Research article
Issue: № 8 (27), 2014

Петрунина С.В. 1, Khabarova S.M.2 , Дворянинова Е.В.3, Хайрова Х.Ж.4, Кирюхина И.А.5

1, 2,3,4 Кандидат педагогических наук, доцент, 5доцент Пензенский государственный университет, Россия


Аннотация В статье отражены основные особенности адаптивного плавания, цели и задачи. Ключевые слова: церебральный паралич, коррекция двигательных действий в водной среде, индивидуальная методика.

Petrunina S.V.1, Khabarova S.M.2 , Dvoryaninova E.V.3, Khayrova Kh. Z.4, Kiryuhina I. A.5

1,2,3, 4PhD assistant  professor, 5assistant of professor Penza State University, Russia



The paper describes some specific features of adaptive swimming and its aims.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, the aquatic environment, motion correction, individual exercises, teaching methods.

 Water rehabilitation is primarily a teaching process for the transfer and assimilation of experience and professional relationships "disability - a person who has a health problem with a persistent disorder of body functions due to illness, injury or consequences of defects leading to impaired functioning and causing the need for its social protection . "

It is well known curative effect of water as natural factors . In various sciences presented interesting information about the relationship between man and the aquatic environment . At the same time, the use of multiple reservoirs to meet the diverse needs of the world's population carries the danger to life , which consists in sometimes neglect , dereliction of organizing human activity in the aquatic environment, the potential for drowning, hypothermia , exhaustion , " perekupaniya " and t . etc. All this characterizes the problem of developing the theory and practice of modern means and methods of aquatic rehabilitation urgent and vital .

Place of water system rehabilitation specialist knowledge determined by the activity in the use of patterns, properties and phenomena of human relationships and the aquatic environment, ensuring the transfer and assimilation of theoretical and practical knowledge and skills in the origin, formation and improvement of the individual, in order to develop social and motor activity of the child disabled.

June 28 - July 2, 1998 in Finland , a traditional VIII International Symposium " Biomechanics and medicine in swimming ," in which the program was originally introduced reports in sections "Adaptive physical activity " and " Water rehabilitation ." From this point on , these sections are included in all programs of prestigious international congresses, symposia and conferences on swimming along with such sections as " baby swimming ", " swimming master ", " water polo ", " synchronized swimming ", " aerobics ", " recreational swimming "," swimming veterans ' and others.

Such recognition in the world of developing new directions-water rehabilitation as an important means of formation, development, rehabilitation and support for health and performance of the individual from birth to old age - shows the great importance of water for the rehabilitation of a healthy lifestyle population.

And fundamentally essential that the total immersion of a human or any part of his body in the water is virtually impossible to physical boundary between the fluid medium inside the body and outside of the body. In this case, the atomic and molecular level has direct contact -merge "external" and "internal" aqueous medium into an organic whole . Part of the aqueous medium which is "outside" , passes through the skin into the body , and some aquatic organism emerges . It is recalled that ambient air will always contain a certain percentage of moisture which , in turn , includes particles of dissolved air in the lungs and for the implementation of a normal person , including intensive external respiration constantly maintain appropriate humidity.

Water rehabilitation reflects the unity of human relationships and the aquatic environment within the body and outside. However, in some cases, for ease of use knowledge about these relationships in the practice of aquatic rehabilitation conditionally isolated outer and inner aqueous medium.

Hydro teacher, owns the means and methods of aquatic rehabilitation, including hydrotherapy, transfers takes experience, provides for the formation and education of the individual, capable of self-development, self-determination and self-help further its spiritual, motor and intellectual opportunities available in this age period.

Unfortunately, the unique experience of the individual water rehabilitation specialists remained single domain creative and until recently has been the subject of research and generalizations. Usually it was passed in the form of stories and memories.

The start of  modern  development in water rehabilitation  was on May 1979 in  Mexico at a meeting of the Medical Committee of the International Federation of swimmers where  the world's first official international manual on teaching swimming infants was discussed and approved. Thus was approved by leading prophylaxis, rehabilitation and improvement of the developing person - swimming.

In development of this program, with the subsequent its active introduction Zakhary Pavlovich Firsov took part in the Soviet Union – the chairman of Federation of swimming of the USSR, the president of Medical committee of the International federation of fans of swimming, the major general of a health service, in the thirties – the teacher of chair of swimming of institute of physical culture of a name P.F. Lesgafta.

Z.P. Firsov published the book "Float Earlier, than Go" and its second edition processed and added in 1980 in 1978. The materials stated in the book generalizing experience of many children's policlinics of Moscow and other cities of the USSR, are so far the only grants for parents who in an available form open their opportunities to training in swimming of the children.

The state support in the solution of this important problem was provided by the decision of USSR Sport committee made in August, 1979 on the organization in swimming pools of the country in which there are the children's bathtubs, constantly operating seminars for the parents having children of chest and preschool age. The purpose of seminars – to arm parents with knowledge and the practical abilities necessary for independent training in swimming of the children in the conditions of a house bathtub or on a beach.

