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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2019.84.6.034

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Таранов И. Н. НОВЫЕ РОЛИ ЛИДЕРОВ В УПРАВЛЕНИИ СОВРЕМЕННЫМИ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯМИ / И. Н. Таранов // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2019. — № 6 (84) Часть 2. — С. 40—42. — URL: https://research-journal.org/philosophy/new-roles-of-leaders-in-managing-modern-organizations/ (дата обращения: 19.09.2019. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2019.84.6.034
Таранов И. Н. НОВЫЕ РОЛИ ЛИДЕРОВ В УПРАВЛЕНИИ СОВРЕМЕННЫМИ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯМИ / И. Н. Таранов // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2019. — № 6 (84) Часть 2. — С. 40—42. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2019.84.6.034

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НОВЫЕ РОЛИ ЛИДЕРОВ В УПРАВЛЕНИИ СОВРЕМЕННЫМИ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯМИ

НОВЫЕ РОЛИ ЛИДЕРОВ В УПРАВЛЕНИИ СОВРЕМЕННЫМИ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯМИ

Научная статья

Таранов И.Н. *

ORCID: 0000-0001-6442-7685,

Международный Университет Кыргызстана, Бишкек, Киргизия

* Корреспондирующий автор (igor-kb[at]rambler.ru)

Аннотация

В данной статье рассматриваются современные тенденции возникновения новых ролей лидеров посредством анализа результатов исследований в сфере теории организации и лидерства. В частности, предпринимается попытка определения новых ролей лидеров в управлении организационной культурой и улучшении работы подчиненных для повышения общей эффективности организации, развития навыков и мотивации.  Текущие исследования в области лидерства свидетельствуют как о сдвиге исследовательского акцента, так и о новых ожиданиях подчиненных в сторону укрепления их потенциала, повышения креативности и счастья в соответствии с новым концептом устойчивости. Обсуждение этих вопросов подчеркивает тот факт, что эффективность лидерства представляет собой важнейший фактор в управлении организационной культурой и является ключевой характеристикой современной организации.

Ключевые слова: лидерство, роли лидеров, организационная культура, эффективность организации. 

NEW ROLES OF LEADERS IN MANAGING MODERN ORGANIZATIONS

Research article

Taranov I.N. *

ORCID: 0000-0001-6442-7685,

International University of Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

* Corresponding author (igor-kb[at]rambler.ru)

Abstract

This article examines how leaders’ roles have changed in the last years by delving into the recent research on organizational studies and leadership. Specifically, an attempt is undertaken to analyze the role of leaders in managing organizational culture and improving work effectiveness of their followers to enhance overall organizational performance and facilitate skill development and motivation. Current literature on leadership provides clear evidence of both changing research focus and followers’ expectations towards transformations through building employees’ capacities, enhancing creativity, and happiness compatible with the newly emerged concept of sustainability. The discussion highlights that leadership effectiveness is a critical factor in organizational culture management and further represents the key characteristic of a modern organization.

Keywords: leadership, leaders’ roles, organizational culture, organization’s effectiveness. 

Introduction

Leadership has always been in the spotlight of organizational studies. Nowadays leadership and organizations are experiencing high change dynamics due to growing exposure to the external environment and increasing public demands and expectations ranging from good governance to sustainability. From this perspective, it is of import to identify new core competencies modern leaders must possess to attain organizational goals, meet their followers’ expectations and carry out planned changes in line with the set priorities. To do so, articles from peer-reviewed journals have been identified and analyzed.

Discussion

Based on the comprehensive literature review on leadership, Zhu et al. (2019) identified the research trends in the last two decades [1]. Research interest in leadership phenomenon has been shifting from “transformational and charismatic leadership” to team leadership and assessment of the influence of values. However, transformational leadership theme has been undeniably given a higher level of attention throughout the years. Leadership of this type is crucial in motivating followers and promoting innovative changes at the level of organization and boosting creative mindset among employees [2], [3]. Van der Voet (2014) underlines the importance of transformational leadership to implement changes in an organization [4].

Specifically, the focus of current researchers on leadership, as stated by Zhu et al. (2019), has moved from a leader toward “the led” [1]. In other words, those who follow leaders play an important part in shaping leadership style and may be more influential than it is typically expected in simple “subject-object” dualistic relationships. In this sense, explored attributes of modern leadership represent new dimensions of implementing changes within organizations and building rapport. Thus, discussion on the role of leaders cannot escape the issue of organizational change and, consequently, organizational culture.

Need for change identified by a leader is implemented, inter alia, by changing organizational culture. In view of Ke & Wei (2008), the latter represents “social glue” of shared beliefs and assumptions that in turn shape employees’ attitudes towards what they do and how they perceive the environment and organizational reality [5]. Therefore, organizational culture management aims at changing behavioral patterns in a desirable direction and their acceptance by the followers.

Culture is being more and more recognized for its input in the overall organization’s performance and human resource management. Nevertheless, organizational culture is highly influenced by the leadership factor and vice versa. Warrick (2017) points out that there is a direct correlation between cultural aspect and success a given organization can achieve and this very fact is typically neglected by leaders. Organizational culture is a crucial factor of empowerment and encouragement for the people within the organizations. The concept of leadership goes along with the “health” of organizational culture, i.e. leaders are seen as the bearers of immunity [6].

According to Warrick (2017), “strong cultures cannot be achieved without running an organization well and running an organization well requires efforts on the part of leaders in building and sustaining culture.” [6]. The study by Meng & Berger (2019) underscores that successful leadership and conducive organizational culture play a critical role in overall organizational performance. The two assets put together lead to better outcomes and higher job satisfaction within an organization [7].

