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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18454/IRJ.2016.53.192

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Бузина Ю. Н. РАЗВИТИЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ В УСЛОВИЯХ МИРОВЫХ ИНТЕГРАЦИОННЫХ ПРОЦЕССОВ / Ю. Н. Бузина, К. Б. Пригожина // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2016. — № 11 (53) Часть 3. — С. 21—23. — URL: https://research-journal.org/pedagogy/developing-the-system-of-higher-education-under-world-integration-trends/ (дата обращения: 02.07.2020. ). doi: 10.18454/IRJ.2016.53.192
Бузина Ю. Н. РАЗВИТИЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ В УСЛОВИЯХ МИРОВЫХ ИНТЕГРАЦИОННЫХ ПРОЦЕССОВ / Ю. Н. Бузина, К. Б. Пригожина // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2016. — № 11 (53) Часть 3. — С. 21—23. doi: 10.18454/IRJ.2016.53.192

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РАЗВИТИЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ В УСЛОВИЯХ МИРОВЫХ ИНТЕГРАЦИОННЫХ ПРОЦЕССОВ

Бузина Ю.Н.1, Пригожина К.Б.2

1Кандидат педагогических наук, доцент, доцент кафедры иностранных языков №1, Российский экономический университет им. Г.В. Плеханова, Российская Федерация, Москва, 2 ORCID 0000-0001-6376-5615, Кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков №1,  Российский экономический университет им. Г.В. Плеханова, Российская Федерация, Москва

РАЗВИТИЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ В УСЛОВИЯХ МИРОВЫХ ИНТЕГРАЦИОННЫХ ПРОЦЕССОВ

Аннотация

Публикация посвящена обзору и анализу современных процессов и тенденций интеграции  их влияния на систему образования. Цель статьи – выявить проблемы, с которыми сталкивается образовательная система в свете этих тенденций, и наметить пути международного сотрудничества в области профессионального и высшего образования. В статье приводится анализ влияния интеграционных процессов на систему высшего образования. Также освещены тенденций развития высшего образования в данных условиях, определены пути развития международного сотрудничества в области образования.

Ключевые слова: глобализация; дополнительное образование; академическая мобильность; дистанционные образовательные технологии; взаимодействие культур.

Buzina Y.N.1Prigozhina K.B.2

1PhD in Pedagogy, associate professor, Plehkanov Russian University of Economics, Russia, Moscow, 2ORCID 0000-0001-6376-5615, PhD in Pedagogy, associate professor, Plehkanov Russian University of Economics, Russia, Moscow

DEVELOPING THE SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION UNDER WORLD INTEGRATION TRENDS

Abstract

The article aims at overview and analysis of modern globalization and integration processes and their influence on educational system. The author attempts at distinguishing the main problems within these tendencies, as well as tracing the ways of cooperation among educational institutions worldwide. The article provides profound analysis of the influence of global integrative trends on education, covers tendencies in the development of educational system in view of such processes, and advises on the ways of international cooperation in educational field. Novelty of the article lies in describing the reasons for changes in educational system under the influence of globalisation, analysis of consequences and areas of such influence, processing international approaches to solving the upcoming problems, outlining the ways of international cooperation in this sphere.

Keywords: globalisation; vocational training; distant learning technology; academic mobility; cross-cultural communication.

Emerging forms of ownership, rapidly developing technologies, professional and cross-cultural communication are a distinctive feature of the modern society. Rapidly and dynamically growing technological progress, promoting exchange of information and cooperation between the states seem to be one of the main triggers of globalization processes.

The education system at the present stage is characterized by the search for and approval of new approaches that are designed to more fully meet the urgent needs of the developing Russian society. The problem of influence of globalization processes on the changes in the field of education, the need to modernize the education system, including such aspect as distant learning, has been widely covered in the works of a number of scientists, which confirms its significance. The theory and methodology of professional education and its integrative features are reflected in the global concept of education [1, 3]. A number of studies in philosophy and sociology suggest the loss of cultural traditions and cultural values due to integration and globalization [5, p. 409], whereas there are several studies that have identified positive outcome such as interethnic tolerance [4, p. 79] and fostering a human culture [6].

The problem of integrating international and Russian approaches to higher education and training is based on the conflict in traditions of Russian and international professional education, their need for interaction and development following national and international achievements in education. Thus, the relevance of such tendencies is induced by the intensity of the impact of globalization processes on the education system in general and distant learning technologies in particular.

