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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2021.108.6.088

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Осташкова О. Е. CАМОРЕАЛИЗАЦИЯ В ПОНИМАНИИ ПОЛЬЗОВАТЕЛЕЙ INSTAGRAM / О. Е. Осташкова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2021. — № 6 (108) Часть 3. — С. 157—160. — URL: https://research-journal.org/psycology/camorealizaciya-v-ponimanii-polzovatelej-instagram/ (дата обращения: 18.09.2021. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2021.108.6.088
Осташкова О. Е. CАМОРЕАЛИЗАЦИЯ В ПОНИМАНИИ ПОЛЬЗОВАТЕЛЕЙ INSTAGRAM / О. Е. Осташкова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2021. — № 6 (108) Часть 3. — С. 157—160. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2021.108.6.088

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CАМОРЕАЛИЗАЦИЯ В ПОНИМАНИИ ПОЛЬЗОВАТЕЛЕЙ INSTAGRAM

CАМОРЕАЛИЗАЦИЯ В ПОНИМАНИИ ПОЛЬЗОВАТЕЛЕЙ INSTAGRAM

Научная статья

Осташкова О.Е.*

ORCID: 0000-0002-2147-1237,

Донской государственный технический университет, Ростов-на-Дону, Россия

* Корреспондирующий автор (olga.ostashkova.94[at]mail.ru)

Аннотация

В исследовании был применен тематический анализ для изучения постов в Instagram (N=1000), отмеченных хэштегом «#самореализация» и «#selfrealization», опубликованных русскоязычными и англоязычными пользователями в мае 2021 года.

В ходе исследования было обнаружено шесть основных тем публикаций, отмеченных хэштегом «#самореализация»: цитаты, личные публикации, рекомендации, профессиональные публикации, духовные практики, спорт и творчество.

Большая часть русскоязычных публикаций, отмеченных хэштегом «#самореализация» были опубликованы психологами и коучами, которые рассматривают самореализацию с научной точки зрения. Большая часть англоязычных публикаций, отмеченных хэштегом «самореализация» были опубликованы учителями йоги и духовными наставниками, которые рассматривают самореализацию с духовной точки зрения.

Проведенное исследование вносит свой вклад в изучение повседневных знаний, демонстрируя формирование представления о самореализации в Instagram.

Ключевые слова: самореализация, Instagram, социальные сети.

SELF-REALIZATION AS INTERPRETED BY USERS INSTAGRAM

Research article

Ostashkova O.Е.*

ORCID: 0000-0002-2147-1237,

Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

* Corresponding author (olga.ostashkova.94[at]mail.ru)

Abstract

In this research, a thematic analysis was used to study Instagram posts (N = 1000) marked with the hashtag “#selfrealization”, published by Russian-speaking and English-speaking users in May 2021.

I found six main topics of publications marked with the hashtag “#selfrealization”: excerpt, personal publications, recommendations, professional publications, spiritual practices, sports and creativity.

Psychologists and coaches who consider self-realization from a scientific point of view have published most of the Russian-language publications marked with the hashtag “self-realization”. Yoga teachers and spirit guides looking at self-realization from a spiritual perspective have published most of the English-language posts tagged with the hashtag “self-realization”.

This research contributes to the study of everyday knowledge, demonstrating how Instagram users form ideas about self-realization.

Keywords: self-realization, Instagram, social network, social media

Introduction

In the era of social networks and unlimited opportunities, the importance of self-realization in human life is growing. The individual is striving for the status of an expert and recognition in the community is the reason for the search for modern forms and methods of realizing the potential. With the advent of new remote activities, the transformation and expansion of the concept of self-realization takes place.

Representatives of different psychological schools have studied the self-realization of a person; however, today there is no single concept of self-realization. The methodological side of the problem of studying the self-realization of an individual consists in the lack of certainty of this concept [1]. Self-realization is a complex process, in the study of which it is necessary to consider different points of view in order to get the most complete picture of how the development of individuality occurs.

As a psycho-social being, man succeeds in getting to know himself and others, to build an ideal of life only by interacting with others and only by reference to the social-moral values specific to the historical times in which he/she lives [2].

Since in empirical studies of self-realization, scientists mainly used methods of research of self-actualization [15], methods of projective research and questionnaires [14], there is currently no information on how people understand this topic and what they say about it in everyday life.

In modern society, direct verbal communication and the media are no longer the only contexts in which social knowledge is constructed. The interactions created by social media can also convey meanings associated with socially significant concepts. In particular, a social media platform like Instagram is one of the most important platforms on which users create and reproduce social concepts [3].

