Research article
Issue: № 9 (16), 2013

Cерикказы А.

Ученица, 159-ая школа города Алматы



Научный проект посвящен исследованию морфологического статуса эпителия десны в условиях токсического действия хлористого кадмия и применения Тагансорбента.

Целью исследования научного проекта является изучение структурной организации десны животных в условиях хронической интоксикации хлористым кадмием и коррекции Тагансорбентом.

Практическая значимость результатов проекта состоит в том, что знания о структурной организации десны в норме и при хронической интоксикации хлористым кадмием позволили  не только регистрировать «поломку» в организме, но и дает возможность рекомендовать эндоэкологическую реабилитацию.

Ключевые слова:  интоксикация, тяжелые металлы, тагансорбент, эндоэкологическая среда.

Serikkazy A.

Pupil,159 school Almaty



The research project is concerned with examination of the anatomical status of gum epitheliumin response to poisonous action of cadmium chloride and Tagansorbent application.

The goal of the research project is examination of structural organization of animal gum under conditions of chronic intoxication with cadmium chloride and correction with Tagansorbent.

The practical relevance of results of the project consists in the fact that knowledge on the structural organization of a gum within normal range and under chronic intoxication with cadmium chloride, not only made it possible to detect “the malfunction” in the system, but also provided the opportunity to recommend endoecological rehabilitation.

Keywords: intoxication, heavy metals, tagansorbent, endoecological environment.

The currently manifested pathological signs are closely associated with environmental pollution. The pollution of the biosphere affects all components: air, water, soil, fauna and humans [1,2,3].

Throughout the life human body often gets in contact with chemical agents, including metal salts. The rank of the metal salts includes heavy metals, including cadmium.  Very few publications are devoted to cadmium, which is like lead belongs to the first class of hazardous industrial poisons. [3] Toxicity of cadmium and its compounds was studied in several papers [4].

According to a number of researchers, up to 80% of cadmium in the organism is ingested with food and enters through respiratory tract

It is known that any nutrient enters through the mouth and the first touch the oral cavity. Therefore, we got interested in the impact of cadmium on the gingiva of the oral cavity affected by food poisoning. Hence, in our research we set the following objectives:

  1. To study the structural organization of the gingiva tissue in animals after chronic cadmium chloride toxicity and rehabilitation with Tagansorbent sorbent.
  2. To conduct a comparative analysis of impact of cadmium with the duration of animals’ organisms exotoxicosis.
  3. To compare the effects of cadmium throughout the duration of time after the intoxication.

The study objects were Wistar breed white male rats, weighing 220-220 g, 5-6 months old. The choice of male rats was dictated by the necessity to obtain consistent results, excluding the effect of cyclical changes typical for the female’s organisms.

The study of all groups of animals was carried out after 1, 7, 14, 21 days of animals chronic poisoning for the 2.5 months period and after Tagansorbent treatment for 30 days. To avoid diurnal variations of body’s structural and functional properties, all experimental operations and samples collections were performed in the morning time slot (8.00 - 9.00).

After discussion we came to the following conclusion: our research examines the structural characteristics of animal’s gingiva under conditions of chronic intoxication with cadmium chloride and correction with Tagansorbent. The objects of the study were Wistar albino rats.

Chronic exposure to cadmium doses of 1.5 mg/kg resulted in significant impairment of the structural integrity of the gingiva tissue, increase of intercellular spaces and reduction of desmosomal contacts. Same changes were observed in the ultrastructure of thorny layer epithelial, which were associated with decreased protein synthesis function of these cells and the predominance of catabolic processes – reduction of the nucleoli size and absence of fibrillar and granular components, reduction of the bulk density of the granular endoplasmic reticulum, increase in the lysosomal structures bulk density, decrease in the tonofibrils bulk density.

The use of "Tagansorbent" had a significant sanogenic, protective effects on the structure of the gingiva tissue: epithelial cells and their organelles, reducing all of the above stated damages. However, the high permeability of the epithelial lining still remained, as indicated by the increased value of the intercellular spaces and continued reduction in the protein synthesis function of these cells.

On 21 day after treatment all structural components values returned to the original levels, as the drug begins to show its sorption properties, triggering cadmium chloride excretion from the body of animals, thus demonstrating protective effect on the structural organization of the mucous membrane of the gingiva.

We obtained qualitative and quantitative data on structural organization of the gingiva damages caused by cadmium intoxication, which can be used as an estimate of the exotoxicosis damages extent.

The results of a research project and its conclusions are self-sufficient and novel, as they are suitably reasoned and scientifically based.

Summary: Chronic exposure to cadmium chloride leads to a significant violation of the structural integrity of the gum tissue, an increase of intercellular spacing (ITUC) and decrease in bulk density desmosmalnyh (DS) contacts, which increases the permeability of the epithelial lining. Changes in the epithelial cells were associated with decreased protein synthetic function of these cells and the predominance of catabolic processes. Using Tagansorbenta contributed to the improvement of structural and functional organization of the gums, significantly reduced the depth of the above violations.

Peзюме: Хроническое воздействие хлористого кадмия приводит к значительному нарушению структурной целостности тканы десны, увеличению межклеточного пространства (VRG) и снижению объемной плотности десмосомальных(ДС) контактов, который приводит к возрастанию проницаемости эпителиальный  выстилки. Изменения в эпителиоцитах были  связаны со снижением белок синтетический  функции этих клеток  и преобладанием  процессов катаболизма. Использование Тагансорбента способствовало  улучшению  структурно функциональный организации десны, значительно снизились глубина указанных выше нарушений.