Research article
Issue: № 6 (96), 2020


Научная статья

Сагындыкова С.З.1, *, Кулжанова Т.Б.2

1, 2 Атырауский государственный университет им.Х.Досмухамедова, Атырау, Республика Казахстан

* Корреспондирующий автор (sauleshka_90_90[at]


Грызуны – наиболее распространенный по численности класс млекопитающих, обитающий на всех континентах и имеет 2277 видов из 33 семейства. Их величина может быть от 5,5 до 135 сантиметров (капибара), но большинство от 8 до 35 сантиметров.

Общий биологический знак для всех грызунов, когда они объединяются в один отряд. В отличие от других отрядов млекопитающих, они имеют на верхней и нижней сторонах резки с тупиковыми корнями и жестко режущими краями. Резаки промываются и непрерывно растут. Передняя поверхность резаков с эмалью, задняя сторона-дентин, поэтому эти зубы сами выходят. По количеству верхних резаков подразделяются на 2 грызуны и 4 грызуны, или кроликовидные. Грызуны в основном употребляют растительные продукты, особенно обитающие на открытой природе. Они отличаются друг от друга по размеру тела и другим признакам (например, длина хвоста, цвет кожи, строение конечностей и т. д.).

Большинство грызунов являются активными в ночное время или в сумерках, но большинство можно встретить в течение всего дня. Грызуны могут существовать как в группе, так и отдельно. Грызуны специально приспособлены для приема пищи растительного происхождения, при употреблении в них некоторых видов пищи проходят два раза из пищеварительной системы.

Традиционные грызуны подразделяются на три подгруппы: белковые (Sciuromorpha), мышевидные (Myomorpha) и дикие грызуны (Hystricomorpha). В мире широко распространено 567 видов хомяков, 457 видов мышевидных и 261 вида светло-грызунов. Наиболее эпидемиологическое значение имеют 4 представителей мыши: мыши (домашние мыши-Musculus), полевые мыши (полевые мыши – Apodemus agrarius), лесные мыши (лесные мыши – Sylvaemus sylvaticus) и крысы (серые крысы – Rattus norvegicus; черные крысы – Black rat).

Ключевые слова: Грызуны, виды грызунов, класс млекопитающих, биологические и медицинские исследования.


Research article

Sagyndykova S. 1, *, Kulzhanova T.2

1, 2Atyrau state University.Kh. Dosmukhamedov, Atyrau, Republic Of Kazakhstan

* Corresponding author (sauleshka_90_90[at]


Rodents is the most widespread class of mammals, living on all continents and has 2277 species from 33 families. Their size can be from 5.5 to 135 centimeters (capybara), but most are from 8 to 35 centimeters.

A common biological sign for all rodents when they are United in one group. Unlike other orders of mammals, they have on the upper and lower sides of the cutting with dead-end roots and hard-cutting edges. The cutters are washed and grow continuously. The front surface of the cutters is enamel, the back side is dentin, so these teeth come out themselves. According to the number of upper cutters, they are divided into 2 rodents and 4 rodents, or rabbit-like. In the lower part of the left and other 2 cutters. Rodents mainly use plant products, especially those that live in open nature. They differ from each other in body size and other characteristics (for example, tail length, skin color, and limb structure).

Most rodents are active at night or at dusk, but most can be found throughout the day. Rodents can exist in a group or separately. Rodents are specially adapted for eating food of plant origin, when some types of food are consumed in them, they pass twice from the digestive system [1].

Traditional rodents are divided into three subgroups: protein rodents (Sciuromorpha), mouse rodents (Myomorpha), and wild rodents (Hystricomorpha). There are 567 species of hamsters, 457 species of mouse-like and 261 species of light rodents widely distributed in the world. The most epidemiological significance are 4 mouse representatives: mice (house mice-Musculus), field mice (field mice-Apodemus agrarius), forest mice (forest mice – Sylvaemus sylvaticus) and rats (gray rats – Rattus norvegicus; black rats – Rattus).

Keywords: Rodents, rodent species, class of mammals, biological and medical research.

Rodents live in all living spaces, including the air. Rodents are widely distributed from tropical and desert lands to tundra and the northernmost regions. They live from large industrial cities to small rural settlements and to steppe areas, animal burial grounds, etc. to remote buildings of the type. They are not present only in Antarctica and some small Islands.

Rodents can be divided into 3 groups according to their ecological characteristics: synanthropic, semi-synanthropic, and wild. Synanthropic rodents are a group of permanent or periodic rodent species that live in everyday life, outbuildings and buildings on the territory of localities. The main types of synanthropic rodents are the gray rat, black rat, and house mouse. The most important feature synanthropic rodents is the relationship with people, his dwelling house and auxiliary buildings.

Semisynanthropic rodents are a group of rodent species that have direct contact with humans on the territory of their natural settlements. Synanthropic, semi-synanthropic rodents often live in the wild and in fields. On the territory of localities and in human shelters, they can appear in the shortest possible time only when the natural conditions of life are particularly unfavorable.

Wild rodents can only exist in the wild for a long time. They don't drink much water [1]. Changing landscapes of people leads to the disappearance of animals within their borders and a reduction in their range of distribution. Wild rodents include representatives of white families, rabbits, and rabbits. It is difficult to overestimate the importance of rodents in human activity.

Rats and mice are both cursed enemies and best friends of humans. Rats can attack humans. The main thing is that rodents are the source of more than 20 pathogens of infectious diseases in nature.

Since ancient times, rodents have been Pets (hamster (hamster), porpoises, rats). Specially published rats from the XIX century were kept as Pets. Usually, varieties of gray rats were held in the hand, but black rats also have varieties that are held in the hands. Depending on how many trained rats are raised as Pets, they differ from wild rats (Fig.1 decorative rat).