Instagram is one of the most used social networks, especially among young people, 59% of people on this platform are between the ages of 18 and 29 [4], [5], [6].

The use of Instagram is due to four motives that can lead to addiction: the need for recognition, information needs, social needs and needs for entertainment [9], [10]. The advantages of using Instagram are pastime, self-expression and entertainment [12]. Sheldon and Bryant determined that Instagram users pay more attention to self-promotion and self-identification [11].

Thus, we can view posts on Instagram as a contribution to social discussion that creates, disseminates and reflects social concepts of self-realization.

Aim of the study

In this study, I used user-generated material from Russian Instagram users and English-speaking Instagram users to analyze how users think about self-realization in the context of social media.

The aim of this study is to explore the combination of visual and textual content of Instagram posts in building an everyday understanding of self-realization in digital communication.

Methods

The research material consisted of photographs (N = 1000 – “self-realization” in English and in Russian), and related hashtags and text posted by users in May 2021. For the study, I selected posts with the hashtag “self-realization” in Russian (#самореализация), as well as with the hashtag “selfrealization” in English. A hashtag is a keyword or phrase used to structure information on social media.

At the moment of analyzing, there have been posted to the Instagram: 442 thousand photos with the hashtag “self-realization” on Russian by Russian-speaking users, 562 thousand photos with the hashtag “self-realization” on English.

For the study, I used only publicly available publications.

I employed thematic analysis as the principal method of investigation.

The analytical procedure consisted of six stages. The first stage consisted in viewing the analyzed posts under the hashtag #self-realization in Russian and English. The second stage was source code generation for posts in Russian and for posts in English. The collected materials formed separate groups that reflected the topics of the posts (for example, “excerpt”, “motivational videos”). The third stage consisted of comparing the source codes of the Russian-language user posts and the English-language user posts. The fourth stage was the description and interpretation of the results of the investigation.

Results

Thematic analysis determined that posts in Russian marked with the hashtag #self-actualization includes four distinguishable common themes: excerpt, professional publications, personal publications, and recommendations.

While the posts in English marked with the hashtag #selfrealization included the following four general themes: excerpt, spiritual practices, personal publications, sports and creativity. The results of the thematic analysis I presented in Table 1.

 

Table 1 – Themes of posts on Instagram containing the hashtag “self-realization”

Topics of Russian-language Instagram posts % Topics of English-language Instagram posts %
Excerpt 19 Excerpt 26
Recommendations 2 Spiritual practices 57
Professional publications 67 Sports, Creativity 8
Personal publications 12 Personal publications 9

 

Excerpt

This topic turned out to be of interest to both Russian-speaking Instagram users (19% of all analyzed Russian-language posts) and English-speaking Instagram users (26% of all analyzed English-language posts).

This topic included photographs in which a motivational text users written, which was a quote from a book, a quote from a phrase of a successful person, affirmations, etc. Instagram users publish such posts to inspire themselves and those around them. The quotes call for action.

Recommendations

The published posts on this topic (2% of all analyzed Russian-language posts) carried information about motivational books, films, articles that Russian-speaking Instagram users wanted to share with their subscribers.

Professional publications

This topic featured posts by Russian-speaking Instagram users (67% of all analyzed Russian-speaking posts), who identify themselves as such professions as psychologist, coach, numerologist, astrologer. Users of these professions maintain their expert accounts and publish posts that may interest their audience. A large number of publications on this topic is due to the high demand for consultations from psychologists, coaches, numerologists and astrologers. By the problems reflected in the publications, one can judge the topics that are of interest to Instagram users. The largest number of publications covers topics such as personal boundaries, depreciation, anxiety, emotions, how to choose a coach.

Personal publications

In this thread, Russian-speaking and English-speaking Instagram users posted thoughts under their photos. Users with positive photographs presented all visual images and shared their positive emotions.

Spiritual practices

The largest number of posts (57% of all analyzed English-language posts) were devoted to spiritual practices. The most frequently encountered topics related to Hinduism, yoga, meditation. Spiritual practices contribute to a better understanding of oneself, one’s life goals and ways of self-realization.

Sports, creativity

Sports and creativity made up a small part of posts devoted to self-realization (8% of all analyzed English-language posts). Sports and creativity are two large areas that contribute to self-realization.

Conclusion

In this study, I tried to answer the following questions: What are the main topics of posts on Instagram marked with the hashtag “self-realization”? Are there any significant differences between the topics of posts of Russian-speaking and English-speaking Instagram users?