A comprehensive understanding of the influence that globalization processes have on the system of education is required, and a further study is to be done in the following aspects: 1) trends in the development of education, 2) approaches and ways of international cooperation in the field of education, 3) development of distant learning technologies in vocational training and cross-cultural communication. The following tasks are to be completed:

  1. Expand on the definition of globalization in terms of education, distant learning technology, and vocational training.
  2. Identify the main areas of impact of globalization on the system of education, vocational and distant learning, as well as the features influencing its development in situations of global interaction between cultures.
  3. Identify the current trends in the development of education in the context of globalization and the interaction of cultures, highlight the development of international cooperation in the field of education.

To date, the processes of globalization have covered all spheres of social life, as evidenced by the many definitions of this concept. The concept of globalization refers to the “creation and development of integrated systems and relationships that go beyond national borders”. [6] These systems are not only economic but also political, cultural, technological [2, 7]. Globalization by means of economic and technological integrative processes brings the world into a unified global network where events in one region of the world may have a significant impact on the lives of individuals and organizations in other parts of the world [3].

As to definitions of the term globalization in scientific works, there is quite a few. The first defines the phenomenon as the liberalization – freedom from restrictions on movement between the countries, creating “infinite” global economy [5, p. 411]. The followers advocate for the abolition of barriers to international trade and education.

The second definition is globalization as universalization – the free flow of goods, experience and knowledge around the world. The most vivid example of this approach to defining globalization can be considered as the spread of information and computer technologies leading to the burst of distant learning technologies.

According to the third definition, globalization appears as deterritorialization – the destruction of the rigid link between economic and social space to a specific geographical area [1]. At the same time, globalization is seen as a process of transformation, the spatial organization of social and economic interaction.

The fourth interpretation of globalization compares it with the internationalization and the intensification of the various international relations.

The concept of globalization is often used as a synonym for internationalization. Nevertheless, there are differences between them. According to some authors, globalization can be viewed as a trigger to a process, while internationalization is regarded as a response, which may be based on the projected development of the process. Some researchers believe that these responses include not only economic and political but also social, cultural, and educational processes.

Globalization has a transformative effect on the core functions higher education. Under the influence of social interaction in globalization, higher educational institutions are developing a consumerist mentality which transforms education into a product exchangeable in an open market. This commercial purpose allows higher education institutions to compete for the monetary or human resources available globally to benefit from.

Globalization can be seen in three aspects: political, economic, socio-cultural and educational. In political and economic dimension globalization is characterized by creating international labour market, the growing influence of information technology on economic processes. Compared to these processes, socio-cultural and educational aspects of globalization affect individuals and organizations rather than the nation or the state. However, these aspects make it possible to mitigate the negative impact of globalization take advantage of its advances, preserving national and cultural identity.

On the one hand, education has become one of the most important spheres of human activity; great achievements in this field were the basis for the recent significant social, scientific, and technological advances. On the other hand, such changes are accompanied by numerous problems that educational system is now facing. In view of this, strategic goal of education is for the first time discussed in our country in close association with the most important problems in the development of Russian society:

  1. managing the socio-economic and culture crisis, ensuring a high quality of living and national security;
  2. restoring the status of the Russian Federation in the world community as a great influential power in the spheres of education, culture, science, technology, and economy;
  3. regarding education as a powerful tool in overcoming the global crisis by means of cooperation and sustainable development.

Globalization has had a strong influence on system of higher education in Russia. Processes of globalization in education are complex and multifaceted, affecting educational institutions as well as national education system as a whole. It is important to work out and implement relevant strategic actions to manage such transformations in education system at the state level. With the development of globalization and intense cultural interaction higher education is now facing a new goal – the need for training professionals capable of working effectively in a changing global market.

The intensity of these process leads to the necessity to reform create an open and flexible educational system, responsive to the changes in society, constantly keeping up to development in all spheres of life. Hence, the impact of constant global cross-cultural interaction on educational system requires its involvement into global education market and active cooperation with educational institutions in different countries, which would enable to organize joint research projects, academic mobility projects for students and teachers, that is, to integrate the current processes of cultural interaction in the educational environment.

Globalization tendencies in higher education lead to the following changes:

  • diversification of the offer in educational services,
  • increase of financial independence and sustainable development of educational institutions by attracting foreign students on tuition fees,
  • modifying and extending educational programs to satisfy students’ needs and cooperate with foreign partner universities,
  • expansion of the regional university network for the efficient use of its resources,
  • improving the quality of education and research through participation in international exchange of knowledge.

