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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2021.112.10.071

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Ихсанова Л. И. РАЗВИТИЕ НАВЫКОВ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБЩЕНИЯ У ПОЛИЦЕЙСКИХ НА ИНОСТРАННОМ ЯЗЫКЕ / Л. И. Ихсанова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2021. — № 10 (112) Часть 3. — С. 38—41. — URL: https://research-journal.org/pedagogy/development-of-professional-communication-skills-of-police-officers-in-a-foreign-language/ (дата обращения: 02.07.2022. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2021.112.10.071
Ихсанова Л. И. РАЗВИТИЕ НАВЫКОВ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБЩЕНИЯ У ПОЛИЦЕЙСКИХ НА ИНОСТРАННОМ ЯЗЫКЕ / Л. И. Ихсанова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2021. — № 10 (112) Часть 3. — С. 38—41. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2021.112.10.071

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РАЗВИТИЕ НАВЫКОВ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБЩЕНИЯ У ПОЛИЦЕЙСКИХ НА ИНОСТРАННОМ ЯЗЫКЕ

РАЗВИТИЕ НАВЫКОВ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБЩЕНИЯ У ПОЛИЦЕЙСКИХ
НА ИНОСТРАННОМ ЯЗЫКЕ

Научная статья

Ихсанова Л.И.*

Уфимский юридический институт МВД России, Уфа, Россия

* Корреспондирующий автор (e-mail98[at]yandex.ru)

Аннотация

Одним из основных компонентов профессионального мастерства сотрудника органов внутренних дел, определяющим успешность реализации возложенных на него обязанностей, являются навыки профессионального общения, то есть умение устанавливать психологический контакт с гражданами при решении оперативно-служебных задач. С каждым годом в нашей стране проводятся всё больше различных мероприятий международного уровня: спортивные соревнования и сборы, творческие, образовательные, экономические форумы и прочее. Таким образом, знание иностранного языка является обязательным навыком для сотрудника полиции любого звена. Общеизвестно, что первоначальной функцией любого языка является передача информации от одного субъекта другому. Очень важно при обучении иностранному языку делать упор на развитие разговорных навыков. Зачастую учащиеся имеют хороший словарный запас, неплохо усваивают грамматические правила и конструкции, но при этом не могут построить связанную речь на иностранном языке. В данной статье приводятся примеры упражнений, направленных на активизацию и закрепление навыков устной речи, выработку навыков построения собственных диалогов в паре. Рассматриваются основные трудности обучения разговорной речи, причины их возникновения и пути решения указанных проблем.

Ключевые слова: разговорная речь, диалог, ситуативность, ролевые игры, речевые упражнения.

DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS OF POLICE OFFICERS
IN A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

Research article

Ikhsanova L.I.*

Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Ufa, Russia

* Corresponding author (e-mail98[at]yandex.ru)

Abstract

One of the main components of the professional skills of а law enforcement officer, which determines the success of the implementation of the duties assigned to him, are the skills of professional communication, that is, the ability to establish psychological contact with citizens when solving operational and official tasks. Every year, more and more various international events are held in our country: sports competitions and training camps, creative, educational, economic forums, etc. Thus, knowledge of a foreign language is a mandatory skill for a police officer at any level. It is well known that the initial function of any language is to transfer information from one subject to another. It is very important when teaching a foreign language to focus on the development of speaking skills. Often, students have a good vocabulary, they learn grammatical rules and constructions well, but at the same time they cannot build connected speech in a foreign language. This article provides examples of exercises aimed at enhancing and consolidating the skills of oral speech, developing the skills of building one’s own dialogues in pairs. Also the article considers the main difficulties of teaching spoken language, the reasons for their occurrence and the ways of solving these problems.

Keywords: spoken language, dialogue, situational awareness, role games, speech exercises.

Introduction

The purpose of police professional education is to form and develop the competencies and practical skills of students in the process of practice-oriented learning based on scientific knowledge and methods that enable them to competently solve specific and expected tasks of police officers.

The course of a foreign language is of a communicative-pragmatic and professionally oriented nature, is aimed not only at mastering the skills of communication in a foreign language by future law enforcement officers, but also in acquiring special knowledge in the chosen specialty, that is, increasing their professional competence. The study of a foreign language is also intended to expand the general horizon, develop the culture of communication, cadets’ thinking, intercultural competence based on the acquisition of special terminology and international vocabulary.

A foreign language has a rich set of methodological tools that contribute to the formation of general intellectual abilities and skills necessary for a police officer in his professional activity: analytical and synthetic skills, the development of logical inference skills based on such mental operations as induction and deduction, the ability to model and predict, that are the skills that determine the creative activity of a specialist [5].