Thematic analysis revealed four main themes marked with the hashtag “self-realization” among Russian-speaking Instagram users (quotes, recommendations, professional publications, personal publications), and four main themes among English-speaking Instagram users (quotes, spiritual practices, sports and creativity, personal publications).

As for the first question of the research, the analysis showed that psychologists and coaches whose activities involve helping to unlock the potential of a person published most of the Russian-language posts marked with the hashtag “self-realization”. In their publications, they raised such topics as: personal boundaries, depreciation, anxiety, emotions, and how to choose a coach.

Most of the English-speaking Instagram users related to the topic of spiritual practices. In similar posts, English-speaking users wrote about yoga classes, yoga poses, meditations, and the truths described in Hinduism. Spiritual practices contribute to a better understanding of oneself, one’s life goals and ways of self-realization.

A considerable part of the publications related to personal publications both among Russian-speaking users and among English-speaking Instagram users. The subjects of the texts under the photographs were different: fears, self-esteem, cautionary stories from life, relationships. The variety of spheres of self-realization in publications once again indicated that such a phenomenon could not have a single definition, because everyone illuminates self-realization through the prism of his life experience. In the published texts on the topic of “personal photos”, Instagram users talked about changes in their lives or called for changes in the lives of others. Thus, self-realization for Instagram users personifies the movement and willingness of a person to change their usual way of life.

Psychologists and coaches who consider self-realization from a scientific point of view have published most of the Russian-language publications marked with the hashtag “self-realization”. Yoga teachers and spirit guides looking at self-realization from a spiritual perspective have published most of the English-language posts tagged with the hashtag “self-realization”.

Limitations and Future Directions

This study has two main limitations. First, the study is based on data obtained from the study of publications of Russian-speaking and English-speaking Instagram users. In order to determine how Instagram users in other contexts present self-realization, a cross-cultural comparison is required.

Secondly, Instagram is one of many image-based platforms. A similar study can be replicated on other media platforms.

Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

Список литературы / References

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  2. Rusu M. The Process of Self-Realization – From the Humanist Psychology Perspective / M. Rusu // Psychology. – 2019. – Vol. 10(08). DOI: 10.4236/psych.2019.108071
  3. De Paola J. #Happy: Constructing and Sharing Everyday Understandings of Happiness on Instagram / J. De Paola, E.J. Hakoköngäs, J.J. Hakanen // Human Arenas. – 2020. DOI: 10.1007/s42087-020-00149-z
  4. Kircaburun K. Analyzing the Links Between Problematic Social Media Use, Dark Triad Traits, and Self-esteem / K. Kircaburun, Z. Demetrovics, Ş.B. Tosuntaş // Int J Ment Health Addiction. – 2019. – Vol. 17. – P. 1496-1507. DOI: 10.1007/s11469-018-9900-1
  5. Ponnusamy S. Drivers and outcomes of Instagram addiction: Psychological well-being as moderator. Computers in Human Behavior / S. Ponnusamy, M. Iranmanesh, B. Foroughi et al. // Computers in Human Behavior. – 2020. – Vol. 107. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2020.106294
  6. Alhabash S. A tale of four platforms: Motivations and uses of Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat among college students? / S. Alhabash, M. Ma // Social Media+ Society. – 2017. – Vol. 3(1). – P. 1-13.
  7. Vannucci A. Social Media Use Subgroups Differentially Predict Psychosocial Well-Being During Early Adolescence / A. Vannucci, C. Ohannessian // J Youth Adolescence. – 2019. – Vol. 48, – P. 1469–1493. DOI: 10.1007/s10964-019-01060-9
  8. Lee E. Pictures speak louder than words: Motivations for using Instagram / E. Lee, J.-A. Lee, J.H. Moon et al. // Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking. – 2015. – Vol. 18(9). – P. 552-556.
  9. Papacharissi Z. Toward a new(er) sociability: Uses, gratification and social capital on Facebook. In: Papathanassopoulos, S. (ed.) / Z. Papacharissi, A. Mendelson // Media Perspectives for the 21st Century. – 2011. – P. 212-230.
  10. Raacke J. MySpace and Facebook: Applying the uses and gratifications theory to exploring friend-networking sites / J. Raacke, J. Bonds-Raacke // Cyberpsychology & Behavior. – 2008. – Vol. 11(2). – P. 169-174.
  11. Sheldon P. Instagram: Motives for its use and relationship to narcissism and contextual age / P. Sheldon, K. Bryant // Computers in Human Behavior. – 2016. – Vol. 58. – P. 89-97.
  12. Kırcaburun K. Problematic Instagram use: The role of perceived feeling of presence and escapism / K. Kırcaburun, M. D. Griffiths // International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. – 2019. – Vol. 17(4). – P. 909-921.
  13. Foroughi B. Associations Between Instagram Addiction, Academic Performance, Social Anxiety, Depression, and Life Satisfaction Among University Students / B. Foroughi, M.D. Griffiths, M. Iranmanesh // Int J Ment Health Addiction. – 2020. DOI: 10.1007/s11469-021-00510-5
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Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

