Research article
Issue: № 7 (97), 2020


Научная статья

Истомина Е.Е.¹, *, Хаташкеев А.В.²

¹ ORCID: 0000-0002-1243-4434;

² ORCID: 0000-0003-0304-6162;

1Педагогический институт Иркутского государственного университета;

2 ООО "Брокер Эксперт", г. Санкт-Петербург

* Корреспондирующий автор (gamlet421[at]


В статье рассмотрены процессы определения содержания золота в продуктах горно-обогатительного комбината «Невский» ООО «Друза». Проведено исследование деятельности пробирно-аналитической лаборатории по определению содержанию золота в золотосодержащих продуктах. Рассмотрены состав и структура ПАЛ ГОК «Невский» ООО «Друза». В работе описаны методы определения содержания золота в продуктах: атомно-абсорбционный метод, тетрометрический метод и пробирно-гравиметрический метод. Определены принципы внутреннего и внешнего лабораторного контроля в ПАЛ золотодобывающей компании.

Ключевые слова: золотоизвлекательная фабрика (ЗИФ), пробирно-аналитическая лаборатория (ПАЛ), слиток золота, проба, золотосодержащая руда, методы определения содержания золота: атомно-абсорбционный тетрометрический и пробирно-гравиметрический.


Research article

Istomina Е.Е.¹, *, Shataschkeev А.V.²

¹ ORCID: 0000-0002-1243-4434;

² ORCID: 0000-0003-0304-6162;

1 Natural Sciences Pedagogical Institute of Irkutsk state University;

2 Broker Expert LLC, Saint Petersburg

* Corresponding author (gamlet421[at]


The article deals with the processes of determining the gold content in the products of the «Nevsky» mining and processing plant of«Druza» LLC. The activity of the assay and analytical laboratory to determine the content of gold in gold-containing products was investigated. The composition and structure of AAL GOK «Nevsky» LLC «Druza» is considered. The paper describes methods for determination of gold content in the products: atomic absorption method, titrimetrically method and Assay-gravimetric method. The principles of internal and external laboratory control in the AAL of a gold mining company are defined.

Keywords: gold recovery factory (GRF), assay and analytical laboratory (AAL), gold bar, sample, gold-containing ore, methods for determination of gold by atomic absorption titrimetrically assay and gravimetric.


The Gold (79Au) is found in the environment in its own form, because of this, it acts as the first metal mastered by man of the stone age. The Gold (79Au) is an element of the 11 group of the Periodic table of D. I. Mendeleev [1, p. 21].

The chemical properties of gold are presented by the authors N. N. Greenwood and A. Earnshaw in the work «chemistry of elements» [2, p. 501].

Druza, LLC — one of the major gold mining companies, performing activity on the territory ofBodaibo district, Irkutsk region. In the last decade, there has been a clear trend towards putting into operation deposits with low concentrations of precious metals in the ore (1 gram per ton or less), the profitability of which is achieved only with large volumes of processing (millions of tons per year).

The required volume of technological testing and analysis of samples for gold extraction factories (GEF) - such deposits is extremely high and amounts to more than a hundred thousand samples per year. The volume of analyzed samples of operational Geosciences is no less high. As a result, the daily load on the analytical laboratory usually exceeds 500 samples [3, p. 10]. Taking into account the remoteness of gold mining enterprises and the seasonal nature of their supply, as well as the shortage of qualified personnel in the regions of Siberia and the Far East, the best solution is to automate analytical control processes.


  1. Reducing the number of accidents;
  2. Improving the quality of measurements performed, reducing the number of defects;
  3. Unifying and standardizing workplaces;
  4. Increasing labor productivity by reducing the loss of time due to the organization of the workplace.


Method of analysis: NSAM # 505-X «Gold and silver».

Method of quantitative chemical analysis (QCA). Determination of gold and silver by assay method in rocks, ores and products of their processing"

Description of the composition of samples received for analysis: gold-silver ore. Measuring in-struments: scales MSE2. 7S-0CE-DM «Sartorius».

