Research article
Issue: № 4 (46), 2016


The article describes the physico-chemical properties of silver in a solution of water, as well as its mechanism of antibacterial action. The results of trials of the drug silver Argovit in the veterinary infectious diseases in young animals and birds.

Шкиль Н.А., Бурмистров В.А., Шкиль Н.Н., Юшков Ю.Г.,  Соколов М.Ю.,  Сайченко В.И.

Институт экспериментальной ветеринарии Сибири и Дальнего Востока ООО НПЦ «Вектор-Вита»



В статье описаны физико-химические свойства серебра в растворе воды, а так же его механизм антибактериального действия. Представлены  результаты исследований применения препарат серебра Арговит в ветеринарии при инфекционных заболеваний молодняка животных и птиц.

 Ключевые слова: арговит, серебро, заболевания животных, микроорганизмы


Shkil N.A.,  Burmistrov V.A., Shkil N.N., Yushkov Yu.G., Sokolov M.Yu.,  Saichenko V.I.

Institute of Experimental Veterinary of Siberia and Far East, Joint-stock Company “Vector -Vita”



The article describes the physico-chemical properties of silver in a solution of water, as well as its mechanism of antibacterial action. The results of trials of the drug silver Argovit in the veterinary infectious diseases in young animals and birds.

Keywords: argovit, silver, animal disease, microorganisms


Bactericidal properties  of silver and its compounds are known from most ancient times. Silver products  were widely used in medicine and veterinary in the early twenties and forties. With the emergence  of antibiotics the interest to them was decreased, however recently it was recommenced again.  Wide use of antibiotics has revealed the whole number of their negative features. Firstly, the emergence  and fast development of  different stems of micro organisms resistant to antibiotics makes it necessary to work out new antibiotics again and again. Secondly, antibiotics have the negative influence on  macro organism in general, contributing to disbacteriosis development and reducing its immune status. Thirdly, antibiotics do not influence  on the viruses. It could be possible that because of  the thoughtless wide use of antibiotics virus diseases prevail at the moment and are mostly widely spread diseases nowadays. Thus, based on data of  the World Organization of Public Health Services the diseases of virus etiology  constitute more than 75 % of all infectious diseases. Thus, the problem of the working out of  new antibacterial products the mechanism of which activity would be different  from that of antibiotics and which in addition would possess an antiviral  activity is very important.

In this respect products with silver content seem to be very perspective. Chemistry and biochemistry of silver compounds has advanced forward greatly.  Antiviral and immune modeling activities, synergetic strengthening of efficiency of silver in combination with sulphanilamide and other medicinal products were revealed /1-5/. Synergism effects are connected with different mechanisms of influence of silver and silver compounds on various parts of pathological process.

Molecular and biochemical aspects of anti microbial activity of silver and its products   are rather complicated and are tightly connected with a complex biochemical and catalytic influence of silver on bacterial enzymes, proteins and membrane structures /6-8/.  The positive moment is a very large difference in toxicity of silver compounds for the lowest forms (unicellular organisms, bacteria, viruses etc.) and for the highest forms of life development  (animals, man) that constitutes  5-6 orders (100 thousand - 1 million times) /6, 9, 10/. That means that concentrations of silver compounds which are lethal for micro organisms will be  practically  harmless for people and animals.

Pharmacological and toxicological kinetics  of silver was studied in detail.  The regularity of silver  absorption as well as excretion and distribution in the inner organs by  different ways of its injection (intra peritoneal, subcutaneous, intra tracheal,  intra stomachal) was studied. The following conclusion was drawn: silver is  not accumulated  in big amounts  in the internal organs and tissues both by single or multiple injections. Authors /8/ did not find silver in  the internal organs of treated animals with intra stomachal preliminary injection of silver products. That means that silver products are poorly absorbed from alimentary canal.

Out of all silver products  used in veterinary special attention should  be  given to  silver nitrate (caustic silver), Protargol and Collargol. These products are used externally to treat wounds, conjunctivitis, ulcers and eczema. They can also be used orally to treat gastroenteritis, helminthosis and diarrhea and as aerosols to treat respiratory infections /11-14/.

