THEORETICAL SUBSTANTIATION OF THE STUDY OF NAMES OF PERSONS BY PROFESSION IN LANGUAGE

Research article
DOI:
https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2022.122.44
Issue: № 8 (122), 2022
Suggested:
16.07.2022
Accepted:
18.07.2022
Published:
17.08.2022
1995
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Abstract

This article discusses the current stage of development of linguistics characterized by an increased interest in such aspects of it, which consider the language in relation to the person, their consciousness, thinking, and various activities. Comparative analysis is made of the ways of forming the names of persons by profession in the Tajik, Russian and English languages ​​in order to establish ways to replenish this vocabulary, as well as to determine the specifics of the formation of names of persons by profession in the field of language.

However, the issues of formation of names of persons by profession in the field of medicine in the Tajik language, in comparison with English, have not yet received sufficient coverage in the scientific literature, while the study of this layer of vocabulary, which reflects the close connection of the language with the social structure of society, is of particular importance for characterizing the sphere of language functioning.

1. Introduction

The peculiarity of the development of the Tajik language in the era of the democratization of society consisted in the increasing role of professionalism in various areas of communication. The need to familiarize students with the words associated with the peculiarities of the work of people of a particular specialty, profession, has led to the emergence, even in school textbooks, of a new section that deals with professional words. The modern Tajik language is constantly updated with new names of persons by profession in the field of medicine, mostly of a borrowed nature, only a small part of which gets into lexicographic publications. Dictionaries and reference books do not keep up with changes in the situation in the field of medicine, culture and public consciousness. As for the classifier of professions and positions, it still reacts quite passively to neologisms in the field of names of persons by profession in the field of medicine, reflecting only the established designations selected by speech practice.

At the same time, “advanced” employers and owners of companies, firms and holdings regularly place advertisements in the media in which they invite various specialists under names that are little known not only to most ordinary people, but also to representatives of the relevant fields of activity. For a linguist, it is important that the newest names meet certain needs of society.

So, for example, the socio-medical development of Tajikistan caused the emergence of a number of new designations: hematologist, oncologist, dentist, veterinarian, nutritionist, otolaryngologist, neurosurgeon, etc. The object of this study is only one parameter of a person’s integral image, namely, a person as a professional an actor as a carrier of professional knowledge, as a professional personality, therefore, the main attention is paid to the totality of language models that give different interpretations of a person carrying out professional activities [1, P. 252]. The article deals with the problem of nomination in the field of medicine, which has become an object of study in onomasiological studies, but has one extremely important, as it seems to us, still insufficiently studied aspect, namely, the stylistic or proper activity aspect (if we consider the style only as a reflection of one or another type of communication activities). The term nomination (lat. nominatio name), like many other linguistic terms, is polysemantic: in the dynamic aspect, it denotes the process of naming, in the static aspect, the result of this process, the name, nominee (word or phrase).

The phenomenon of nomination is a complex phenomenon of speech, in which the verbalization of the thought process takes place, aimed at designating the surrounding reality by identifying the distinguishing features of realities. The problem is whether it is always possible with a sufficient degree of accuracy and scientific evidence to establish the nature of a particular type of nomination - primary, secondary or repeated. A clear distinction between these phenomena would be possible only if all these acts were performed within the same space (for example, in the minds of one linguistic personality) and in the same mode of communicative activity. In the nomination, experimental systems of various native speakers occur and their results are combined into a single lexical system only secondarily.

At best, here we can talk about the accompaniment of nominatives by each of the native speakers when he first learns a new word, cliché, phraseological unit or precedent text. For some onomasiologists, the nomination takes place in the “national language” and aims to give names to objectively existing elements of reality. For others, nomination is a purely mental act of individual designation of an element of a picture of the world subjectively existing in the experience of a native speaker [15, P. 40].

2. Research methods and principles

The penetration of democratic ideology into all spheres of society, as well as the progress of social sciences, have led to the relevance and widespread use of socio-political terminology in the Tajik language. A significant place in the field of socio-political terminology is occupied by terms with the meaning of a person, which call a person the subject of all social processes. This is the reason for their social significance, which makes it possible to single them out as a separate thematic class.

The problem of nomination is very versatile, the study of its mechanisms is of particular interest to modern linguists. It occupied the minds of linguists of various profiles. Rapidly changing socio-historical conditions, the development of science and technology, the emergence of new realities, the departure of old and the emergence of long-gone lexemes - all this leads to a significant change in the lexical composition of the language.

In linguistics, in particular in Tajik, researchers have established the following ways of forming linguistic units characterized by a nominative function, which serve to name and isolate fragments of non-linguistic reality and form the corresponding concepts: lexical - semantic, lexical - syntactic, morphological - semantic and morphological - lexical.

It should be noted that the process of constructing the formation of a nomination in the Tajik language is closely related to the actual structure of the language. The fact that the nomination refers to grammar is manifested in the fact that all words and terms are formed within the framework of the laws of grammar and ultimately have morphological and special syntactic categories. Any new word, derived terms, complex phrases are considered a new lexical unit. Therefore, lexicologists treat word formation as one of the main ways of replenishing the lexical composition of a language.

3. Main results

The significant role of word formation in improving the lexical composition of a language can be well considered using the example of branch linguistic terminology. The collected material indicates that the main role in the word formation of professional terms is played by lexical-semantic, morphological-syntactic types of word formation. The concepts of "term" and "terminology" have numerous definitions proposed by English, Russian, Tajik and foreign linguists. Joining the opinion of V.M. Leichik, we note that “a term (from Latin terminus-border, limit) is a word or phrase denoting the concept of a special field of knowledge or activity”, and "terminology" (from term and Greek logos-word, doctrine) is a set of terms, denoting the concepts of any special field of knowledge or activity (for example, linguistic), as well as a set of terms of any natural language (for example, English terminology).