Knowledge of a foreign language is a mandatory component of the professional training of a modern specialist of any profile, and the level of proficiency should ensure the ability to use a foreign language not only for professional purposes, but also to meet scientific and cognitive interests, implement personal contacts and further self-education and self-improvement [6].

Almost all topics of the course are related to basic speech situations. Thus, first of all, emphasis is placed on teaching listeners of dialogical speech. The dialogues practiced in classes are presented in the framework of situations that can occur with listeners in their professional activity.

The main factors for the success of practically directed classes in a foreign language are:

  • the use of exercises that carry a specific speech task;
  • active work with conversational situations;
  • the presence of situational communication;
  • creation of real life conditions [2].

Now let’s take a closer look at each of the points.

The use of exercises that carry a specific speech task

Classic exercises for repetition of lexical and grammatical material should be replaced with those that would activate the listening skills of the students.

For example:

  • fill in the gaps in the dialogues;
  • replace prepositions and words indicating directions with their antonyms;
  • continue the dialogue and other similar tasks.

Such tasks allow the teacher to focus the listeners’ attention on the practical material, immediately practice pronunciation and reading pattern phrases.

As for grammatical structures, their explanation is given along with speech situations and clichés, but not as a separate topic. Grammatical forms are mastered within the framework of memorizing necessary phrases and expressions, composing affirmative, negative and interrogative sentences [8].

It should be noted that speech is an activity and, as an activity, is based on certain skills, in our case, speaking. Often, the teacher is faced with the difficulty of turning the studied lexical and grammatical material into speech. One should not give an assignment to make up dialogues immediately after learning a new lexical or grammatical topic. The necessary vocabulary and grammar must be first automated, which is facilitated by the system of conditional speech, or pre-speech, exercises. In this regard, it is important to distinguish between communicative and non-communicative exercises. Communicative exercises appeal to the situations of communication, they are done without a textbook and can be very simple. In this case, the teacher gives the direction to use a certain structure — a speech pattern, giving a stimulus response [10].

These exercises are done orally and represent a specific system consisting of the following types of exercises:

1) imitative exercises (the meaning is the repetition of the form given by the teacher);

For example: «Compose a dialogue using the pattern, the phrases and expressions below».

2) substitution exercises (the task is to replace some lexical units with others in the same grammatical form);

For example: «Write your autobiography using a template».

3) exercises on expanding the speech pattern (the meaning is in the usage of previously studied vocabulary and grammar in combination with the studied structure);

For example: «Expand one of the lines of the dialogue with the words indicated in parentheses».

4) transformative exercises (the replacement of one already studied grammatical form with another studied one);

For example: «Replace underlined words with synonyms of modal verbs».

5) reproductive exercises (represent a transitional type from pre-speech to speech exercises, since the student must use the studied grammatical form, but the teacher does not specify it in the stimulus response).

For example: «Review the text or dialogue and compose a detailed retelling of it based on key phrases and expressions».

Only after the lexical and grammatical skills of using any speech sample have been formed, it is possible to proceed to speech exercises using the studied structure. In this case, the production (creation) of speech must go through the stage of reproduction (recreation). Reproduction of a speech utterance can be supported by the text (read or heard), drawings, plan, keywords [7].

Active work with conversational situations

M.I. Lyskova writes in her textbook «English in situations of professional communication of law enforcement officers» about the system of various transformational and substitutional exercises aimed at enhancing the speech-thinking activity of listeners, contributing to the formation of skills and abilities of drawing up a dialogue according to a model: «… promotes listeners’ mastery of the tactics of building a dialogue in accordance with the speech intentions of the participants in the dialogue and taking into account the emerging and developing interaction between them, the relationship and the nature of the utterances of motivation and utterances of the response» [6, P. 5].

Training the situation when a foreign citizen is lost in the city and cannot find a stadium, а hotel or а cafe, phrases necessary to establish public order, issues of registration of personal data of a foreign citizen and assistance in finding lost or abandoned things occurs through role-based construction and varying different types of tasks, games, etc. [8].

The situation of role-based communication is a stimulus for the development of spontaneous speech, if it is dynamic, associated with the solution of certain problems and communication tasks [3]. The participants in the game must be placed in such conditions under which it is necessary to find out the social, emotional and cognitive aspects of interpersonal relations.

The main parameters that determine the nature of the role situation are the presence of a single plot corresponding to the chosen communicative situation, and role relationships between the participants in communication, which are often of an argumentative nature [4]. When learners take on a role, they play themselves or a character in a specific situation. Therefore, there are no spectators in the role game, no fear that communication will not take place, that the behavior of the participants will be misunderstood [1, P. 115].