QCA method: assay-gravimetric. Reproduction of the QCA Protocol in whole or in part is prohibited without special permission from the laboratory.

The structure of the AAL of «Druza» LLC consists of four branches: 1) charging equipment; 2) melting; 3) razvedochnogo; 4) weight.

The main responsibilities of the AAL:

- performing all tasks and functions assigned to the AAL;

- implementation of regulatory legal acts of «Druza» LLC in the field of labor protection, industrial, fire, environmental safety and industrial sanitation,

- ensuring the reliability, objectivity and required accuracy of analytical results;

- conducting tests and issuing protocols in the assigned area of accreditation;

- compliance with the requirements of regulatory documents regulating measurement procedures;

- performing measurements of the composition and properties of objects assigned by the accreditation certificate;

- internal quality control of analysis results;

- submission to the accreditation body of reports on the results of its activities, notification of the accreditation body of any changes in the status, structure, technical equipment;

- registration of works performed in the AAL;

- keeping records of all claims made based on measurement results;

- use of the resources provided by AAL in strict accordance with their purpose and according to the rules established in «Druza» LLC;

- participation in quality checks of analytical work through interlaboratory comparative tests.


Table 1 – The internal structure of the AAL GOK «Nevskiy» «Druza» LLC

Departments AAL Actions research Method Composition
Crushing Department   receiving samples from the OTC (control of the ZIF technology)  
Charging Department Charge # 1 for poor ore; Charge #2 for rich ore. The charge is mixed with a sample of 50 g, AgNO3, covered with a tire (soda, borax), and then placed in a bag. Charging consists in mixing a sample of ore with special additives( charge): flux, lead glet (PBO) and reducing agents. The bag is sent to the melting Department SiO2, PbO, flour, baking soda, borax
Melting compartment Crucible melting of cemented samples electric Furnace mine ti-gel operating temperature Range, 0C (950-1100). Melting the charge in the furnace for 40-50 minutes. it is combined with the crucible, beaten off; Merging the lead alloy into iron mills for cooling. Department lead (crude lead) from the slag. Kooperacija lead verbleef gold and silver to the king in the electric Furnace cooperacission, KP-1,2-24 (Cupellation of lead bullion (removal of lead))    
Debarking Department Gold-silvered kinglet (GSK) is beaten off, boiled (Processing the kinglet with dilute nitric acid (dissolving silver) dissolves Ag in HNO3), evaporated, the gold card remains (GC). Calcination of Golden squats Atomic absorption method, tetrometric method, spectrum 5-4, assay-gravimetric method  
Weight Weighing a gold card Filling in the working sheet of the mзк  
Technical control Department (TOD) Internal laboratory control of 10% of samples once a month Au (gold), Х*10-4, %
The standard of the ARRIMS External laboratory control Standard (reference) of gold Au (gold), Х*10-4, %

«Druza» LLC has developed solutions to the most urgent problems on the GRF:

  1. Complete assay and analytical laboratories (AAL) with measuring, preparatory and auxiliary equipment, including automatic assay analysis
  2. automation of testing and analytical control on GRF;
  3. automation of head testing of crushed ore.
  4. the following standard solutions are offered for AAL with a large load (more than 100,000 samples per year).
  5. if the concentration of gold in the samples is more than 1 g/t:
  6. Automated sample preparation system
  7. Automated assay melting system
  8. Automatic milling machine
  9. optical emission spark spectrometer ARL4460FA
  10. SMS2500 Robotic sample management system for the arl4460fa optical emission spec-trometer

11.Scales for weight control of lead bullion

12.System bar-coding

  1. at concentrations of gold in samples less than 1 g/t:
  2. Automated sample preparation system
  3. Automated assay melting system
  4. nucomat automatic decomposition, sample preparation and analysis System
  5. bar-coding System
  6. for poor ores (Au < 1 g / t) and rich industrial products-a combination of the two above-mentioned configurations.