The best-known way of globalization educational system is academic mobility which is encouraged and supported by various state and regional programs such as “Erasmus”, “Socrates”, “lingua” aimed at creating a European model of higher education being a powerful tool for the European labour market.

Another way of globalization is research and scientific work. On the one hand it appears a two-way exchange of information (brain gain and brain drain). The concept of brain waste equates brain loss or brain drain, which is believed to ruin the country’s capacity for economic and social development. Nevertheless, brain drain is an integral part of the globalization process and the trigger of the process of cultural interaction in educational environment.

Cooperation among educational institutions is developing into transnational education, which offers a variety of options for international cooperation:

– franchising (franchise contract for a foreign educational institution means access to cooperation within education programs);

– twin program (proposal of joint training programs);

– mutual recognition diploma projects.

Such programs involve international quality control, mutual recognition, transparency of national education systems, increase worldwide employment opportunities for graduates. Therefore, these forms of globalization in higher education system allow to prepare competitive specialists oriented at a multicultural educational and cooperation in professional environment.

Among the main steps in the development and globalization in higher education system worldwide are the following:

  1. National policies in education, training, employment;
  2. Developing educational facilities including e-learning technologies at local levels;
  3. Exchange of information through specialized directories, newsletters, research studies that reflect the latest trends in the field of education.
  4. Collecting and processing information on tendencies in the development of higher education in Europe.
  5. Admitting the need for a politically approved and supported globalization of higher education, intensive social, professional, and cultural cooperation worldwide with the help of globally accepted educational technologies.
  6. Creating a common “European Higher Education Network”.
  7. Competitiveness of higher education, educational programs, competencies within this Network.
  8. Introducing a “system of credits” to ensure competitiveness and approved assessment system in higher education worldwide.

It must be mentioned that globalization tendencies in education have been fuelled by electronic educational technologies and trends for virtualization in the development of globalization in education resulted in budding new methods and forms of education. The use of new information technologies for the development of new forms of web-based distant learning leads to a new understanding of the “real value” of globalization in education. While mobility continues to be of great importance, it tends to be seen as one element of internationalization. Academic mobility is emerging into the virtual space with the goal to create an international environment for the exchange of ideas. The search for new, improved, more cost-effective means of education and training is growing worldwide.

The pace of change is getting more intense. According to forecasts, the world’s growing demand for education will increase further, which contributed to the development of distant technologies in education. The largest in the world history study of globalization processes, conducted by Environics International for the World Economic Forum, revealed that six out of ten people in the world consider globalization a positive process that enables its further development worldwide. Competitiveness of Russia in the world market depends on whether the country is ready for changes in the education system as well as development, implementation, and invention of innovative and advanced educational technologies.

Список литературы / References

  1. Байденко В.И. Болонский процесс и высшая школа России: время выбора // Высшее образование сегодня. 2003. – № 1. – 128 c.
  2. Гребнев JI.C. Россия в Болонском процессе: середина большого пути // Высшее образование в России. 2004. – № 4. – С. 36-42.
  3. Kotler Ph. Marketing Moves, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2002.
  4. Lorange Peter. New Vision for management Education: Leadership Challengers, Pergamon, 2002.
  5. Marginson S. Nation-Building Universities in a Global Environment: The Case of Australia, Higher Education, 43 (3), 2011, 409-428.
  6. Schultz D., Kitchen Ph. Communicating Globally, by, NTC Business Books, 2000.

Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

  1. Bajdenko V.I. Bolonskij process i vysshaja shkola Rossii: vremja vybora [Bologna process and high school in Russia : time for choice] / V.I. Bajdenko // Vysshee obrazovanie segodnja [High school today]. – 2003. – № 1. – P. 76 [In Russian].
  2. Grebnev L.S. Rossija v Bolonskom processe: seredina bol’shogo puti [Russia and Bologna process : halfway through] // Vysshee obrazovanie v Rossii [Higher education in Russia]. – 2004. – № 4. – P. 36-42 [In Russian].
  3. Kotler Ph. Marketing Moves. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2002. – P. 21
  4. Lorange Peter. New Vision for management Education: Leadership Challengers, Pergamon, 2002. – 251 p.
  5. Marginson S. Nation-Building Universities in a Global Environment: The Case of Australia, Higher Education, 2011. – 43 (3). – P. 409-428.
  6. Schultz D., Kitchen Ph. Communicating Globally. NTC Business Books, 2000. – P. 55.

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