Research article
Issue: № 9 (16), 2013

Петрунина С.В.1, Хабарова С.М.2

¹ Кандидат педагогических наук, доцент, Пензенский государственный университет,; ² Кандидат педагогических наук, доцент, Пензенский государственный университет



В работе представле­ны основные аспекты акватическ­их тренировок­ в двигательн­ой реабилитац­ии людей с отклонения­ми в функциях опорно-двигательн­ого аппарата. Исследован­ия выявили положитель­ную динамику и положитель­ные результаты­ от комплекса учебно-методическ­их занятий в водной среде. А также сочетание акватическ­их упражнений­ и простейших­ беговых и плавательн­ых действий, позволили улучшить не только функционал­ьное состояние инвалидов,­ но и способство­вали коррекции двигательн­ых действий.

Ключевые слова. Акватическ­ая тренировка­, плавательн­ые движения, беговые движения в водной среде, люди с ограниченн­ыми возможност­ями, двигательн­ая реабилитац­ия

Petrunina S.V.¹, Khabarova S.M. ²

¹PhD, Penza State University, ² PhD Penza State University



The paper presents the main aspects of aquatic training in motor rehabilitation of people with disabilities in the functions of the musculoskeletal system. Studies have shown a positive trend and the positive results from the complex teaching classes in the aquatic environment. And the combination of aquatic exercises and simple racing and swimming action improved the functional status of people with disabilities and contributnd to the correction of motor actions.

Keywords. Aquatic exercise, swimming movements, racing movement in the aquatic environment, people with disabilities, motor rehabilitation.

Running on deep water - a great way to improve the results in run on land and reduce the number of frequent injuries during routine cross-country training. Research in the State of Georgia (USA) showed that one quarter of a mile walk in the water more intense than walking a mile on land.

This walking in deep water has several advantages:

- The ability to exercise during hot weather;

- The opportunity to train with no damage to the joints.

Recently, this new non-traditional type of training is becoming more widely used. Water training with the help of a special floating or life jacket and without contact with the bottom of the pool provides a minimum load on the body, which allows the athlete to increase the number of training sessions throughout the day. Now the water has received training in the United States generally accepted. The famous American runner Steve Scott all spent their morning workout in the water. And the water training session is not confined to the runners or jumpers, but also representatives of other sports. Fifty percent of the athletes of the U.S. team at the Olympic Games in Seoul, using running water as a supplement to traditional training.

U.S. coach Doug Stern in 1970 recommended the use of running water (not touching the bottom of the feet), the most promising of his players, who went off the treadmill because of injury. This student's name S. Williams, he later became a world-class sprinter (A. Teals, 2005). In 1990, D. Stern organized a school running in the water for the rehabilitation of members of the New York marathon on a regular basis. Since then, he has trained thousands of runners of his system. Stern loved to share his thoughts on the benefits of such a race and how to learn. "Water releases tension from the body, so it makes sense to use in case of injury training in water to restore health, strength, and endurance." - He explains.

The position of the body for the correct running in water is similar to the situation on the ground. The body should be straight, not tilted. Palms of the hands facing each other in order to slide easily on the water. Step should be long and smooth. Intensive work hand in the water helps to move forward. Need to hold steady in the water, keep your shoulders and neck relaxed. Maintain an upright posture is an important and difficult task faced by all the running around in the water.

The use of running water as a supplement to the regular exercise program can provide a significant increase in speed, strength, flexibility, the ability to maintain balance, but there is a particular increase in the development of endurance. The faster the player moves his arms and legs, the stronger the resistance, and therefore, more effective action to strengthen the musculoskeletal system (A.Chirkov, 2005).

Running in water is characterized by many features that make it possible not only to avoid the congestion encountered while pushing off from the support, but also helps to speed up the flow of blood to the heart, as opposed to running on land, where, due to the impact of the forces of gravity blood accumulates in the lower part of the body.

Running in the water can be used as a procedure that restores the body after intense exercise on land in any sport thanks to all the same greater flow of blood to the heart.

In our study used an integrated approach, which includes a wide range of means combining classes on land and in water with the elements of an "artificial control environment", realized in specialized training systems in the performance of cyclical motor movements (swimming, walking, running) in the process specially organized training sessions (Petrunina S.V., Loginov A.A, 2000-2005).

Within two months, with the experimental group disabled 2 times a week, conducted classes in the aquatic environment - in the pool - with the use of force and cyclic training and system "regulated insurance".

Program of occupations included a general developmental exercises and stepping movements in the water, exhaling into the water, eyes opening in the water, various water immersion. As with disabilities mastered elementary exercises in water, they offered swimming exercises that combine sliding on his chest and back, with a preliminary repulsion from the bottom of the pool and the subsequent stepping movements.

At the next stage, we used a system of "regulated insurance" for the development of swimming skills. Education sustained horizontal body position in the water was carried out by traditional way. Involved in putting on saving belts connected to the tether simulator, and a focus on maintaining the balance in the water, and learned to take such a position of the body, so that the center of gravity and center of pressure of the water on the body matched. For this purpose the methodical approach of pressure on the water of the upper body (T-pressure). At the same time involved in getting used to lower his head into the water, while carrying out tasks such 10-15. Once engaged learned to accept proper horizontal body position in the water, they were invited to the development of navigation on the movements of the elements: first, standing on the bottom of the pool, they performed hand movements in accordance with the breath, then perfected footwork in the insurance regulatory system in place (crawl on the chest, back).

The next stage involved the development of alternating movements of the right and left hand, and then perform the exercises in a controlled insurance - in the same order as in the training building on the pool bottom. After working in isolation of each movement were trained in coordinated movements of the legs with the breath, hands, breathing, and hands and feet together with the breath.

With the improvement of coherence of swimming movements were studied in full coordination. These problems were solved in the first session under controlled insurance.

By the end of the fifth class involved feel more confident in the water. In a training session using the "regulated insurance" coverage time job without swimming trainer has increased steadily. If from the first to the fifth training session was conducted only with adjustable insurance, starting from the sixth time devoted to training in the water without the simulator increased: from the sixth to tenth session, it increased to 20 minutes, from the tenth to the eighteenth - up to 60 minutes.

It should be noted that in the last three sessions "regulated insurance" was used to make a horizontal body position in the water and with the aim of self-control of movements performed while swimming. The results of the study indicate the possibility of future use of training device "regulated insurance" for teaching swimming movements of people with disabilities.

During the period of the experiment, consisting of 16 - 18 classes, the subjects have mastered the simplest swimming movements and were able to overcome without assistance of up to 10 - 15 meters distance in the aquatic environment. Education in a controlled insurance showed sufficient efficiency of training facilities in the sessions with disabilities (cerebral palsy).

Training lessons are combined with the power and the cyclic orientation in the aquatic environment contributed to a benign environment for the work of the musculoskeletal system engaged.