Research article
Issue: № 7 (97), 2020


Научная статья

Рабееах С.К.Б.*

ORCID 0000-0003-3208-8433,

Воронежский государственный лесотехнический университет им. Г.Ф. Морозова, Воронеж, Россия

* Корреспондирующий автор (safaa.rabeeakh[at]


В статье особое внимание уделяется американской литературе эпохи модернизма, порожденной быстрыми социально-экономическими и политическими изменениями в американском обществе. Авторы, преднамеренно разрушавшие правила грамматики, представляли новые приемы и стили поэзии и прозы. Произведения эпохи модернизма менее охватывают сознательные темы и более концентрируются на самооценке и понимании воображаемых картин, представленных поэтами, исследовавшими новые способы революционизирования своих стихов и привлечения внимания читателей к своим литературным произведениям.

Ключевые слова: перемены, «американская мечта», неоднозначность, образы, модернизм.



Research article

Rabeeakh S.K.B.*

ORCID 0000-0003-3208-8433,

Voronezh State University of Forestry and Technologies named after G.F. Morozov, Voronezh, Russia

* Corresponding author (safaa.rabeeakh[at]


The article focuses on American literature of the era of modernism, generated by the rapid socio-economic and political changes in American society. Authors intentionally breaking the rules of grammar presented new techniques and styles of poetry and prose. The works of the era of modernism cover less conscious topics and are more focused on self-esteem and understanding of imaginary pictures presented by poets who have explored new ways of revolutionizing their poems and attracting readers to their literary works.

Keywords: Alterations, the American dream, ambiguities, images, modernism.


Set the wheels in motion by rapid alterations in American life, it produced literature fraught with pressure and depression that struggle with heavy universal questions and have never accompanied by fully reliable answers. We can't judge all modernists by refusing faith or all features of edification theories. Modernism is characterized by wondering the essentials of the preceding period involving the American spirit of the dream for the time of an unprecedented period of American literature and its prosperity, although this prosperity holds perils of its uniqueness. It invested enormous political and social authority in an industry with little tradition of social leadership. It made money evaluate man’s position. [1, p.9].


An outstanding feature is noticed modernism’s period, this feature is dominated in literary modern works, self-consciousness within philosophical questions concerning vagueness, and the main role to understand existence via texts and verses. A lot of pioneers (writers) who employed a stream of consciousness in their masterpieces belong to this period. Pioneers depicted realistic pictures of writing; they strived to portray the heroes and the anti-heroes, events in addition to the settings in plausible, authentic tracks [2].

This overwhelmingly drives to testify the inner ambiguous world and how it is spiritually constructed using the literary works to grab the attention to the procedure of forming new concepts relying on an additional slope of abstraction [3, p.953].

This new trend found interest in American writings, along with the stunning coloring of the country’s literature at that time, helped enhance America’s literary fame as an important artistic trend in the world.

At the first light of the 20th century many American authors renegade against gregarious convention by renouncing numerous principles that governed American minds and artwork ever after the rise of the American sovereign state. Alterations worked as a criterion of this period as new improvements, art theories and movements, World War I and World War II, and other alterations that permanently revise the mood of the universe.

The savagery of wars smashed the last believing of all delusions of the Utopian pink world because the naive American dream has never been questioned before. Many theorists philosophizers attempted to comprehend the unprecedented alterations, civilized societies, and launch questions to the hypothesis of ingrained procedure where circumferential impacts determine which types of prosperous creatures are superior to others, regarded the factors of evolution. So this evolution questioned the old literary and social systems within these new developments considering the new features that overpower the masterworks of authors on the literary level and the unprecedented aspects of social new behavior that rebelled against old traditionalists. The perse alteration, indefinite diversification of notions and ambiguity of blindly tracing the conventions bewildered the Americans who have a short history, feed the disbelief in the old norms that had driven American existence as a newfangled nation that rises from the dust. People, authors, poets artists in the USA are confused because the alteration that happened at the begging of the 20th-century starts with questioning their faith and beliefs within a universe of perplexity and mastery. So this mysterious world leads the authors to exploit it to serve their expressive goals to invent this new style which depends on ambiguity where nobody can give an answer to the whole alterations passed to the world, neither the church nor the government that represents the spiritual and the physical support of people [4].

“Modern” period witnesses rebellion novels, stories, verses, novellas, and other literary works, even literary criticism influenced by all these huge alterations. Modernists’ poetry has great influence display on an extensive dissatisfaction with tradition. poets challenged commune purposely to devastate the rules of sentence structure that the phraseology was built upon as a trend of protest, presenting new mechanism and styles of poetry that dealt less with conscious topics and concentrate on self illustrating and comprehension of the imaginary pictures given by the writers The writers explored their ways to revolutionize their verses and veil it with ambiguities and difficulties as an attempt to grab the readers’ attention to their literary works.

T.S. Eliot was one of the pioneers who attempted to revolutionize his verses by utilizing the Greek and Latin versions as a route to inspire his modern readers who wait to see the alterations on the ground and in texts. He endeavored to understand his very modern world around him while maintaining a link to the classics past. Eliot’s “The Waste Land”, conveyed a gloomy sight of the universe after the end of the World War I world using a puzzling language, rich with obscure allusions, attempting to impose on the readers to be an active piece of his poetry process.

T.S. Eliot's "The Waste Land" is a significant verse that belongs to the modernism period that symbolizes the early use of images as a track of protesting the harshness of reality. He directly criticizes the war in general and the American dream by utilizing the images and symbols the “Unreal City” Under the brown fog of a winter dawn” “A crowd flowed over London Bridge” [5].

