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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2019.80.2.013

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Ажиев А. Б. РАСПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ РОДСВЕННЫХ КУЛЬТУРНЫМ ДИКИХ РАСТЕНИЙ В ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИ ВАЖНЫЕ ГРУППЫ В РЕСПУБЛИКЕ КАРАКАЛПАКСТАН / А. Б. Ажиев, О. Х. Хожиматов, Г. П. Алменова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2019. — № 2 (80). — С. 74—77. — URL: https://research-journal.org/biology/distribution-of-crop-wild-relatives-plants-into-economically-important-groups-in-the-republic-of-karakalpakstan/ (дата обращения: 20.06.2019. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2019.80.2.013
Ажиев А. Б. РАСПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ РОДСВЕННЫХ КУЛЬТУРНЫМ ДИКИХ РАСТЕНИЙ В ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИ ВАЖНЫЕ ГРУППЫ В РЕСПУБЛИКЕ КАРАКАЛПАКСТАН / А. Б. Ажиев, О. Х. Хожиматов, Г. П. Алменова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2019. — № 2 (80). — С. 74—77. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2019.80.2.013

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РАСПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ РОДСВЕННЫХ КУЛЬТУРНЫМ ДИКИХ РАСТЕНИЙ В ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИ ВАЖНЫЕ ГРУППЫ В РЕСПУБЛИКЕ КАРАКАЛПАКСТАН

РАСПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ РОДСВЕННЫХ КУЛЬТУРНЫМ ДИКИХ РАСТЕНИЙ В ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИ ВАЖНЫЕ ГРУППЫ В РЕСПУБЛИКЕ КАРАКАЛПАКСТАН

Научная статья

Ажиев А.Б.1, *, Хожиматов О.Х.2, Алменова Г.П.3

   1 ORCID: 0000-0002-0017-7733;

3 ORCID: 0000-0002-7216-285;

1 Нукусский государственный педагогический институт им. Ажинияза, Нукус, Каракалпакстан;

2 Доктор биологических наук, заведующий лабораторией растительных ресурсов Академии наук Республики Узбекистан, Ташкент, Узбекистан

* Корреспондирующий автор (alishiev[at]mail.ru)

Аннотация

Обоснование: Виды родственных культурным диких растений используются человеком не в одинаковой мере, их экономическая значимость различна. Большая часть представлена широко распространенными кормами, популяции которых введены в одинаково стабилизированные условия. Однако ряд видов относится к разным категориям редкости и уязвимости, т. е. они нуждаются в защите. Определенная часть этих видов имеет высокий приоритет в процессе селекции, но есть такие, которые также нуждаются в немедленных защитных мерах как значительная часть источника ингредиентов для корма.

Результаты. Анализ состава высших сосудистых растений в пределах Республики Каракалпакстан показал, что здесь есть 24 семейства, 85 сортов и 128 видов родственных культурным диких растений, также выявлено наличие как минимум 6 ценных групп различных культурных растений. Из них: 102-кормовые, 43-пищевые, 31-медоносные, 54-лекарственные и 33-технические виды растений.

Доступность: результаты исследований позволят глубже проанализировать составы родственных культурным диких растений Республики Каракалпакстан. Данные могут использоваться при составлении классификаторов, при чтении лекций и проведении практических занятий в вузах, колледжах, лицеях.

Ключевые слова: родственные культурным дикие растения, флора, экономически ценные виды растений, экологические характеристики.

DISTRIBUTION OF CROP WILD RELATIVES PLANTS INTO ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT GROUPS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KARAKALPAKSTAN

Research article

Ajiyev A.B.1, *, Khozhimatov O.Kh.2, Almenova G.P.3

   1 ORCID: 0000-0002-0017-7733;

3 ORCID: 0000-0002-7216-285;

1 Nukus State Pedagogical Institute named after Ajiniyaz, Nukus, Karakalpakstan;

2 Doctor of science, the head of laboratory of the vegetative resources of an Academy of Sciences of the Republic Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

* Corresponding author (alishiev[at]mail.ru)

Abstract

Motivation: Species of Crop wild relatives plants  are not the same by the degree of usage by human and economic importance. The major part is represented by broadly spread forages, populations of which are introduced equally stabilized conditions. However a number of species belong to various categories of rarity and vulnerability i.e need protection. A definite part of these species in a high priority in selection process, but which also need immediate protective measures as great part of ingredient source of podder resources.

