Research article
Issue: № 7 (26), 2014


В статье представлены индивидуальные методические приемы для людей с патологией функций опорно-двигательного аппарата и ампутации в водной среде.

Петрунина С.В. 1, Пашин А.А.2, Дворянинова Е.В.3

1, 2,3 Кандидат педагогических наук, доцент, 4доцент, Пензенский государственный университет, Россия



В статье представлены индивидуальные методические приемы для людей с патологией функций опорно-двигательного аппарата и ампутации в водной среде.

Ключевые слова: церебральный паралич, водная среда, двигательная коррекция, индивидуальные упражнения, методические приемы.

Petrunina S.V.1,Pashin A.A.2, Dvoryaninova E.V.3

1,2,3, PhD assistant  professor, Penza State University, Russia



The article presents individual instructional techniques for people with disorders of the musculoskeletal apparatus in the aquatic environment.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, the aquatic environment, motion correction, individual exercises, teaching methods.

Motor exercises in the aquatic environment for people in this category are used as a form of educational and health impacts. Of contraindications to practice in the pool should be allocated for open wounds, skin and acute inflammatory diseases, acute viral infections and others. Before classes in the pool, you need to undergo a medical examination physician, dermatologist, doctor of physical therapy.

Classes are held in the pool 2-3 times a week in the daytime ¬ tion time duration of 30-45 minutes in groups of 4-6 man ¬ age and individually. The first lesson of persons after ¬ s reputation as both lower limbs, usually solved the problem of development in the water, the movement is carried out along the side of the pool with the support of handrails, elementary motion of the hands and feet , diving, breathing exercises exhale into the water slide etc. as the development in water swim minor cuts proposed in a free way. The first lesson for the duration does not exceed ¬ is 20-25 minutes due to rapid fatigue and ends exercises relaxation.

Structure rehabilitation classes in the pool is based on the classical scheme . Content of the preparatory part - special exercises with physiotherapy in the water that are performed in support and using special auxiliary flotation devices . Complexes of therapeutic exercises are graded according to the level of amputation for people with disabilities defect after amputation of one and both lower extremities. Only preparatory segment performed 8-10 exercises lying on the chest, stomach, for those following amputation of both legs , as well as standing after the amputation of one limb at the level of the thigh or leg . All exercises are performed at a slow pace , which reduces the likelihood of muscle surge , with an emphasis on the exhale at the moment to overcome external resistance . For each engaged in offering a comfortable range of motion.

In the main part of the lesson applies dosed swimming in different ways. Almost all people with disabilities have basic swimming skills . It is for this reason, a technique of employment does not include training on land. Training time is necessary to achieve optimum coordination of movements and breathing. Simulation exercises and inlet for this purpose are performed directly with the support of the pool and handrails using special swimming facilities . Error correction is performed during the execution of motor tasks and beyond.

Load control dosed voyage made using uniform methods and reuse . At the beginning of the course is not determined by the distance and speed of swimming. In the future, with the improvement of physical capacity load is increased by increasing the volume of work. Control over the reaction is carried out before executing the body of motor tasks and thereafter by measuring the pulse rate, and visual observation. The main body also uses elements moving ball games, which improves emotional tone involved .

In the final part of the relaxation exercises are used . Need for relaxation exercises due to the fact that swimming is mainly disabled by hand movements , thus causing a natural muscle tension of the shoulder girdle . Exercises are performed with the support of the rail side of the pool using a special swimming facilities in the supine position . If people with disabilities can freely float , muscle relaxation is performed in a horizontal position or unsupported by balancing light limb movements of small amplitude .

Oreshkina Y.A. (2001), offers at the initial stage of learning to swim to solve the problems of acquaintance with the physical properties of water: resistance , viscosity , buoyancy , movement carried out along side of the pool with the support of handrails , basic hand movements and cults . For the duration of the first session should not exceed 20-25 minutes because of fatigue involved . Following the procedure Oreshkina Y.A., further training should immersion with breath , opening eyes underwater, exhale into the water, slip . In the course of employment with children of primary school age are used game " Count how many toys" - for training dive and opening eyes under water, " Medusa ", " float " - for training and familiarization with the float to ejector properties of water , "Swing" - for training exhalation into water. First, all of these exercises are performed in support , and then in the unsupported position.

In the process of learning disabled children to swim to increase motivation and interest in activities to consolidate and improve the studied elements used different subject-role-playing games .

In studies Oreshkina YA (2001) were identified patterns of elementary education of disabled children to swim. The author believes that the preparatory training exercises is advantageously carried out in the hall with a dry swimming followed by fixation studied movements in the water. The author recommends that each exercise study as follows: the study of the movements on land; consolidation movements in the water at the fixed support; consolidation movements in the water with mobile support; consolidation movements without support. Principal sequence of problems with the initial set of swimming training is: learning the movements of the arms and legs in different planes, dive training with breath; surfacing training, training retention horizontal position on the chest, back, side, slip on training the chest and back.

Due to the fact that children with disabilities have limitations in motor activity and violations related to playback of examining motor actions , a more detailed study of the individual elements . In the first phase of training focuses on the development of lead and simulation exercises on land. Exercises are performed from different starting positions : sitting on the floor or on a gym bench , standing at the gym wall or other support . The second step is training agreement with the phases of respiration swimming. Particular attention is given to prevent possible errors. Exercises are performed in the prone position with the movements of the arms and legs.


  1. Petrunina S.V., Khabarova S.M., Kiryuhina I.A. Investigation of biomechanical factors of walking of disabled and healthy people //2nd International Scientific Conference “European Applied Sciences: modern approaches in scientific researches”: Volume 2. Papers of 1st International Scientific Conference (Volume 1). February 18-19, 2013, Stuttgart, Germany. P. 120-121.
  2. Petrunina S.V., Khabarova S.M., Kiryuhina The basic technology of psycho-social adaptation of disabled people through individual swimming exercises // Europäische Fachhochschule, European Applied Sciences, #2 – 2013., ORT Publishing. Stuttgart, Germany, Р.99-100
  3. Petrunina S.V., Khabarova S.M., Kiryuhina I.A. The basic technology of psychosocial adaptation of disabled people through individual swimming exercises: monograph / 1st edition. – Vienna: “East West” Association for Advances Studies and Higher Education GmbH, 2014.