The presence of situational communication

It should be noted that the situational training of police officers is not only an effective condition for the practical orientation of learning a foreign language, but also contributes to the activity of trainees according to the pedagogical experience. They themselves are very enthusiastic to offer situations from their professional activity in the maintenance of public order and interaction with foreign citizens [8]. These are situations with transport police officers, who may ask foreign citizens to provide their luggage for inspection, show transport tickets or go through a metal detector at an airport, train station, etc.

Learning in conditions close to real

As a rule, police officers interact with foreign citizens in crowded places (busy tourist routes, stadiums, airports, train stations, shopping centers, etc.). It can be very noisy in such places. Thus, if possible, it is necessary to practice speech situations, dialogues outside the walls of the classroom, in conditions that are extremely close to real. It can be a street with the noise of passing cars, pedestrians and other distracting sounds, training grounds imitating various social places.

In situations where conducting such classes is impossible for one reason or another, one can try to create such conditions in the classroom. For example, when practicing dialogues, put an audio recording with imitation of street noise, conversations of passers-by, etc.

Thus, situational awareness, role-based construction and variation of different types of tasks, the use of role games and the development of speech material in conditions close to real, are the provisions for the implementation of the practical orientation of teaching police officers a foreign language.

The following difficulties in teaching dialogue should be noted.

1) Students are embarrassed to speak a foreign language, afraid to make mistakes, be criticized. As a rule, listeners come with different levels of language proficiency. The teacher should create a friendly atmosphere in the classroom, teach them to work in a team, where everyone will help each other.

2) Students do not understand the speech task, and therefore what needs to be done. Since the main body of students practically learns the language from scratch, it is important here to always support both the theory and the task itself in order to complete it with clear and accessible examples.

3) Students do not have enough language and speech tools to solve the problem. The teacher should give an example of frequently used phrases and speech clichés, on the basis of which listeners can make up their own dialogues.

4) Students are not involved in the dialogue for one reason or another. Basically, this problem is typical for listeners with poor knowledge of the language. One can try to vary the difficulty level of the same task, simplifying it or, on the contrary, complicating it.

5) Students cannot stand long-term communication in a foreign language. The reason lies in the lack of vocabulary. When making up dialogues, especially at the initial stage, one can give students keywords which will help them to compose their utterances.

6) The difficulty arises of how to start a dialogue, how to continue and end it. The teacher should explain the structure of the dialogue, on what principle it is built. Examples of phrases with which a dialogue can begin, as well as phrases found in the middle and end of the dialogue, also should be given.

Conclusion

Thus, work on a dialogue should consist of three stages: work on individual utterances, work on one dialogical unity, and work on a mini-dialogue, which may consist of 2-3 dialogical units. It should be noted that the most effective means of teaching foreign language communication is the system of role games.

Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

Список литературы / References

  1. Гальскова Н. Д. Методика обучения иностранным языкам / Н. Д. Гальскова, А. П. Василевич, Н. В. Акимова: учеб. пособие. – Ростов н/Д, 2017. – C. 115–116.
  2. Гез Н. И. Методика обучения иностранным языкам в средней школе / Н. И. Гез, М. В. Ляховицкий, А. А. Миролюбов. – М.: Высшая школа, 1982. – 255 c.
  3. Григоров В. Б. Развитие навыков профессионального общения на английском языке / В. Б. Григоров: учеб. пособие. – М.: МГТУ ГА. – 2000. – 88 с.
  4. Китайгородская Г. А. Методические основы интенсивного обучения иностранным языкам / Г. А. Китайгородская // Иностранный язык в школе. – 1988. – № 6. С. 42.
  5. Кравчук Л. С. О роли иностранного языка в формировании профессиональной компетенции сотрудников полиции / Л. С. Кравчук, И. Н. Навроцкая, В. Д. Земляков // Историческая и социально-образовательная мысль. – 2015. – Т. 7. – №6. – [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/o-roli-inostrannogo-yazyka-v-formirovanii-professionalnoy-kompetentsii-sotrudnikov-politsii (дата обращения: 26.08.2021).
  6. Лыскова М. И. Английский язык в ситуациях профессионального общения сотрудников органов внутренних дел / М. И. Лыскова: учеб. пособие. – Тюмень: Тюменский институт повышения квалификации сотрудников МВД России. –2012. – C. 5–7.
  7. Маркова Е. М. Формирование речевых механизмов при обучении иностранцев коммуникации на русском языке / Е. М. Маркова // Коммуникативные исследования. – 2015. – № 4 (6). – [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/formirovanie-rechevyh-mehanizmov-pri-obuchenii-inostrantsev-kommunikatsii-na-russkom-yazyke (дата обращения: 27.08.2021).
  8. Мингазизова Г. Г. Педагогические условия реализации принципа практической направленности обучения иностранному языку сотрудников полиции / Г. Г. Мингазизова, О. Ю. Баринова // Вестник ЧГПУ им. И.Я. Яковлева. – 2018. – № 4 (100). – [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/pedagogicheskie-usloviya-realizatsii-printsipa-prakticheskoy-napravlennosti-obucheniya-inostrannomu-yazyku-sotrudnikov-politsii (дата обращения: 05.09.2021).
  9. Примерная программа по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» для подготовки магистров (неязыковые вузы). – М.: ФГБОУ ВПО МГЛУ, 2014.
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Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