Results: The analysis of composition of higher vascular plants are found within the limits of the Republic of Karakalpakstan the compendium of crop wild relatives plants consist of 24-families, 85-sorts and 128-species, and educed a presence at least 6 different economic-valuable groups of these species. From them: 102-forage, 43-food, 31-melliferous, 54-medicinal and 33-technical species of plants.

Availability: The results of researches will enable more deeply to analyze structures of crop wild relatives cultural plants of the Republic of Karakalpakstan. The data can be used at drawing up of qualifiers, at reading lectures and realizations of practical classes in high schools, colleges, Lyceums.

Keywords: Wild relatives of cultivated plants, flora, economically valuable plant species, ecological characteristics

Introduction

The course adopted by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan on the intensification of the agricultural industry and realization of the food programme of Uzbekistan obligate the agricultural science widely involve into use. In its turn this concerns forages equaled to cultural forage crops having an invaluable significance in selecting cultural forages. Because the success of selectioners in the investigation of best sorts of agricultural crops based on the great possibility of choosing a broad material from wild-growing species of flora and firstly, from the account of wild-growing species of cultural crops.

Our country possesses innumerable resources of wealth and many of them are the real natural materials for crops selectioners. Investing the new sorts, selectioners more often approach to wild-growing plants of either species [1].

Species of Crop wild relatives plants (CWRP) are not the same by the degree of usage by human and economic importance. The major part is represented by broadly spread forages, populations of which are introduced equally stabilized conditions. However a number of species belong to various categories of rarity and vulnerability i.e need protection. A definite part of these species in a high priority in selection process, but which also need immediate protective measures as great part of ingredient source of podder resources [2], [3], [4].

In order to preserve the gene fund of rare forages it is firstly needed to completely or partially limit their forage and sale. There should be conducted expeditionary collections of germoplasma, measures on a regeneration and reintroduction. In this concern, wild subspecies of cultural plants should be simply saved for growing and multiplying the conditions of exsitu, including in botanical gardens and only if it is necessary to organize special reserves [5].

Within the limits of The Republic of Karakalpakstan there it can be distinguished 4 different districts on totality of environmental conditions (on relief, geological structure, irrigation, climate, soil and vegetation) and modern economic use: lower Reaches of Amudarya, Karakalpak Kizilkum and Karakalpak Ustyurt and Aralkums.

Methods

The generally accepted methodologies of geobotanical and ecological researches were used in research works.

A vegetable cover is studied by geobotanical, rout-field and by semioportable and stationary methods.The life form was determined on the methods of overwintering buds of renewal.

Results

The Flora of the Republic of Karakalpakstan counts about 1100 types of the high by growing plants related to 467 sorts and 97 families. From them 137 kinds from 93 sorts and 39 families belong to the cultural plants. Wholly cultural plants make 12.4 % of all flora.  Only cultural plants are added to composition of flora of Karakalpakstan by 15 families and 74 sorts [6].

Actually to the kinds of aborigines 968 kinds are attributed from 387 sorts and 82 families.

Thus it should be noted that relief of the examined territory is unhomogeneous enough. So, in Karakalpakstan the next basic types of landscapes are distinguished: the desert, tugays, river-delta zone, plateau, spoil sublimities, chinks, internal-drainage hollows, sands and seashore plains [7]. Every type of landscape differs in the structure of vegetable cover and specific set of biotopes.

The preliminary analysis of ecological coincidence of economic-valuable plants showed that places of their dense concentration are in the river-delta zone of lower reaches of Amudarya.

Perceptible difference of specific composition of flora of the different territories of Karakalpakstan, must be reflected and in the horticultural districting. The chart of the horticultural districting of Karakalpakstan, being the next stage in the study of specific variety of Karakalpakstan, envisages more detailed consideration of features of composition of flora of different regions of the Republic of Karakalpakstan.

Taking into account insignificance from one side, and with other the specificity of specific composition of the deserted flora of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, knowledge about the use of useful internals of plants presents particular interest [8].

11-04-2019 09-58-48

Fig. 1 – Distribution of crop wild relatives plants into economically important groups in the republic of Karakalpakstan

 

The analysis of composition of higher vascular plants are found within the limits of the Republic of Karakalpakstan the compendium of relatives of wild crop relatives plants consist of 24-families, 85-sorts and 128-species, and educed a presence at least 6 different economic-valuable groups of these species. From them: 102-forage, 43-food, 31-melliferous, 54-medicinal and 33-technical species of plants (pic. 1) [9].