Silver ions  in silver nitrate have a strong searing action with respect to skin and mucous membranes. Under the influence of light and in combination with chlorine-, phosphate and others anions of fluid media of an organism  and cellular  components silver ions inactivate very fast forming insoluble and less active compounds. Collargol and Protargol represent the colloid silver particles stabilized with protein hydrolizates (casein and albumin). High dispersive colloidal particles slowly but gradually release  silver ions into the solution thus creating the «depot» and  prolonging the activity of silver ions, whereas protein hydrolizates except for the stabilization of dispersion protect silver ions and clusters from fast inactivation with anions and other  medium components. It should be noted  that so-called ”silver water” /9 / or water which had been in contact with silver goods obtains its anti microbial properties because of the transition of silver ions into water in the form of clusters from the defects of a crystal lattice of a massive metal /15/. Electrical current, use of the galvanical pair as well as other approaches are known to intensify the above mentioned transition of silver ions into water. The general disadvantage of the colloid products of  silver and especially products  with the use of metal silver is the ineffective use of silver. Thus, even in highly dispersive colloid products silver which is located in the  central part of the colloid particle is difficult to access and practically is not included into the bactericidal process.  Besides the disadvantage of the colloid silver products  is the low agregational  stability of their solutions.

Within the last time to solve the questions of prolonged activity of silver, to protect it from fast inactivation, to increase its biological availability and efficiency some other approaches based on complex formations of silver together with ligands and  stabilization of silver with polymers were used /2-5/. As an example a new domestic product of colloid silver named poviargol can be mentioned. In this product to stabilize the colloid particles instead of protein hydrolizates the polymer of medical assignment polyvinilpirrolydone (entherodez, hemodez) is used /16/.  Poviargol is produced in the form of a powder. It is used in the form of water solutions which are prepared ех tempore. The similar approach based on complex formation  and   stabilization of silver with polymer was used to produce another product named argovit.

Argovit is a new domestic product with silver content worked out by the Joint stock company closed type “Vector-Best” by the State Scientific Research Center of virusology and biotechnology «Vector». Argovit represents a combination of silver with low-molecular medical polyvinilpirrolydone. In contrast to the colloid analogue- product  named poviargole the  size of cluster silver particles in argovit  is much smaller, that improves greatly the efficiency of silver use and stipulates  aggregation stability of its solutions. It makes it possible to produce argovit in the form of a ready made concentrated solution with a period of use of  2 years and more.

Argovit has a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity both for aerobic, non aerobic microflora, including microflora resistant to antibiotics. It reveals virulicide and fungicide activity, has anti inflammation influence. It is produced in the form of the concentrated solution and is used in the form of the diluted water solutions. Concentrated solution is of dark brown color, whereas diluted solutions are of brown color of various intensity depending on the extent of dilution. The production of the product in the form of  the concentrated solution makes it possible to prepare working solutions by the way of it’s  simple dilution with distilled water or  drinking water.

Oral introduction of the diluted water solution of argovit is used to prevent as well as to treat intestinal infections of various etiology in all kinds of agricultural animals, fur-bearing animals and birds. Argovit in the form of aerosol proved to be effective to treat bronchitis and pulmonary infections. When used locally argovit  is effective to treat various suppurative inflammation of skin and tissues. It should be noted that argovit is the main working substance of the bactericidal gel, namely argo gel, used locally in purulent surgery, combustology, traumatology, dermatology.

All necessary normative documentation is available: Technical specification 9310-013-00008064-00, Instruction manual, Registration number № PVR-2-4.0/00485, VGNKI certificate on manufacture № 552, Certificate of conformity ROSS RU FV01. В06536 № 4340936. Both product and the way of its use in veterinary has been confirmed by the patent of the Russian Federation № 214237.

Taking into account high disease and mortal rate in young calves and  low medical efficiency of antibiotics in a number of agricultural farms in Novosibirsk oblast  argovit was used to treat gastro intestinal diseases in calves.

To prevent and to treat gastro enteritis in calves with diarrhea syndrome argovit in its form of  0,3 %  water solution at the dose rate of 1-2 ml per 1 kg of alive body weight within  2-5 days depending on a clinical situation was used.  In a very difficult situation the used dose rate of a product  was made twice as much.

