PRINCIPLES OF INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT PROJECTS IN RUSSIA'S INNOVATION SPHERE
Аспирантка, Институт экономики РАН
ПРИНЦИПЫ ИНСТИТУЦИОНАЛЬНОЙ СТРУКТУРИЗАЦИИ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫХ ПРОЕКТОВ В ИННОВАЦИОННОЙ СФЕРЕ РОССИИ
Статья апеллирует к институциональным основам государственных проектов в инновационной сфере России. Показана их значимая роль в поддержании общенациональных приоритетов в области науки и технологий.
Ключевые слова: государство, институты, инновации.
Post graduate student, Institute of Economics Russian Academy of Sciences
PRINCIPLES OF INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT PROJECTS IN RUSSIA'S INNOVATION SPHERE
The article appeals to the institutional framework of government projects in innovation sphere of Russia. It was shown their significant role in the maintenance of national priorities in science and technology.
Keywords: government, institutions, innovation.
The development of each country goes by its own separate way. According to this condition, it can learn the experience from other countries or develop its policy of modernization and innovation, or combine both. The North`s path dependence, as the choice of yesterday, is the initial starting point of today. The structure of the institutions that shaping an economy of each separate country is unique. Obviously, there is a difficulty in a fundamental change of ways. An improvement process by which we arrive at today's institutions, limits the choice in future. The institutional structure is constructed as a set of restrictions relative to changes that in its turn makes the choice in dependence.
The history of a country is characterized by stable dominance one institutional matrix that defines the scope and limits of another matrices of complementary institutions. We find that the dominance of X or Y-matrix has an «eternal» character . According to «theory of institutional matrices» by Kirdina, X-matrix institutes dominate in Russian society. This matrix implies the construction of society from the top «based on a hierarchical centralization». Priority WE above I is fixed in countries with X-matrix. State is the main lever in coordinating system.
As we know, the supreme state power always plays a dominant role in the development of innovation sphere of Russia. Availability of the state in innovation sphere allows to create innovative public interest. Communality, following certain collecting ideas, collectivism are universally Russian national character. It needs a common center, which would indicate a single path in order to rally people together. This Center in Russia has been a State from ancient time to nowadays. During the wars, crises all the powers and resources were concentrated under the watchful eye of the state to achieve results of global significance.
Nowadays, we can also observe how the central institutions of government is a powerful integrator in the development of important strategic goals of the country. So, in 2009 Russian President D. Medvedev has identified five strategic areas of technological breakthroughs:
- Efficiency and conservation of energy, including development of new fuels;
- Nuclear technology;
- Space technology;
- Medical technology, first of all diagnostic equipment and medicines;
- Strategic information technology, including the creation of supercomputers and software development.
Bright example among the institutional arrangements initiated by the state and promote the concepts and laws to modernize the Russian economy and the transition to an innovative type of development is the Centre for the development and commercialization of new technologies «Skolkovo» and JSK «Rusnano».
Organization structure of the Russian Federation national nanonetwork (hereinafter - NN) was created in accordance to the «Concept of development of the national nanotechnology network of the Russian Federation» and the nanotechnology Development Programme in the Russian Federation until 2015. The main organization, which is developing the concept and forms its own subnet NN, structuring them in accordance to the selected major subsystems, or «centers of competence» is defined for each of the priority areas, confirmed by the government of the Russian Federation. The main role in development NN plays organizations that finance development projects, the nanotechnology industry, including GC «Nanotechnologies», Investment Fund of the Russian Federation, JSC «Russian Venture Company» .
GC «Nanotechnologies» was established in 2007. The legislative framework were 139 Federal low «About the Russian Nanotechnology Corporation» (07.19.2007), the Presidential Initiative «Development Strategy for nanotechnology» (24.04.2007) and Strategy RUSNANO 2020 (29.05.2008). Joint stock company «RUSNANO» was created through the reorganization of GC «Nanotechnologies» in March of 2011. JSC «RUSNANO» is fully government organization (100% shares owned by the state). The activities of JSC «RUSNANO» is regulated by the federal law of 27 July 2010 N 211-FZ «About reorganization of the Russian Nanotechnology Corporation». For development institutions and actors this organization provides the opportunity to participate in the NN of their investment projects, infrastructure and educational programs and access to their results. In other words, «RUSNANO» plays a role of investment fund that supports long-term projects based of peer review. Investment activity of company focuses on public financing of the initial commercialization stage, when the possibility of attracting private capital are limited due to high risks, market and technological uncertainty. JSC «RUSNANO» making efforts to attract external funding, including through international cooperation. JSC «RUSNANO» goes out from the project as soon as private capital would be willing to finance the project itself and its investment return can be carried out on pre-established conditions. A goal of JSC «RUSNANO» is also create of nanotechnology infrastructure .
The main condition for all projects is the placement of business in Russia, which fully consistent with the objectives of the current strategy of the Russian Federation in the field of science and innovation.
World becomes more interdependent than ever before due to rapid growth hi-tech. This applies as economic relations, investment, trade, finance, and social as political relations between organizations and individuals. State aware of the situation tends to facilitate promotion of Russian products on world markets. So JSC «RUSNANO» established RUSNANO USA Inc. for represent the interests of JSC «RUSNANO» and its project companies in the U.S. and Canada. The selected part of the structure can interact actively with the U.S. fund of venture and private investments, high-tech companies, universities and centers for technology transfer involved in joint projects with JSC «RUSNANO». RUSNANO USA Inc. builds a network of partners in all aspects of JSC «RUSNANO» in North America, joining forces with other Russian institutions of development, such as the Fund «Skolkovo» and JSC «Russian Venture Company».
The Innovation Center «Skolkovo» is the next state project to develop the modernization of Russian reality. It is an ultramodern scientific and technological system for the development and commercialization of new technologies.
Implementation of the project is entrusted the management company Fund «Skolkovo» (management company). In the Federal law «About the Innovation Centre «Skolkovo» management company is described as a monopolist, that decide in «Skolkovo» almost all the substantive issues. Management company in this low is neither state structure nor any commercial enterprise. Management company does not have any commercial motivation.
As it is stated in the innovation policy of the Fund, it does not plan to participate in the share capital of innovative enterprises, as well as to qualify for a share of the profits. Participating companies have all rights of intellectual property.
Federal Law «About the Innovation Centre «Skolkovo» identified five areas of research in this project repeating the directions of technological breakthrough announced by Russian President D. Medvedev in 2009.
Presentation of high-tech products of Russian companies on foreign markets, creating an international system of technology transfer, training of qualified specialists for project companies and research centers, as well as development and implementation of infrastructure projects with foreign participation allow the country to gradually move towards modernization economic.
Analyzing the current situation of the Russian economy, we can conclude that with increasing scale research and innovation sphere, its fateful implications for social and economic prospects, only the state afford to change national priorities in science and technology. Russian society will be able to focus resources and efforts to overcome the fuel and raw material export-oriented economy and move to an innovation economy based on knowledge only to rally together under the common goal and under common Centre.