communication skills in the study of the Chinese language. Materials and methods: Literary sources, descriptive method.
3. Main results
Learning Chinese is becoming popular all over the world with the development of globalization. The rise of many people's interest in Asian culture has led many foreign students to studying Chinese in order to teach it in their home countries or work with Chinese investors. At the heart of the Chinese language classes is the goal of giving students more opportunity to communicate with each other and help them acquire language competence. So communication between students and teachers should be based on an understanding of the national cultural background. How to understand the essence of communicative competence in scientific literature?
Most researchers believe that communicative competence is defined as a set of systemic and functionally organized social, psychological, semiotic (pragmatic, semantic, grammatical-expressive) values, i.e. a set of norms and rules that ensure the reception of communication and the active participation of communicants in the speech process. From a pedagogical point of view, communicative competence can be defined as a set of linguistic means that students learn, to assign the material and practice it.
Summarizing the scientific views on the term "communicative competence", it can be determined that this term expresses the speaker's ability to use language resources in a communicative context and for certain purposes of communication. Communicative competence is formed gradually in the process of human development, and its level is a reflection of the changes that are the result of the maturation of the individual and the increasing role of learning processes . It is associated with internal knowledge of the situational relevance of the language.
The growing academicization of vocational education imposes new requirements not only on the dual system of modern education. Each education system should be able to provide students with all the necessary competencies in an attractive online learning format, which includes educational, cognitive, informational, value-semantic, communicative and others. This is where new digital learning technologies can play an important role. Of course, traditional (perhaps slightly modified) forms of teaching and learning will still be important, but many higher education institutions are trying to master the digital space for their needs. For example, O. Ya. Digtyar considers the effectiveness of using the capabilities of libraries and educational portals in the process of teaching students.
In this case, Moodle becomes the ideal digital educational platform. Its potential is manifested in the fact that the student learns by creating something, interacting with other students, i.e. his work is really active and creative. The possibilities of Moodle will be discussed below.
Firstly, this digital platform allows you to create closed groups that are used to exchange information between students. Within these groups, they share information on specific topics, answer various questions and support each other. Forums are mainly used for informal exchange of information in addition to formal learning modules and blocks.
Secondly, Moodle implies the possibility of teaching students on a smartphone and tablet, while they have access to knowledge sources through various devices as needed, regardless of location and time. This makes it possible for situational, activity-based learning. Therefore, we can suggest the following tasks that can be used in teaching Chinese to foreign students.
For example, a lecture offered in this system provides great opportunities for the implementation of a full-fledged digital educational platform. Lesson 4 "Scheduling" presents algorithms for conducting appropriate forms of learning that can be implemented both in classroom and extracurricular work: text with questions, tests. The use of tasks of a problem-search nature in the educational process will significantly increase the cognitive activity of students.
Figure 1 - MOODLE interface for teaching Chinese
The following audio file, "Coming to China for the purpose of doing business," offers a situation to demonstrate the theoretical material. The topic is brought up for discussion, and students can propose existing ways to solve it, which are further subjected to pedagogical analysis. Business games, which also include solving practical problems and non-standard situations, have shown great efficiency.
When studying the topic of developing language skills, the "Basket" technology is effectively used – a discussion of a specific situation in which the student receives a number of materials and problems as close as possible to reality that need to be addressed. At the same time, it is possible to organize both group and individual lessons.
This method is used for the complex development of various practical skills, since it provides effective feedback to students and puts the emphasis on execution, not just analysis. The content of the "basket" easily adapts to the needs of students and reinforces theoretical knowledge. These classes are used everywhere in Chinese higher education institutions for teaching foreigners, for example, at Beijing University of Language and Culture.
Summing up, this digital platform is characterized by a high degree of student personalization. It is based on profile information about the student (level of knowledge, data on his progress, etc.), then an educational offer is created that takes into account all individual needs.