Eliot’s paradoxical sight in connection with spring in his “The Waste Land”, pointing out to the death that mirrored the panic of such war which is worked as an element that broke the American dream into pieces. Eliot’s gloomy phrases and words were used to cognize the readers that his poem representing death and the dark future. Eliot moved among various incoherent ideas, messages, and pictures. “April is the cruelest month” “Lilacs out of the dead land”,” mixing Memory” “feel free”. [6]. Theses fragments debate the indigenous circle of doom them of freedom which is designated by the seasons’ passing. Eliot’s “breeding / Lilacs,” and “Dull roots “represent the gloomy spring as a way of foretelling the bad omen. Eliot attempts to awaken the readers to something wrong that may happen again “Summer surprised us”, “coming over the Starnbergersee”. Eliot indicates in his poem to a place with memories “Starnbergersee” (the lake is located inGermany) that portraits the poet's experiment of battles, death, and existence, the past that can be never forgotten, the past that was filled with bloodshed and dead bodies. Eliot’s past like a bad dream and a bad shelter where he tries to forget and remember at the same time by using some German phrases. Eliot recalls in his poem, again and again, the image of the war in which the dead bodies were buried in unknown places. All soldiers and innocent people who passed away throughout the War were just like ash that swept their memories with the first blow of the wind.

The seasons in Eliot’s poem all the time moved from one season to another, winter again the season of coldness and feeling that need some warmness, a girl who sled on the mountain may bring some warm feelings to the heart of the poet,” when she is not in the mountains, on a sledding adventure, she does not feel free”. Marie feels herself as she is surrounded by emptiness (Eliot’s inner feelings) just like others are disillusioned with the Promised Land. The Promised Land turned to be a nightmare because it turned to be a battlefield and the dreams turned to illusion s. Inline 19 Eliot attempts in his poem to present visible hints linked to the “wasteland” of a newfangled community where peace becomes a dream on the material and spiritual levels. Eliot utilizes biblical references to put a strong influence on the readers to comprehend the danger that the destruction of the human soul may bring. “Son of man.” “A heap of broken images” represents his foreshadowing of the human collapse, and there will be no place to use as a shelter [6] where “the dead tree gives no shelter.” And even dead bodies cannot find shelter after their death, this shelter which was missed in their real horrible life.

The prose was subjected to these alterations, so the writers of different styles of prose touched the same requirements to originate unprecedented techniques by conveying modern messages within new societies that refused traditions. They attempted to seek their way to identify themselves with the new alterations. They have motivated by the poets to be pushed as poets to such originative epitome. Hemingway is one of the most well-known pioneers of this stage. Hemingway’s A Farewell to Arms was a protest against the World War I; he portrayed several slaughterous battlegrounds that he had seen firsthand to let the American readers think about the war as a disaster, not an excursion to heroism. He attempted to shatter the concept of heroism during the war and demanded from his readers to understand by themselves, the pain, and disasters that war left behind it.

Hemingway’s masterworks predominantly dealt straightforwardly with the actuality of war, while he skilfully controls his uncomplicated, journalistic technique to express his own gloomy opinion of the world that surrounded him, the world that, lack logic and philosophy [7].

Hemingway essentially presented the severity of combat and it's psychological and physical harmful impacts on commune. This novel depicts people who are horribly affected by the war; soldiers are wounded, hurt and subjected to lasting shock as a result of an emotionally disturbing experience in every possible way. The lives of the soldiers are depreciated, and their deaths are viewed as insignificant. "At the start of the winter came the permanent rain and with the rain came cholera. But it was checked and in the end only seven thousand died of it in the army" [7]. Rain in these lines used ironically signifies the death of men. With rain earth must be prosperous with beautiful flowers but for the writer it means dead bodies full the ground. They are dead with their dead dreams of heroism. Hemingway frequently asserts the terrifying destruction war that has made everyone took part in. From cholera that slays "only" 7,000 men to the symbolic photographic depiction of the gunnery bombing to the corrupt violence during the Italian retreat.

Henry and Catherine's relationship represents the philosophy of the fake love and materialistic world as it is seen within Henry’s character, Henry was corrupted even with his feeling which reflects the materialistic of the jazz age, Hemingway through Henry wants to say that he was himself involved in the materialistic world “I knew I did not love Catherine Barkley nor had any idea of loving her. This was a game, It was all right with me” [7].

For Henry, Catherine represented home and shelter from being arrested because he left the front “I'll get you someplace where they can't arrest you, and then we'll have a lovely time." The idea of losing shelter for Henry because of war reveals that the idea of The American dream and promised prosperity with happy life was demolished and not true and made people homeless. Henry without real feelings towards his love without a home and he can’t live in peace as a result of this destructive war.


Notwithstanding, the revolutionary writers within their texts in the period of the war were not limited to present an ordinary text, they tried to go deep in philosophy to question the new phenomena and changes around them because their questions create new ways of writing and create a modern style to convey their messages, sometimes in a simple way with severe images and sometimes with a difficult style that lets the reader put the questions by themselves and try to find a suitable answer to comfort their curiosity. Social alterations were very vigorous force too that gave the minorities the right to seize this mutinous period as a possibility to speak their minds up and be listened and respected. This consciousness during ambiguities found its way to the literary works to understand the old new concepts like the American dream within new understanding dominated by these new alterations where the writers work to open the eyes of the societies, they contemplate inside themselves to answer the vague questions about the American dream and other concepts, which were shattered by wars and crises. 

Конфликт интересов Не указан. Conflict of Interest None declared.

Список литературы / References

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