THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY IN LANGUAGE
THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY IN LANGUAGE
The article reveals the role of medical terminology in the language. Medical terminology is one of the specific layers of vocabulary, which, due to the peculiarities of the structural-semantic, derivational and stylistic nature, differs from commonly used words and thus occupies a special place in the lexical system of the language. The analysis of hierarchical structural relations in a single lexical-semantic group of medical terminology makes it possible not only to reveal the systemic relations in the vocabulary of the English and Russian languages, but also the systemic relations of identity and differences in lexico-semantic phenomena in the compared languages, and for descriptive studies. Medical terminology is the language that helps doctors of different specialties and countries understand each other. It should be clear for medical professionals, because they need to use medical terminology in their professional field. In the medical vocabulary of surgery, there are terms from various languages: Greek, Latin, Arabic, English, French and other European languages.
At present, there is no consensus in linguistics on the question of the linguistic nature of the term. Most linguists agree that terms are a group of lexemes, in many respects different from other lexical units of the literary language, that there is a binary opposition in the language system: a term is not a term. The study of the term and non-term, their comparison reveals a sufficient number of characteristic features that show the similarity of these units to each other. The main and important factor is their correlation with one sign system of the language [19, P. 39]. The term as a linguistic unit of the literary language, along with common vocabulary, is one of the components of the system of this language and has a certain meaning in it among other units of the same level due to its individual linguistic characteristics. In other words, both the term and any ordinary word are subject to the general laws inherent in a given language system; moreover, they, being lexical units, are two-sided units of the language, having a plan of expression and a plan of content. In terms of expression, the term is a lexeme that creates the isolation of terminology in general literary vocabulary.
Through the plan of content, the specificity of the professional sublanguage of medicine is indirectly reflected in its plan of expression in the choice of language means from all their availability in the language. The array of modern medical terminology is huge. The quantitative and qualitative specificity of the filling of texts with language means by representatives of various medical specialties in both languages is very high. In the sphere of real functioning, several hundred thousand terms are used in each of the world languages. The verbal richness of medicine is not possible, since it is extremely difficult to define the boundaries of its areas, sections, subsections with sufficient clarity, not to mention the “joint”, border areas with medicine. The increase in names for new methods of instrumental examination of patients, methods of diagnosis and treatment, options for surgical approaches, and surgical operations is especially great. Every year, the arsenal of medical vocabulary is replenished with hundreds of new items. At the same time, various language sources are used, including actively medical literature in English. No industry dictionary is distinguished by such a wealth of variety of named objects and concepts of professional activity as the dictionary of medicine [1, P. 241].
2. Research methods and principles
In terms of the content of medical terminology, the following are presented: morphological formations and processes characteristic of the human body in normal and pathological conditions at various stages of its development; diseases and pathological conditions of a person, forms of their treatment and signs (symptoms, syndromes), pathogens and carriers of diseases; environmental factors that have a beneficial or negative effect on the human body; indicators of their hygienic regulation and evaluation; methods of diagnostics, prevention and therapeutic treatment of diseases; operational accesses and surgical operations; organizational forms of providing medical and preventive care to the population and sanitary - epidemiological service; devices, tools and other technical devices, equipment, medical furniture; medicinal products grouped according to the principle of their pharmacological action or therapeutic effect; individual medicinal products, medicinal plants, etc. According to N.M. Shansky, terminology, like dialectisms, constitutes such a layer of words in the vocabulary of a national language, the scope of which is limited. But terminology seriously differs from dialectisms in that the scope of terminology is limited not territorially, but socially, and in that the terminology is included in the dictionary term (lat. terminus "border, limit, end") is a special word or phrase adopted in a certain professional field and used in special conditions. The term is a verbal designation of a concept that is part of the system of concepts of a certain area of professional knowledge. Terminology (as a set of terms) constitutes an autonomous sector of any national language, closely related to professional activity. The terms of each branch of science, technology, production form their own systems, determined, first of all, by the conceptual connections of professional knowledge in an effort to express these connections of language your means [12, P. 229].
3. Main results
Terms are special words, limited by their special purpose; words that tend to be unambiguous as an exact expression of concepts and naming things. It is necessary in science, technology, politics and diplomacy.
The term is a member of a certain terminological system related to a particular field of science, technology, production. Each term has its exact scientific definition among a number of other terms in the same field. Terms, unlike "everyday" words, are usually unambiguous within their terminological field; the same word can be a term for different fields of knowledge, but this is not polysemy, but homonymy (cf. the term wave in hydraulics, radio engineering and optics). Terms are also opposed to general vocabulary in the sense that they are associated with a certain scientific concept: the term reflects the results of scientific research and their theoretical understanding. An artificially created word can also become a term.
Terms exist not just in the language, but as part of a certain terminology. If in a common language (outside the given terminology) a word can be ambiguous, then, falling into a certain terminology, it acquires unambiguity. The term does not need a context, like an ordinary word, since it is
1) a member of a certain terminology, which acts instead of a context,
2) can be used in isolation, for example, in the texts of registers or orders in technology,
3) for which it should not be unambiguous at all in the language, but within the given terminology.
Terminology - is a set of terms of a certain branch of knowledge or production, as well as the doctrine of the formation, composition and functioning of terms.
The subject of the general theory of terminology is: the study of the formation and use of special words, with the help of which the knowledge accumulated by mankind is accumulated and transmitted; improvement of existing terminological systems; search for optimal ways to create new terms and their systems; the search for universal features inherent in the terminologies of different fields of knowledge [5, P. 235].
With the accelerated development of any field of science or technology, an active reflection of its achievements by the mass media begins, the transition of individual terms from special use to general use. At the same time, the terms lose their scientific accuracy, expand the scope of their use. They are being determined. In special usage, taking the appropriate place in the system, the terms remain themselves. Their “twins”, homonyms, no longer possessing the necessary systematic and scientific accuracy, are passing into general use. They become fashionable words, acquire stylistic possibilities, emotional.