At the agricultural farm “Sogornoye” Dovolensky region the average annual loss of the newly born calves from gastro intestinal diseases was from 15 up to 30 %.  In winter period of 1998-2000 in this farm argovit was used as the basic veterinary product to prevent and to treat acute gastro intestinal diseases in calves.  In total with the preventive and medical purpose the product was used in 1735 calves. The loss in calves was decreased more than 4 times and constituted 65 calves (3,7 %).

In Krasnozersky region the product was used in  4 agricultural farms with the total number of animals tested 1949. Out of the total number of  animals preliminary treated with  argovit with the preventive purpose only 379 (19,4 %) have become sick and only 61 animal (3.1%) died.   The medical efficiency of the product was  96,7 %. Introduction of argovit into the   technological system of  general measures on cattle raise  has made it possible to decrease the loss of cattle in general  from 7,1 % in 1997  up to 3,0 % in 2000 and from 9,4 % up to 3,7% in young calves.

In Krapivinsky region Kemerovo oblast argovit  was used at the agricultural farms “Milkovskoye” and “Unginskoye”. At the  first farm out of 285 calves treated  with the preventive and medical purpose only  9 calves (3,2 %) died, whereas at the second farm out of  755 animals treated  23 animals (3,04 %) died.

The following results were obtained with argovit used to treat gastro-intestinal diseases  in fur-bearing animals during the outbreak of the infectious disease: all 110 adult minks  and 49 females  of silver-black fox have recovered within 3-7 days after treatment. Argovit  was given to the above animals together with drinking water  at the dose rate of  2 ml of  0,3 %  product solution per 1 kg of alive body weight. Out of 274  young foxes treated 271 fox (98,9%)  has recovered.

To prevent respiratory diseases in young calves one day before their transition into the common group as well as when the first clinical symptoms became obvious the calves were treated with   argovit aerosols. Special device  SAG-1 aimed to make aerosols at the rate of  0,2 gr. per  one cubic meter of the aerosol chamber was used.

At the agricultural farm “Poloiskoye” and “Sibir” Krasnozersky region the total number of animals treated with argovit aerosols was 1324. Out of this number of treated animals  235 (17,7 %) animals have become sick and 22 animals died.  Thus, the preventive efficiency od argovit aerosols constituted   82,3 %, whereas its medical efficiency constituted  90,6%.

Taking into account high bactericidal properties of argovit the product  was used to treat  birds. At the joint-stock company “Krasnozerskoye” in geese within the period of  egg laying such diseases as the inflammation of alimentary canal and ovaritis were registered. Every day 15-20 geese died.   To treat gastro enteritis  in geese argovit was added into the drinking water at the rate of 12-15 mg per 1 kg of alive body weight during 3  days. It was noticed that the number of geese died on the second day after treatment has reduced and on the 5-th day  the loss constituted only 5-7 birds. At the same farm within the period of enteritis outbreak argovit was used as the preventive measure in 30000 of goslings. It was added into the drinking water at the dose rate of 12-15 mg/kg of alive body weight within  5 days. The reduced loss of goslings from 1,0 to 0,2 % was registered.

At the poultry farm in Kochenyevo 20000  of one day old broiler chickens were treated  with argovit aerosol  The product was used at the dose rate of 0,2  grams per 1 cubic meter of the aerosol chamber and was noticed to reduce the loss of daily chickens from 4,0 % up to 0,2 %.

In general the potential capabilities of argovit are not limited by the examples given above.  The complex character of the activity of products with silver content makes the use of these products especially convenient to treat as well as to prevent the most widely spread combined infections of mixed etiology (bacterial and virus)  and also to treat and prevent  the  infections of not clear etiology.

The efficiency of use of any product depends greatly on the scheme of its use. This includes the used dose rates, period of use (early or late stage of disease development), how long the product is used, its compatibility with the other products.  Besides in practice such factor as the product cost proved to be of primary importance.  Due to the effective use of silver the cost of argovit is much less than that of the other products with silver content (kollargol, poviargol). Thus, for example, at the present moment (June, 2001) the cost of one dose of argovit to treat  a calve weighting 30 kg constitutes approximately two or three rubles, that is cheaper than the use of antibiotics and is much more effective.


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