The group of wild crop relative plants counting 102 species turned to be the most numerous one. Thus the most number of forage plants belonging to the family of Chenopodiaceae are presented by 22 species. Another 21 species are represent the family of Poaceae and 14 species – the family of Fabaceae. The family of Polygonaceae follows from 11, Asteraceae with 10 species and Brassicaceae with 6 species of the plants eaten up by cattle and other animals.

The next group on the amount of species are technical plants the share of which consists of 33 species. The plants taken in this category are distributed within the next families: Polygonaceae including 6 species, Salicaceae including 5 species, Chenopodiaceae including 4 species. It should be noted that the use of majority of them is related to the presence of tannic and colorific substances.

A bit less species are contained in the group of decorative plants besides, a part of which is also melliferous. It is made by 31 species, part from that offered directly by the authors of the article.

The group of medical plants is introduced by 54 -species, from which 6 -species are the representatives of the family of Fabaceae, per 5-species are from Asteraceae and Chenopodiaceae and per 4-species in the families of Brassicaceae, Poaceae, Polygonaceae and Rosaceae.

Food plants include 43- species and have a wide spectrum of distribution on groups. Besides the representatives of Brassicaceae (7 kinds), Apiaceae (5), Poaceae and Rosaceae (4), Alliaceae, Asteraceae, Capparaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Fabaceae and Solonaceae (2), and other families contain per each species.

Regarding to distinguishing families, then on the account of economic-valuable species they were distributed as follows: Chenopodiaceae – 22 further Poaceae – 21, Fabaceae – 14 Brassicaceae – 11 and Polygonaceae include 10 species. The family of Asteraceae is presented by 8 sorts and 9 species.

The analysis of distribution of economic-valuable species showed by their life form, that overwhelming majority of them are grassy plants. Arboreal plants: trees, bushes and dwarf semi shrubs are presented very insignificantly [10].

Discussion and Conclusion

It is necessary to notice that the enumerated figures on the composition of CWRP of flora of Karakalpakstan are not final yet. The further detailed study of flora of separate districts of certain territories, undoubtedly, must result in clarification of the number of sorts and types of flora of the republic, having an economic value [11].

The results of researches will enable more deeply to analyze structures of crop wild relatives cultural plants of the Republic of Karakalpakstan. The data can be used at drawing up of qualifiers, at reading lectures and realizations of practical classes in high schools, colleges, Lyceums. 

Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

Список литературы / References

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  2. Жуковский П. М. Культурные растения и их сородичи / П. М. Жуковский. — Л.: Наука, 1969. – 564 с.
  3. Никитин В. В. Дикие сородичи культурных растений и их распространение на территории СССР (конспект) / В. В.Никитин, О. Н. Бондаренко. — Л., 1975. – С. 15-18.
  4. Брежнев Д. Д. Дикие сородичи культурных растений флоры СССР / Д. Д.Брежнев, О. Н. Коровина. — Л.: Колос, 1981. –С. 28-35.
  5. Смекалова Т. Н. Стратегия сохранения диких сородичей культурных растений на территории России / Т. Н. Смекалова, И. Г. Чухина // Ботанические исследования в азиатской России: Материалы XI съезда Русского ботанического общества. — Барнаул, 2003. — С. 118-119.
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  8. Ережепов С. Е. Флора Каракалпакии, ее хозяйственная характеристика, использование и охрана / С. Е. Ережепов. – Ташкент. Фан. 1978. – 296 с.
  9. Ажиев А. Б. К изучению видового состава диких сородичей культурных растений Каракалпакстана и Хорезма / Алишер Бахтыбаевич Ажиев // Вестник науки и образования. 2016. №9 (21). –С. 24-28. DOI: 10.20861/2312-8089-2016-21-001.
  10. Ажиев А. Б. Анализ распределения хозяйственно-ценных видов дикорастущих сородичей культурных растений республики Каракалпакстан / А. Б. Ажиев, Д. Б. Баходирова, Г. А. Назарбаева // Проблемы современной науки и образования. 2017. № 6 (88). –С. 14-16. DOI: 10.20861 / 2304-2338-2017-88. Impact factor RISC: 2.13. -С.14-16.
  11. Ажиев А. Б. Распределение дикорастущих сородичей культурных растений Республики Каракалпакстан по хозяйственно-ценным группам Каракалпакстан / А. Б. Ажиев, Д. Б. Баходирова, Г. А. Назарбаева // Научный медицинский вестник, 2016. N4(6). –С. 51-58.

