BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF OUTDOOR GAMES FOR CHILDREN AT PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE
Петрунина С.В.1, Хабарова С.М.2, Можаров А.И.3, Попова О.В.4, Луткова И.Н.5
1,2,3,4,5Кандидат педагогических наук, доцент ПГУ
КРАТКАЯ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКА ПОДВИЖНЫХ ИГР ДЛЯ ДЕТЕЙ МЛАДШЕГО ШКОЛЬНОГО ВОЗРАСТА
В настоящее время наметилась тенденция снижения интереса к физической культуре и спорту, в частности к уроку физической культуры. Уровень физической подготовленности учащихся не соответствует требованиям современного общества. В этой связи необходим поиск новых средств и форм физкультурно-оздоровительной работы, способствующих повышению интереса к физической культуре, увеличению двигательной активности, улучшению здоровья детей и подростков. В статье представлены игровые мероприятия связанные со здоровым образом жизни и способствующие не только повышению двигательной активности, но и повышению интеллектуального развития детей.Ключевые слова: двигательная активность, физическое воспитание, здоровье, младшие школьники, игры на повышение двигательных действий.
Petrunina S.V.1, Khabarova S.M.2, Mojarov A.I.3, Popova O.V.4, Lutkova I.V.5
1,2, 3,4,5PhD in Pedagogy, Associate professor, Penza State University
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF OUTDOOR GAMES FOR CHILDREN AT PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE
Nowadays there is a tendency of major decrease in engaging in sports and physical education classes in particular. The physical fitness of the pupils does not meet the requirements of the modern society. That is why it is necessary to seek new forms and ways of physical training that will promote an increase of interest in physical education, physical activity and improving heath of children and teenagers. The article presents the play activities associated with a healthy lifestyle and contributes not only to increase motor activity, but also improvement of intellectual development of children.Keywords: motor activity, physical education, health, younger schoolchildren, dynamic interdisciplinary games.
Due to the fact that children at the age of 6 - 10 years are not familiar enough with all kinds of natural movements, outdoor games associated with walking, running, jumping, throwing should take a significant place in the physical education of younger students.
Younger students are more prone to various environmental influences. They get tired quicker. This is due to the fact that the heart, lungs and vascular system of children at this age are lagging behind in development and muscles are still weak, especially back muscles and abdominal muscles. The musculoskeletal system is not so strong either, and therefore the possibility of injury increases. Therefore, games involving running and jumping should not be long and should be accompanied by frequent breaks. Considering that the muscles and joints of children at this age are not sufficiently matured yet, it is not recommended to introduce games with high intensity.
During this period it is more difficult for children to isolate and get precise control over particular movements. Children get tired quickly, but they are soon willing to move again. Monotonous movements are especially tiring for them.
Attention of children at primary school age is still not stable. Children are often distracted by something that seems more interesting at the moment. In this regard, active games should not require long focused attention. Otherwise, children will no longer obey the rules of the game resulting in losing any interest whatsoever. It is worth remembering that the mastery of skills and abilities at this age is more effective at the level of involuntary memory than voluntary. Will and brake function are underdeveloped. It is difficult for children to listen to the explanation of the game attentively, and without having finished listening to the explanation of the game, they often offer their services at one or another role in the game.
The mindset of children at primary school age (especially of students in 1-2 grades) is mainly figurative, substantive, but by the second year it begins to give way to thinking about the concepts of knowable objects and phenomena of reality. There appear abilities to collate and compare the observed, opportunities for better understanding of game actions, a critical attitude to the actions and deeds of fellow students. The ability to think critically and abstractly, to consciously control movements allows to get a grip on more challenging games with a lot of rules.
During the first two school years, due to pupils’ imaginative thinking, plot games that contribute to satisfaction of children’s imagination and creativity are of great importance. It is necessary to take into account that children of this age already know how to read and write, which significantly extends their horizons. During this period, games allow to develop the basics of good behavior, the ability to comply with public rules. Collective games represent basic understanding of rules and regulations. There appear games with subdivision into teams in which each member fights for the interests of his team and helps fellow members of the group. Such games teach children to act jointly, to perform a certain movement rhythm.
Children at primary school age are also fond of games, in which certain words and phrases are pronounced in chorus, i.e. the so-called recitative. Games with recitative contribute to the development of speaking skills, which still need training and education of rhythm and music abilities.
Finally, at this age children often get carried away by games in which they can show their agility, speed and accuracy of movement, coordination and precision. The content of these games is only limited by the exact fulfillment of a certain movement.
Younger students do not perform natural movements confidently enough, so outdoor games involving running, walking, jumping, climbing, throwing should take the first place in the physical education of children at this age.
Organization of sports-minute “Happy alphabet”
Natural need in motion becomes apparent mostly during the primary school age. After entering a school the academic load increases while the motional activity of grade schoolers decreases noticeably, many children suffer from hypodynamia. Insufficient physical activity has a negative impact on the intellectual and physical development of the child and is an obstacle to the acquirement of necessary skills and abilities.
Physical education with its reach arsenal of forms and means must solve many tasks of the oncoming generation education and first of all to withstand the hypodynamia. In this regard a particular attention is paid to sanitary measures: sports-minutes and sports-pauses which must be organized for school graders throughout the school day.
The primary task of the sports-minute consists in changing of children’s position and activity, increasing motional activity, coping the tiredness accumulated during the lesson. Muscular work of sports-minute execution improves blood circulation, increases heart and respiratory rate, activates the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. All this improves attention, increases mental efficiency and has a good impact on the general child’s state. The tiredness decreases, children rest and the educational activity restarts.
The notional content of sports-minutes is of great importance for learning the studied educational material by school graders: if the exercises are given in the form of figures or tasks and are connected with the lessons content then the switch to sports-minutes from lessons and vice versa will be easily realized.
The system of playing sports-pauses “Happy alphabet” was created for mastering the knowledge of the alphabet letters and the reading skill (Iliin V.A., 2002). In this system each exercise, executed to the accompaniment of recitative from the starting position which resembles with its shape a letter, corresponds to one particular letter. As a rule, sports-pauses are held in the second third of the lesson. The moment to organize a sport-pause during the lesson is chosen by the teacher. The signal for its start is the children’s relaxation of attention. By teacher’s instructions one of the pupils opens the transoms and the casements and all the children leave their desks and stand in the gangway. The teacher hangs at the blackboard the list with a picture. On the list there are block and uppercase symbols of the letter studied on the lesson (vowels – red color, consonants – blue color). In the centre of the list there is a picture of the starting position which children should take before the exercise execution. In the bottom of the list there is an order of positions which children take on each count of the exercise execution accompanied with a written in verse recitative. On the other side of the list there is an exercise description and some variants of verses to avoid the frequent repetition of the same text.
After the teacher’s command “Take the starting position!” children take the starting position. After the next teacher’s command “Start the exercise” children start to execute the exercise. On each exercise count there must be one word from the verse.
Having repeated the exercise 2 or 3 times with the verse pronunciation children take their places.
The teacher can execute the playing exercises together with his class or can ask a specially prepared pupil to execute the exercise in front of the class. As soon as the children have studied some letters they may be given another task: they must create some syllables or words while taking starting positions which resemble the studied letters.
The execution of these playing exercises is recommended not only during the sports-pauses on the lesson or during the homework doing but also on the PE lesson. This playing form will help children to study better the educational material which will have a positive impact on the school graders’ attitude to studies and school.
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