  1. Kudinov S. I. Samorealizacija kak sistemnoe psihologicheskoe obrazovanie [Self-realization as a systemic psychological education] [Electronic resource] / S. I. Kudinov // RELGA. – 2007. – N 5(383). – URL: https://clck.ru/VVW5X (accessed: 5.05.2021). [in Russian]
  2. Rusu M. The Process of Self-Realization – From the Humanist Psychology Perspective / M. Rusu // Psychology. – 2019. – Vol. 10(08). DOI: 10.4236/psych.2019.108071
  3. De Paola J. #Happy: Constructing and Sharing Everyday Understandings of Happiness on Instagram / J. De Paola, E.J. Hakoköngäs, J.J. Hakanen // Human Arenas. – 2020. DOI: 10.1007/s42087-020-00149-z
  4. Kircaburun K. Analyzing the Links Between Problematic Social Media Use, Dark Triad Traits, and Self-esteem / K. Kircaburun, Z. Demetrovics, Ş.B. Tosuntaş // Int J Ment Health Addiction. – 2019. – Vol. 17. – P. 1496-1507. DOI: 10.1007/s11469-018-9900-1
  5. Ponnusamy S. Drivers and outcomes of Instagram addiction: Psychological well-being as moderator. Computers in Human Behavior / S. Ponnusamy, M. Iranmanesh, B. Foroughi et al. // Computers in Human Behavior. – 2020. – Vol. 107. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2020.106294
  6. Alhabash S. A tale of four platforms: Motivations and uses of Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat among college students? / S. Alhabash, M. Ma // Social Media+ Society. – 2017. – Vol. 3(1). – P. 1-13.
  7. Vannucci A. Social Media Use Subgroups Differentially Predict Psychosocial Well-Being During Early Adolescence / A. Vannucci, C. Ohannessian // J Youth Adolescence. – 2019. – Vol. 48, – P. 1469–1493. DOI: 10.1007/s10964-019-01060-9
  8. Lee E. Pictures speak louder than words: Motivations for using Instagram / E. Lee, J.-A. Lee, J.H. Moon et al. // Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking. – 2015. – Vol. 18(9). – P. 552-556.
  9. Papacharissi Z. Toward a new(er) sociability: Uses, gratification and social capital on Facebook. In: Papathanassopoulos, S. (ed.) / Z. Papacharissi, A. Mendelson // Media Perspectives for the 21st Century. – 2011. – P. 212-230.
  10. Raacke J. MySpace and Facebook: Applying the uses and gratifications theory to exploring friend-networking sites / J. Raacke, J. Bonds-Raacke // Cyberpsychology & Behavior. – 2008. – Vol. 11(2). – P. 169-174.
  11. Sheldon P. Instagram: Motives for its use and relationship to narcissism and contextual age / P. Sheldon, K. Bryant // Computers in Human Behavior. – 2016. – Vol. 58. – P. 89-97.
  12. Kırcaburun K. Problematic Instagram use: The role of perceived feeling of presence and escapism / K. Kırcaburun, M. D. Griffiths // International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. – 2019. – Vol. 17(4). – P. 909-921.
  13. Foroughi B. Associations Between Instagram Addiction, Academic Performance, Social Anxiety, Depression, and Life Satisfaction Among University Students / B. Foroughi, M.D. Griffiths, M. Iranmanesh // Int J Ment Health Addiction. – 2020. DOI: 10.1007/s11469-021-00510-5
  14. Krushel’nickaja O. I. Samorealizacija v ponimanii rossijskih studentov [Self-realization as interpreted by Russian students] / O. I. Krushel’nickaja, M.V. Polevaja // Lichnost’ v menjajushhemsja mire: zdorov’e, adaptacija, razvitie. – 2020. N 1. [Electronic resource]. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/samorealizatsiya-v-ponimanii-rossiyskih-studentov (accessed: 10.05.2021). [in Russian]
  15. Kulagina I. V. Issledovanie osobennostej samorealizacii lichnosti v srednem vozraste [Study of the characteristics of personality self-realization in middle age] / I.V. Kulagina // Koncept. – 2020. N 3. [Electronic resource]. URL: https://clck.ru/VVWCG (accessed: 10.05.2021). [in Russian]

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