Список литературы на английском/ References in English

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  2. Zhukovsky P. M. Kul’turnyye rasteniya i ikh sorodichi [Cultivated plants and Their Relatives] / P. M. Zhukovsky. – L.: Science, 1969. – 564 p. [in Russian]
  3. Nikitin V.V. Dikiye sorodichi kul’turnykh rasteniy i ikh rasprostraneniye na territorii SSSR [Wild Relatives of Cultivated Plants and Their Distribution on Territory of USSR (abstract)] / V.V. Nikitin, O.N. Bondarenko. – L., 1975. – p. 15-18. [in Russian]
  4. Brezhnev D. D. Dikiye sorodichi kul’turnykh rasteniy flory SSSR [Wild Relatives of Cultivated Plants of Flora in USSR] / D. D. Brezhnev, O. N. Korovina. – L.: Kolos, 1981. – P. 28-35. [in Russian]
  5. Smekalova T. N. Strategiya sokhraneniya dikikh sorodichey kul’turnykh rasteniy na territorii Rossii [Strategy of Conservation of Wild Relatives of Cultivated Plants in Russia] / T.N. Smekalova, I. G. Chukhina // Botanicheskiye issledovaniya v aziatskoy Rossii: Materialy XI s”yezda Russkogo botanicheskogo obshchestva [Botanical studies in Asian Russia: Proceedings of the XI Congress of the Russian Botanical Society] – Barnaul, 2003. – p. 118-119. [in Russian]
  6. Sherbaev B. Sh. Flora i rastitel’nost’ Karakalpakii [Flora and Vegetation of Karakalpakstan] / B. Sh. Sherbaev. Nukus Karakalpakstan. 1988. – 297 p. [in Russian]
  7. Umarov E., Dauletova K. Prirody i khozyaystvo Karakalpakskoy ASSR [Nature and Economy of Karakalpak ASSR] / E. Umarov, K. Dauletova. – Nukus. Karakalpakstan. 1989. – P.18-28. [In Russian]
  8. Yerezhepov S. E. Flora Karakalpakii, yeye khozyaystvennaya kharakteristika, ispol’zovaniye i okhrana [Flora of Karakalpakia, Its Economic Characteristics, Use and Protection] / S. E. Yerezhepov. – Tashkent. Fan 1978. – 296 p. [in Russian]
  9. Azhiev A. B. K izucheniyu vidovogo sostava dikikh sorodichey kul’turnykh rasteniy Karakalpakstana i Khorezma [To Study of Species Composition of Wild Relatives of Cultivated Plants of Karakalpakstan and Khorezm] / Alisher Bahtybaevich Azhiev // Vestnik nauki i obrazovaniya. 2016. №9 (21) [Bulletin of Science and Education. 2016. No. 9 (21)]. – P. 24-28. DOI: 10.20861 / 2312-8089-2016-21-001. [in Russian]
  10. Azhiev A. B. Analiz raspredeleniya khozyaystvenno-tsennykh vidov dikorastushchikh sorodichey kul’turnykh rasteniy respubliki Karakalpakstan [Analysis of Distribution of Economically Valuable Species of Wild Relatives of Cultivated Plants of Republic of Karakalpakstan] / A. B. Azhiev, D. B. Bakhodirova, G. A. Nazarbayeva // Problemy sovremennoy nauki i obrazovaniya [Problems of Modern Science and Education. 2017. No. 6 (88).] – P. 14-16. DOI: 10.20861 / 2304-2338-2017-88. Impact factor RISC: 2.13. – P.14-16. [in Russian]
  11. Azhiev A. B. Raspredeleniye dikorastushchikh sorodichey kul’turnykh rasteniy Respubliki Karakalpakstan po khozyaystvenno-tsennym gruppam Karakalpakstan [Distribution of Wild-Growing Relatives of Cultivated Plants of the Republic of Karakalpakstan by Economically Valuable Groups of Karakalpakstan] / A. B. Azhiev, D. B. Bahodirova, G. A. Nazarbaeva // Nauchnyy meditsinskiy vestnik [Scientific Medical Journal], 2016. N4 (6). – P. 51-58. [in Russian]

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