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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
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Шароватова С. А. ПРОБЛЕМЫ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ РАЗВИТИЯ ЗАОЧНОЙ ФОРМЫ ОБУЧЕНИЯ С ПРИМЕНЕНИЕМ ЭЛЕКТРОННЫХ СРЕДСТВ И ДИСТАНЦИОННЫХ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНЫХ ТЕХНОЛОГИЙ / С. А. Шароватова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2016. — № 7 (49) Часть 2. — С. 73—75. — URL: (дата обращения: 19.04.2021. ). doi: 10.18454/IRJ.2016.49.105
Шароватова С. А. ПРОБЛЕМЫ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ РАЗВИТИЯ ЗАОЧНОЙ ФОРМЫ ОБУЧЕНИЯ С ПРИМЕНЕНИЕМ ЭЛЕКТРОННЫХ СРЕДСТВ И ДИСТАНЦИОННЫХ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНЫХ ТЕХНОЛОГИЙ / С. А. Шароватова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2016. — № 7 (49) Часть 2. — С. 73—75. doi: 10.18454/IRJ.2016.49.105



Шароватова С. А.

Доцент, кандидат педагогических наук, Комсомольский-на-Амуре государственный технический университет



Автором  данной статьи изучен опыт организации заочно-дистанционного обучения с использованием информационно-коммуникационных технологий в ведущих вузах России. Проведен сопоставительный анализ основных проблем и путей их решения. Рассмотрены перспективы развития заочного обучения,  способствующего формированию положительного мотивационно-ценностного отношения студентов к учебно-профессиональной деятельности в условиях перехода на новое поколение ФГОС ВО.   

Ключевые слова: заочное обучение, дистанционные технологии, мотивация.

Sharovatova S.A.

Associate professor, PhD in Pedagogy, Komsomolsk-na-Amure State Technical University



The author of the article has studied the experience of organizing correspondence and distance education with the use of information and communication technologies in Russia’s leading universities. Comparative analysis of main problems and ways of solving them has been carried out. The article considers the prospects of developing tuition by correspondence that favours cultivating students’ positive motivational attitude to educational and professional activity under the conditions of transition to new Federal state educational standards of higher education.

Keywords: correspondence, distance technologies, motivation.

Tuition by correspondence is defined as one of the forms of training specialists with in-service higher and specialized secondary education controlled and realized by the state on the basis of unitary national educational standard [9].

As a rule, correspondence education presupposes students’ independent study of training courses in accordance with special plans, doing tests, and taking exams at the university. There are two phases: examination and inter-session periods. Students’ independent work is combined with classroom activity in winter and in summer.

Distance learning technologies are understood as educational technologies which are mainly realized with the application of information and telecommunication network when the interaction of students and teaching staff is indirect [9]. This interaction can be at three levels:

  • between students and teachers
  • between students
  • between students and computer

The opportunity to effectively interact at three levels, wide access to information banks, individual education options positively influence students’ educational motivation level stimulating their interests and emotions as components of educational motivation [10].

Scholars currently express the idea of revising tuition by correspondence process organization. They suggest developing technologies of part-time education with the use of ICT (information and communication technologies) and distance education potential [7].

When elements of distance technologies are used, students get a chance:

− to develop technical skills Internet users need for communication and information gathering;

− to follow the development and change of new information technologies;

− to learn to generalize data acquired via the Internet;

− to use different search engines [4].

It may seem that ICT introduction in the educational process has solved all the problems. However, the problems are still here; they are simply different [2].

  1. Students have changed. It is connected with the fact that they are younger, there are fewer villagers, military service cannot be delayed. There are a lot of educational institutions with poor training technique and incompetent teaching staff.
  2. Methodology of independent (distance and correspondence) study of disciplines in Russia’s technical universities is based on the assumption that students have enough school knowledge. However, it is not so and such students are few [8].
  3. Part-time students have less hours for studies than full-time ones. Therefore, the level of their knowledge is not high enough.
  4. College and technical secondary school graduates cannot study independently. Young people do not have motives to continue education.
  5. There are physically challenged children. Such kids’ wish to make their parents feel sorry for them does not allow them to become full-fledged society members.
  6. The stage of assessing students’ knowledge is imperfect. There is a problem with a student’s identification. Teachers must be sure that they communicate via the Internet with the person who is to get not only knowledge, but also a document [1].
  7. Universities concentrate on students’ knowledge computer-assisted testing when tests are not good and teachers do not take part in the process of assessment.
  8. There is little students’ communication with teachers and students of the same year.
  9. It is difficult for students to impartially assess their knowledge and skills.

Let us see now how we can solve the above-mentioned problems.

Nowadays there is an urgent need for revising traditional forms of educational process organization and arranging part-time students’ examination periods under the conditions of transition to new Federal state educational standards of higher education based on competence approach. A diploma does not contain any information about the education form. Therefore, requirements to the extent and level of knowledge of full-time and part-time students must be the same.

The results of numerous scientists’ research show the advantages of electronic education and distance learning technologies which are practically ideal for it. E-Learning system is applied in the form of mixed education to support information exchange between all the participants of educational process as a technology of collaboration. LMS (Learning Management System) Moodle is used in Russia as a free licensed software. It has been created for communication and self-education [12].

E-learning technology is the main form of material presentation. This technology helps to train students and to arrange educational process monitoring. Detailed analysis of monitoring elements allows to control quality level at all education stages, not only at the moment of assessment [3]. The content of the course can be supplied on CDs. The Internet should be used for updating information, for testing, and for communicating with students. Individual task generators are necessary [8]. Students must attach their papers in PDF files in the Internet. Online-examination can be held with proving a person’s identity via web-camera [5].

The efficiency of multimedia and interactive courses fully depends on students, their abilities and traits of character. However, it is relatively lower than in the educational process under the guidance of an experienced teacher. Thus, the combination of CDs with printed materials is a component of a teaching process in the course of which information to be studied is presented. Students should have access to work programs, manuals [11], literature lists, workbooks [6].

The solution to the problems of independent work is based on IT application, namely:

  • improving the quality of teaching materials
  • using visualization
  • communication via e-mail, forums, and chats on sites
  • self-testing
  • possibility to be tested independently and under a teacher’s supervision

Due to the development of educational technologies and improving ICT didactic potential, the quality of full-time tuition and tuition by correspondence will be the same in future. Distance and electronic education will become a part of both the forms of educational process [7].

Tuition by correspondence, ICT application and distance education potential are combined to save the best parts of the forms with their drawbacks minimized.

When developing new technologies of tuition by correspondence, one should take into account students’ community specific character (experience and competence, motivation to graduate from a university), ICT didactic potential (e-textbooks, distance courses, on-line communication, web-seminars and web-colloquiums, remote tutorials, remote access to a university’s informational resources), distance education potential (virtual learning environment, virtual exams and tests, remote attendance, etc).

This approach will guarantee improved quality of tuition by correspondence and success of students’ academic activity. It will also create opportunities to involve students in practice-oriented study and research.


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