  1. Galskova N. D. Metodika obuchenija inostrannym jazykam [Methodology of teaching foreign languages] / N. D. Galskova, A. P. Vasilevich, N. V. Akimova. – Rostov n/D, 2017. – 350 p. [in Russian]
  2. Gez N. I. Metodika obuchenija inostrannym jazykam v srednej shkole [The methodology of teaching foreign languages in high school] / N. I. Gez, M. V. Lyakhovitsky, A. A. Mirolyubov. – M.: Vysshaja shkola, 1982. – 255 p. [in Russian]
  3. Grigorov V. B. Razvitie navykov professionalnogo obshhenija na anglijskom jazyke: ucheb. posobie [The development of professional communication skills in a foreign language] / V. B. Grigorov. – M.: MGTU GA. – 2000. – 88 p. [in Russian]
  4. Kitajgorodskaja G. A. Metodicheskie osnovy intensivnogo obuchenija inostrannym jazykam [Methodological foundations of intensive teaching of foreign languages] / G. A. Kitaygorodskaya // Inostrannyj jazyk v shkole [Foreign language at school]. – 1988. – № 6. P. 42. [in Russian]
  5. Kravchuk L. S. O roli inostrannogo jazyka v formirovanii professional’noj kompetencii sotrudnikov policii [On the role of a foreign language in the formation of the professional competence of police officers] / L. S. Kravchuk, I. N. Navrotskaya, V. D. Zemlyakov // Istoricheskaja i socialno-obrazovatelnaja mysl [Historical and socio-educational thought]. – V. 7. – № 6. – 2015. – [Electronic resource] URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/o-roli-inostrannogo-yazyka-v-formirovanii-professionalnoy-kompetentsii-sotrudnikov-politsii (accessed: 26.08.2021). [in Russian]
  6. Lyskova M. I. Angliiskii jazyk v situacijah professionalnogo obshhenija sotrudnikov organov vnutrennih del: [English in situations of professional communication of employees of internal affairs bodies] / M. I. Lyskova. – Tjumen: Tjumenskii institut povyshenija kvalifikacii sotrudnikov MVD Rossii, 2012. – 96 p. [in Russian]
  7. Markova E. M. Formirovanie rechevyh mehanizmov pri obuchenii inostrancev kommunikacii na russkom jazyke [Formation of speech mechanisms in teaching foreigners to communicate in Russian] / E. M. Markova // Kommunikativnye issledovanija [Communicative research]. – 2015. – № 4 (6). – [Electronic resource]. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/formirovanie-rechevyh-mehanizmov-pri-obuchenii-inostrantsev-kommunikatsii-na-russkom-yazyke (accessed: 27.08.2021). [in Russian]
  8. Mingazizova G. G. Pedagogicheskie uslovija realizacii principa prakticheskoj napravlennosti obuchenija inostrannomu jazyku sotrudnikov policii [Pedagogical conditions for the implementation of the principle of practical orientation of teaching a foreign language to police officers] / G. G. Mingazizova, O. Y. Barinova // Bulletin of ChGPU im. I.Y. Yakovleva. – 2018. № 4 (100). – [Electronic resource]. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/pedagogicheskie-usloviya-realizatsii-printsipa-prakticheskoy-napravlennosti-obucheniya-inostrannomu-yazyku-sotrudnikov-politsii (accessed: 05.09.2021). [in Russian]
  9. Primernaja programma po discipline «Inostrannyi jazyk» dlja podgotovki magistrov (nejazykovye vuzy) [An approximate program of the discipline «Foreign language» for the preparation of Masters (non-linguistic universities)]. – M.: FGBOU VPO MGLU, 2014. [in Russian]
  10. Skripnikova T. I. Teoreticheskie osnovy metodiki obuchenija inostrannym jazykam: uchebno­metodicheskoe posobie [Theoretical foundations of methods of teaching foreign languages] / T. I. Skripnikova. [Electronic resource]. – URL: http://uss.dvfu.ru (accessed: 05.09.2021). [in Russian]

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