It is represented very actual to come back to this question in modern Russian society, having secured with support of the State committee of the Russian Federation on physical culture, sports and tourism. It will allow numerous structure of coachs on swimming to provide training of the interested parents, and to scientific and creative specialists to carry out scientific and methodical development, including for disabled children.

Really, no experts in the field of physical culture and medical workers will suffice for a solution of the problem of elimination of swimming illiteracy of the population. Only by means of parents it is possible to provide elementary education of several million young swimmers, to make the qualified selection under the leadership of the qualified trainers and on this basis to build fundamental preparation of the Olympic reserve of Russia, and as a whole – to solve vital problems of safety when finding the person in the water environment, problems of early water rehabilitation and the prevention of development of disability.

So, under the certificate Z. P. Firsov if in the early sixties only certain experts were engaged in training in swimming of babies (in the USSR – I. B. Charkovsky, in Australia – spouses Claire and Tim Timmermans), in 1978, according to the generalized data of policlinics of Moscow, among several thousand children who are regularly doing swimming, the diseased was 4,5 times less, than the same year among the children who aren't doing swimming. According to the deputy chief physician of children's policlinic of the city of Kirovsk of the Leningrad region, the doctor as D. G. Gaytskhoki developed by it a method of treatment of motive frustration at children at perinatal defeat of the central nervous system with use of "scuba diving" at the diagnosis of a condition of the child right after the birth as "threatened on cerebral spastic infantile paralysis" allows to prevent development of it and other diseases of the central nervous system.

Years of experience teaching aquatic rehabilitation of more than 700 children with disabilities from birth to 18 years with a variety of diseases and severity of effects gained by teachers and students of the Department and the Department swim TiM adaptive physical education SPbGAFK them. PFLesgaft confirms the possibility of any age to ensure the formation and establishment of a new level of self-life of the child, including those with severe lesions.

Arising critical situations were identified, studied and classified, with the initial training of disabled children to swim the technique prevent hazardous and dangerous emergencies.

Hydrorehabilitation realization, first of all in the light of implementation of the Federal law of the Russian Federation "About social protection of disabled people in the Russian Federation" (1999, article 12), will allow to create social services of passing of scientifically reasonable individual course of pedagogical water rehabilitation that considerably will expand the opportunities providing availability to disabled people of the environment of activity.

Long-term theoretical and pilot studies allowed to define a number of the basic rules without which it is difficult, and sometimes and it is impossible, carrying out a necessary course of water rehabilitation for the disabled child.

It is impossible, in particular, because parents cease to bring the child on occupations. The reasons can be different beginning from household, transport (far live), production and others, not depending on trainer's structure. The necessary minimum duration of a course was defined by the high-quality changes happening in a condition of development of the child. For example, the child started going, speaking, smiling, laughing for the first time in life, adequately to react to a surrounding situation, he improved attention or memory, concentration, physical activity increased or given to age norm, the vital skills of clothing, service of behind a dining table, in a bathroom, a toilet and many other things were formed.

After passing of a course qualitatively new, essential level of spiritual, physical and intellectual development of the personality was reached.

Hydrorehabilitation as a component of social rehabilitation of the disabled person represents creative pedagogical process of relationship of the person and the water environment at which the knowledge revealed, recorded and kept in means of accumulation is applied by the hydroteacher or independently the disabled person for the purpose of development or self-development of spiritual, physical and mental abilities of the personality.

Bulgakova N. notes, that depending on tasks educational and training occupations can be referred to recreational, improving, standard or sports swimming conditionally.

Recreational swimming is directed on improvement of a physical and psycho-emotional condition of people on the basis of active recreation by the organization of entertainments and leisure with use of means of swimming and bathing. Independent occupations of irregular character (swimming and bathing in the days off, visit of water parks) which take place not more often than two times a week are usually used. During these occupations the engaged can improve elements of the skills necessary for development in the water environment. As Bulgakova N. considers. that improvement of functional indicators from swimming shouldn't be expected, but it promotes maintenance of a certain level of health and a hardening.

The main objectives of improving swimming are achievement and maintenance of a desirable condition of level of health, life improvement of quality, prevention of the diseases connected with age and harmful effects of environment. 3-4 times a week for 30-45 minutes are recommended to do improving swimming.

Rehabilitation swimming differs from improving swimming by the contingent of the engaged. The people having various deteriorations in a state of health, violations in functions of the musculoskeletal device do rehabilitation swimming.

In standard swimming of loading exceed those loadings which are applied in improving training, and they are used for achievement of higher level of swimming readiness.  It is possible to carry to standard swimming and maintenance of sports longevity – swimming for veterans.  This type of standard swimming characterizes the low level of training loadings defined taking into account age features engaged.

Adaptive swimming – training in swimming of persons with limited opportunities in a state of health, improvement of motive abilities and the swimming readiness, allowing to some extent to compensate the lost motive functions.


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