As the study of the materials of the languages ​​under consideration shows, the terms are not always unambiguous, compact and independent of the context. In our opinion, they become independent out of context when they are at the highest stage of their development, i.e. when the form and content of the term do not conflict, and this is achieved with special modeling of the terms of one area by a single structural-semantic community.

It should also be emphasized that the terms are inherent in the main scientific style, they are more widely used in scientific works, research, in industry and general language dictionaries, and so on. In this regard, it is also necessary to point out that, despite the appearance and formation of terms from ordinary lexical units, the latter become owners of new functions. The study of the literature on the issue of the term and terminology has led us to the fact that from the moment of the transformation of a lexical unit into a term, it acquires a dual function.

Any term, before acquiring characteristic features, is used as an ordinary, everyday word and in such cases has only a nominative character, and when the same simple word turns into a term, it immediately acquires a definitive feature.

The terms of kinship in English, Russian and Tajik languages ​​have deep roots and a rich historical past. However, a deep study of the complex mechanism of the creation of terms in the history of the language and ways of their further wide use is required in order to avoid all contradictory phenomena in this complex phenomenon.

Comparative study of languages ​​provides valuable material for their general theory, helps to determine the place of each in the world's system of languages. It is also used in solving such an important problem as the patterns of development and interaction of languages.

The close attention of linguists to comparative typological studies of languages ​​of various types, which has intensified recently, is quite justified. This is a kind of response to the ever-increasing development of the globalization process in all sectors of the material and spiritual life of the world community. Questions of translation, information service, the tasks of creating various dictionaries and reference books, improving the methods of teaching a non-native language - all this is among the urgent tasks facing comparative typology. It is this aspect that prompted us to choose the terms of kinship in the English, Russian and Tajik languages ​​as an object of study.

It should be noted right away that consideration of the analyzed languages ​​in the typological aspect is not the main task; we are faced with a more modest task - comparison and comparison of one specific lexical layer - the names of persons by profession in the field of medicine in these languages.

The term name of a person by profession in the field of medicine in this study is understood as a language unit that serves to designate a person as a rational being, who is the bearer of any characteristic qualities, belonging to any social environment. The study is mainly limited to common nouns. As you know, the comparison of individual layers of the vocabulary of languages ​​​​of different systems is a very laborious task. The complexity of the comparative study of the vocabulary of unrelated languages ​​was rightly pointed out by A.A. Potebnya: "I do not reject the differences in the internal structure of languages, even closer to each other and dialects of the same language, but I know that the more similar languages, the more difficult it is to determine their fundamental differences" [24, P. 191].

4. Discussion

The close attention of linguists to comparative typological studies of languages ​​of various types, which has intensified recently, is quite justified. This is a kind of response to the ever-increasing development of the globalization process in all sectors of the material and spiritual life of the world community. Questions of translation, information service, the tasks of creating various dictionaries and reference books, improving the methods of teaching a non-native language - all this is among the urgent tasks facing comparative typology. It is this aspect that prompted us to choose the terms of kinship in the English, Russian and Tajik languages ​​as an object of study.

It should be noted right away that consideration of the analyzed languages ​​in the typological aspect is not the main task; we are faced with a more modest task - comparison and comparison of one specific lexical layer - the names of persons by profession in the field of medicine in these languages.

The term name of a person by profession in the field of medicine in this study is understood as a language unit that serves to designate a person as a rational being, who is the bearer of any characteristic qualities, belonging to any social environment. The study is mainly limited to common nouns. As you know, the comparison of individual layers of the vocabulary of languages ​​​​of different systems is a very laborious task. The complexity of the comparative study of the vocabulary of unrelated languages ​​was rightly pointed out by A.A. Potebnya: "I do not reject the differences in the internal structure of languages, even closer to each other and dialects of the same language, but I know that the more similar languages, the more difficult it is to determine their fundamental differences" [24, P. 191].

5. Conclusion

The processes of nomination (acts of naming) also depend on extralinguistic reality - on the social and cultural history of the people, on the originality of its mental make-up, lifestyle, vision of the world.  It is in the development of society, consciousness, culture that the root causes of the development of language are hidden.  The need and ability to name objects and phenomena of the surrounding world accompanies a person throughout the history of his existence.

The study of nomination processes in the professional field of medicine is relevant.  The profession, as an integral part of human existence, the life of society, is the area of ​​storage of national and cultural information that is passed down from generation to generation.  Significant changes take place in this area over time, which is directly reflected in the language, and the uniqueness of the vision of the world by a certain language community reveals itself with maximum obviousness.

 The intensive and dynamic development of society is also reflected in such a professional field as medicine.  Medicine appeared in human society as soon as a person began to produce something not only for himself, but also for others.  Initially, medicine included any socially significant occupation (doctoring, treatment) and, by profession in the field of medicine, stood out as a special professional area.

However, with the development of society, people engaged in any type of activity began to specialize in some narrow areas.  So, along with hunters, fishermen, healers, artisans appear.

However, medicine also began to mean a specific field of activity related specifically to the production of material goods, such as housing, clothing, food, tools of production, household items, and others.

This study describes the system of naming persons by profession in the field of medicine, which quite clearly reflects the dynamics of a person's professional experience at different stages of the development of society. The nominative units that make up this thematic group are united by a common content and reflect the functional similarity of the phenomena they designate.

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