To automate testing and analytical control on GRF, the following solutions are offered:

  1. Automatic selection and preparation of representative samples
  2. transport of samples to the laboratory
  3. the following solutions are offered for head testing of ore:
  4. Automated sampling from the transporter
  5. Automated testing on the embankment
  6. testing according to GOST R 8.563-2009 [4], GOST 14180 [5], GOST 8.010-2013 [6] or ISO
  7. Automatic generation of enlarged (replaceable, daily) samples
  8. Return the reduced sample material to the conveyor

AAL management analyzes the gold content in gold-containing products and measurement activities in order to ensure their continuous effectiveness and improvement, making modern changes. In 2018, work was carried out on laboratory measurements for customers. When performing the work, the following indicators were evaluated: table 2.


Table 2 – The work performed AAL GOK "Nevskiy" "Druza" LLC

Laboratory measurements Name of the indicator Number of samples
Services of The Chief Geologist (SCG)
SCG samples Au, *10-4 % 29875
Repeatability ILC 29875
N.11.2 NSAM-505-Х 3005
ILC accuracy (Standard sample) 739
Precision ILC 1297
Charge quality control 720
Repeatability of control samples ILC 5759
External control 245
Total samples: 35634
Quality control department (QCD)
Samples of ingot-gold-alloys (IGA) Au, *10-4 % 312
Internal laboratory control (ILC) of reproduction 312
ILC accuracy (Standard sample) 40
Precision ILC 71
Total samples:  
Samples of ingot-gold-alloys (IGA) Au, *10-4 % 312
Repeatability ILC 312
ILK accuracy (Standard sample) 40
Precision ILC 71
Total samples:  
ISI Au, *10-4 % 21
External control IC LMS JSC "Polyus" Au, *10-4 % 240

Recommendations for improving performance in AAL:

  1. Strengthen control over the implementation of quality Management procedures, management procedures, and QMS Instructions by AAL employees [11, p. 47].

2.To carry out repairs to the premises AAL.

  1. Purchase new measuring instruments: pH meter; conductometer.
  2. Purchase, in place of outdated, new auxiliary equipment: laboratory plate; rolls electro-mechanical.
  3. Use the 5S system in work – a method of organizing the working space, the purpose of which is to create optimal conditions for performing operations, maintaining order, cleanliness, accuracy, saving time and energy.
Конфликт интересов Не указан. Conflict of Interest None declared.

Список литературы / References

  1. Третьяков Ю.Д. Неорганическая химия. Химия элементов. Т.2 / Ю.Д. Третьяков, Л.И. Мартыненко, А.Н. Григорьев, А.Ю. Цивадзе. – 2-е изд., перераб. и доп. – М.: МГУ, 2007. – 670 с.
  2. Химия элементов. Т.2 / Гринвуд Н.Н., Эрншо А/–М.: 2008, 666 с
  3. Паспорт пробирно-аналитической лаборатории СМК-ПС-01-2018 // Н.В. Аксенова ГОК «Невский» ООО «Друза», Бодайбо, 2019 – 25 с.
  4. ГОСТ Р 8.563-2009 «Государственная система обеспечения единства измерений. Методики выполнения измерений». М.: «Стандартинформ», 2009. 38 с.
  5. ГОСТ 14180-80 Руды и концентраты цветных металлов. Методы отбора и подготовки проб для химического анализа и определения влаги. М.: «Стандартинформ», 2010. 19 с.
  6. ГОСТ 8.010-2013 Государственная система обеспечения единства измерений (ГСИ). Методики выполнения измерений. Основные положения. М.: «Стандартинформ», 2019. 36 с.
  7. СК-РЖ-7.11-2017 Журнал регистрации результатов испытаний технологических проб ЗИФ // Н.В. Аксенова ГОК «Невский» «Друза», Бодайбо, 2017 – 5 с.
  8. СК-РЖ-7.13-2017 Журнал регистрация выданных протоколов результатов испытаний проб карьера, МСИ, внешних заказчиков. // Н.В. Аксенова ГОК «Невский» ООО «Друза», Бодайбо, 2017 – 5 с.
  9. СК-РЖ-7.14-2017 Журнал учета расхода реагентов, материалов // Н.В. Аксенова ГОК «Невский» ООО «Друза», Бодайбо, 2017 – 5 с.
  10. Результаты определения золота в слитках 2017 // Н.В. Аксенова ГОК «Невский» ООО «Друза», Бодайбо, 2017 – 2 с.
  11. Истомина Е.Е. Об управлении качеством при проектировании и разработке изделия из пенополиуретана // Компетентность /– 2019 - №5. – C. 46-48.

Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

  1. Tretyakov Yu.D. Neorganicheskaya khimiya. Khimiya elementov. T.2 [Inorganic chemistry. Chemistry of elements. V.2] / Yu.D. Tretyakov, L.I. Martynenko, A.N. Grigoriev, A.Yu. Tsivadze. – 2nd ed., Revised and add. – M.: Moscow State University, 2007. – 670 p. [in Russian]
  2. Khimiya elementov. T.2 [Chemistry of elements. V.2] / Greenwood N.N., Ernshaw A / M.: 2008. – 666 p. [in Russian]
  3. Pasport probirno-analiticheskoy laboratorii SMK-PS-01-2018 [Fire assay laboratory passport SMK-PS-01-2018] // N.V. Aksenova GOK “Nevsky” LLC “Druza”, Bodaibo, 2019 – 25 p. [in Russian]
  4. GOST R 8.563-2009 Gosudarstvennaya sistema obespecheniya yedinstva izmereniy. Metodiki vypolneniya izmereniy [State system for ensuring the uniformity of measurements. Measurement Techniques.] M.: "Standardinform". – 2009. – 38 p. [in Russian]
  5. GOST 14180-80 Rudy i kontsentraty tsvetnykh metallov. Metody otbora i podgotovki prob dlya khimicheskogo analiza i opredeleniya vlagi [Ores and concentrates of non-ferrous metals. Sampling and sample preparation methods for chemical analysis and moisture determination]. M.: "Standardinform". – 2010. – 19 p. [in Russian]
  6. GOST 8.010-2013 Gosudarstvennaya sistema obespecheniya yedinstva izmereniy (GSI). Metodiki vypolneniya izmereniy. Osnovnyye polozheniya [State system for ensuring the uniformity of measurements (GSI). Measurement Techniques. The main provisions]. M.: “Standardinform”. – 2019. – 36 p. [in Russian]
  7. SK-RZH-7.11-2017 Zhurnal registratsii rezul'tatov ispytaniy tekhnologicheskikh prob ZIF [Journal of recording the results of testing of technological samples of the mill] // N.V. Aksenova GOK Nevsky Druza, Bodaibo, 2017 – 5 p. [in Russian]
  8. SK-RZH-7.13-2017 Zhurnal registratsiya vydannykh protokolov rezul'tatov ispytaniy prob kar'yera, MSI, vneshnikh zakazchikov [Magazine registration of the issued test results protocols for quarry samples, MSI, external customers]. // N.V. Aksenova GOK "Nevsky" LLC "Druza", Bodaibo, 2017 – 5 p. [in Russian]
  9. SK-RZH-7.14-2017 Zhurnal ucheta raskhoda reagentov, materialov [Journal of accounting for the consumption of reagents, materials] // N.V. Aksenova GOK "Nevsky" LLC "Druza", Bodaibo, 2017 – 5 p. [in Russian]
  10. Rezul'taty opredeleniya zolota v slitkakh 2017 [Results of determination of gold bullion 2017] // N.V. Aksenova GOK "Nevsky" LLC "Druza", Bodaibo, 2017 - 2 p. [in Russian]
  11. Istomina E.E. Ob upravlenii kachestvom pri proyektirovanii i razrabotke izdeliya iz penopoliuretana [On quality management in design and development of products made of polyurethane foam] // Kompetentnost' [Competence] – 2019 – No. 5. – P. 46-48. [in Russian]