The purpose of the presented Chinese language course is primarily to develop communication skills through the provision of information technology. At the same time, it can be assumed that at the end of the main material the student has already reached a certain level of language proficiency. Much attention is paid to the language problems of students: each of them can choose tasks suitable for his language level.
It is expected that after completing this course, students will receive theoretical knowledge in the field of professional communication in Chinese. In contrast, detailed knowledge regarding various areas and aspects of communication depends on the profile of the group, its interests and the requirements for the environment in which students will work on a professional basis.
At the first stage of the lectures, students deepen their knowledge of business communication issues, in order to decide on their own which of them interest them the most. At the next stage, they are divided into groups and implement the project in accordance with their thematic preferences. They should not address a number of issues presented at the introductory lecture. Each student is given the right to creative self-realization: he can develop an author's theme related to business communication in business. The participants are obliged to communicate with each other in a manner convenient for this group in order to achieve the goals in a timely manner during the implementation of the project.
At the final stage of learning, students write a report on the work done, taking into account the following aspects:
1) communication and organizational structure and time frame of the project;
2) completed and outstanding tasks;
3) difficulties in the implementation of the project and ways to overcome them.
Thus, they test their practical language and communication skills by completing tasks similar to those that await them in a professional environment. In this case, the educational process is clearly structured, the choice of the project topic depends on the student's own considerations and experience, and is not imposed in advance. Only due to this, the communicative competence of students is formed.
Moodle appears as a tool for adapting the education system to the needs of international organizations and the problems of our time. Its uniqueness lies in a holistic view of today's learning process. It combines a focus on communicative competence that a student of the 21st century should master, as well as on innovations in the educational process aimed at helping to form this competence. The individual elements of this system interpenetrate, and each of them is closely connected with the others.
The study of grammar is carried out both inductively and deductively by performing communicative tasks. The students' native language should be avoided during these steps. Correction of language errors may be rare or non-existent. In addition, most foreign language teachers use authentic materials such as signs, newspapers, magazines, advertisements or graphics. The negative features of teaching Chinese as a foreign language should be highlighted.
Firstly, some teachers are unable to answer spontaneous questions about the target language, sociolinguistics, or culture that arise from classroom interactions due to students' lack of Chinese proficiency. According to Yu. N. Ziyatdinova and R. Valeeva, the formation of communicative competence occurs as follows: expansion of competence and going beyond the limits of competence. The expansion of competence "implies the acquisition of knowledge about the culture and traditions of the people of the country of the language being studied, and going beyond its limits means the cultivation of a tolerant attitude towards this culture". In this case, this may not happen.
Secondly, such classes tend to be contrary to traditional teaching practices, since intensive reading is integrated into all stages of education in China. There is a keen interest in understanding each word accurately, a low tolerance for ambiguity, and a focus on individual grammatical points and specific syntactic constructions that are expressed by teachers. For most students, learning Chinese means memorizing words and reviewing as many books and language points as possible after attending lectures.
The authority of teachers and the passive role of students is the third obstacle to improving interaction in the classroom. But for this, S. N. Zubarev suggests creating a card with incomprehensible words, which allows you to develop communication skills and “design an individual program for the development of student competencies”.
Teachers should allow students to understand the differences between Chinese and their own culture in the process of teaching foreign students. As K.E. Pak notes, most students learn Chinese “on the basis of certain real needs, this requires that the teaching of vocabulary be close to life situations” . Language learners can develop their powers of observation and further deepen their interest in learning.
Thus, when studying a foreign language, foreign students should pay special attention not only to pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary and idioms, but also to how native speakers look at things, how they observe the world, how they use their language to reflect thoughts, habits and behavior of their society. This will help them improve their communicative competence and overcome communication barriers caused by cultural differences.
The Moodle digital platform can develop students' communication skills by organizing their activities, which allows them not only to transfer knowledge, but also to share information about the work process, discuss and interact with other people.