Leaders’ ability to observe the desirable behavioral patterns to be supported among the staff members is vital in the motivation process and streamlining the workflow aligned with the organizational strategy and philosophy [6]. The roles of leaders within the organizations in terms of cultural management can be subdivided into the following groups:

– leader-historian-seer enjoying the profound understanding of the organization’s past, the present and the future;

– leader-diagnostician observing trends, sustaining desirable patterns, beliefs, assumptions, and values and seeking the balance between strategy and culture;

– leader-builder never losing focus on cultural dynamics and needs for changes.

This is not an exhaustive list of leaders’ traits but those are essential to call a given team member a leader. According to Văcar & Miricescu (2013), leaders of modern formation are followers-oriented and interested in their supporters’ professional growth [8]. Modern leadership paradigm has drifted from “i-am-above-you” old concept of leading people to “i-am-one-of-you” model to eliminate traditional “boss-employee” barrier that impedes creation and implementation of new ideas.

As observed by Battilana et al. (2010), leadership is built around the several major organizational factors, namely its philosophy in the form of vision and mission as well as formulated goals and tasks and followers’ existence [9]. Watts et al. (2019) underscore the leaders’ role as vision-makers and maintain that “sensemaking” represents an initial step for leaders to shape vision to carry out changes [10]. Based on the Zappo’s case, it is argued that philosophy of an organization and its culture are strongly connected and must be promoted by “committed” organizational leaders [11]. Establishment of a work environment of happiness and inspiration is supported by its key values which serve as the basic human resource management criteria. Followers’ existence implies feelings and emotions and leads to a new employee-oriented existential management. It requires certain skills such as the ability to shed light on goal statements and measures proposed to reach these goals. This typical leader’s trait must be balanced by empathy directed towards followers. It again brings up the issue of followers’ wellness and genuine inspiration.

Leadership goes hand in hand with followership. But modern-day leaders, especially political ones, interact not only with their followers but also with the rest of society and bear a higher level of social responsibility for their decisions [12]. Simply it implies the necessity to involve representative groups of stakeholders in the decision-making process. Understandably, such an approach completely changes the leadership environment and brings to the table an idea of sustainable leadership aligned with social responsibility and fairness.

In light of the aforementioned ideas, the concept of “inspirational leadership” emerges through the components of the philosophy of an organization [13]. In other words, a leader inspires followers by transmitting core values and beliefs to establish a favorable atmosphere of vigor and enthusiasm. This idea complements and broadens ethical approach pillars of building a good and fair environment within an organization. Fairness must be upheld by the motivation and this is where inspirational leaders come to the fore and set the stage for positive changes. It is important to stress that the well-being of an organization is directly interconnected with the well-being of an employee.

Conclusion

Today’s leadership broadens the usual frontiers of continuous pursuit of goals. Philosophical maxims keep penetrating modern organizational studies and theory of leadership to explore the existence of human beings, be it a leader or a follower, in an organizational environment. The field of existential management draws attention to leaders and followers as human beings having feelings, creeds, beliefs, and values and understanding their part in transforming reality. Such concepts as happiness, trust, wellness, satisfaction, belief go together with effectiveness, results, profits, reputation, etc. As a result, new emphasis has been placed on the investigation of human dimensions of leadership in teams which inevitably brings us to the human beings in the working environment rather than the staff at their work stations. Leaders give meaning to the proposed actions, shape the desired future and inoculate (inspire) each employee with it.

Transformations and development of organizations are the basic inherent traits of any leadership. Cognizant of this fact, the importance of the culture of an organization for change interventions is now recognized as a necessary tool and constant nota bene for leaders. As a matter of fact, nowadays it is evident that leadership discovers and absorbs new competencies. Clearly, vision and mission statements must be complemented by incorporating organizational culture management, supporting employees’ creative mindset, facilitating skill development and improving followers’ well-being.

It may be concluded that drive for change as an emanation of leaders’ efforts is the core of modern leadership. On a broader scale, the question of suitable leadership style to manage organizational culture can be posed. However, the constantly changing environment of an organization puts certain limitations on following one single leadership approach. In this sense, transformations should be channeled inward and to the followers proportionally. Multidimensional comprehension is required to grasp the essence of needed changes within organizations.

Taking all these into account, one can admit that leadership, followership, and culture within an organization are closely interconnected, influence and enhance each other. Thus, roles of a modern leader encompass philosophical framework, i.e. formulation and pursuit of vision, mission and values to foster trust, inspiration, and motivation in a given organization.

Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

 

Cписок литературы / References

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  3. Samad S. The Influence of Innovation and Transformational Leadership on Organizational Performance / S. Samad // Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences – 2012. – Vol. 57. – P. 486–493.
  4. Van der Voet J. The effectiveness and specificity of change management in a public organization: Transformational leadership and a bureaucratic organizational structure / J. Van der Voet // European Management Journal – 2014. – Vol. 32(3). – P. 373–382.
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  8. Văcar A. Leadership – A Key Factor to a Succesful Organization – Part II / A. Văcar, Miricescu // Procedia Economics and Finance – 2013. – Vol. 6(13). – P. 430–435.
  9. Battilana J. Leadership competencies for implementing planned organizational change / J. Battilana, M. Gilmartin, M. Sengul, A. C. Pache, A. Alexander // Leadership Quarterly – 2010. – Vol. 21(3). – P. 422–438.
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