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Fig.1 – Decorative rat


Mice and rats have made a great contribution to the development of science, they are one of the main practical systems in biological and medical research. These animals are tested for inoculations against toxicity and teratogenicity, medicines and other substances. For a long time, mice and rats have been raised as laboratory animals for use in clinical research as experimental animals and model organisms. Their use has been identified as a factor in the high rate of reproduction. Due to their rapid metabolism, unusual aggressiveness, they still remain one of the main objects of biology-2. Many laboratory mice (figure 2) and rats are hybrids of different subspecies.


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Fig.2 – Laboratory mice


The grey rat (Pasyuk) on the surface of the Earth appeared now in the areas of the Asian continent, where India and North-Eastern China are located, before people, that is, 48 million years ago. The settlement of rats on the entire planet occurred about 300-400 years ago. In particular, in the middle Ages appeared in Europe.

The weight of an adult rodent is 250-300 g, the length reaches 25 cm. The length of the tail is short along the length of the body, the tail is naked, rarely covered with a ring film. The surface is broad, blunt, dense, and covered with red-brown hair (figure -3).

These rodents do not have very good visual ability, but they are very good to hear, smell and touch. Rats have highly developed sensitivity and contact. There are sensitive hairs in the beak and body-vibris. In total darkness, rats are guided by the whiskers, which are one of the main senses.

Small rodents also contribute to the spread of fungi. Animals are very important for spraying plants. If rodents eat flower dust, then the plant causes minor damage, then it is of great importance. Rodents that live in epizootics have a significant impact on the life of plants by digging up the soil. Rodents extracted from burrows fertilize the soil with urine and manure. To such free soil first grow annual weeds, often loving rare soils, and in subsequent years grow perennial plants [2].

As for the blind, rodents such as momanai are found in forest-steppe, steppe, and semi-desert areas. They feed on succulent plant roots, some of them do not have cultural roots and limit economic harm. As scientists have studied, the blind man proved that within 200-250 years the entire humus layer of steppe soils was opened.

Rats have a very high tendency to the ambient temperature, light mode, and daily activity of people. They can be increased in the range of minus 9 and 45 0C at high temperatures. They can live in a refrigerator or in a hot pot.

Atyrau region is located in the Caspian lowland, North and East of the Caspian sea in the Northwest between the Volga depressions and the Ustyurt plateau in the Southeast. The territory of the region has less than 1% of forests and shrubs. Preserved many wild animals, including rodents (gophers, ground squirrels and Armani and sandstones).

At the same time, as in other countries, in Kazakhstan, in Kazakhstan, where sandstones and takyrs live, they belong to a group of small rodents, they do not know what fear is. He doesn't live more than three or four years. Sexual contemplation begins only in the second or third year of life, when it has come to perfection. No less attractive to water, as it feeds on about thirty species of herbs, constantly absorbed moisture from the roots of plants. Its valuable ridge is recreated by mid-April, which turns red, falls on the sun belt, plentifully interrupting the rain.

Rodents are one of the major components of forest cenoses, as, on the one hand, a large group of consumers the original products in the ecosystem, and other rodents are an important forage item for many predatory animals. It is widely and comprehensively studied in Zoological and ecological works, having a significant number of mass species, for example, red steppes. This situation symbolizes this group of animals, which reflects the quantitative and structural transformations of the environment during recreational digression of the community.

When studying mouse-like rodents in conditions of anthropogenic transformations of communities, an important issue is to determine the ways in which transformations affect the structure of these communities and the population characteristics of individual species.

Anthropogenic changes in the landscape dramatically change the living conditions of mouse-like rodents. The Microclimate is changing, the supply of feed and availability, the possibility of creating housing. The most important are economic forms that lead to the destruction of vegetation cover and soil cleaning [4], [5].

All these are all types of agricultural production, construction and settlement. The quantitative level in the changing inhabitants of the forest zone is 1.5-3.6 times lower. In the forest-steppe zone, on the contrary, all types of anthropogenic impact, except interruptions, lead to an increase in the total number of rodents.

The community of mouse-like rodents adequately and legally reflects the anthropogenic change of the territory. The structural characteristics of a community-species composition, dominance index, diversity, and alignment indices-can be used to indicate the extent of landscape change.

Adaptation of mouse-like rodents to anthropogenic changes in the landscape occurs at the community level mainly due to changes in species composition, the ratio of species with different food and social specialization. Requirements for the preferred environment have the types that best match the changed conditions. In the forest zone, the number and proportion of forest land will decrease, and the proportion of grey land will increase. In the forest-steppe zone, the proportion of mice in East Asia and the valleys of Eastern Europe increases [6].

In the same type of biotopes, the species diversity of rodents increases due to the attraction of synanthropic species at an average anthropogenic load, which, of course, causes adequate changes in the composition of the parasitocenosis. Despite the fact that the number of red steppes in forest biotopes in all regions is relatively the same, the largest role in the nutrition of parasites was observed in the zone of a completely protected regime (99.9% of all parasitofauna), since the presence of other rodent species is small here.

Biology and ecology of mouse-like rodents

In modern Theriological research, special attention is paid to the in-depth study of the role of animals in the biogeocenosis, the movement of their numbers, the accumulation of data that characterize various forms of population variability and genetic structure [7].

The study of animal species meets the modern challenges of a comprehensive study of the environment, the impact of the fate of individual human activities. A feature of many species of mouse-like rodents is individual life expectancy and a relatively high rate of population renewal, which allows us to track the features of biological processes in populations of several generations over a limited period of time [8].

Currently, about 130 domestic mice have been described. They are grouped into 4 main subspecies:

1) M. m. musculus is part of Eastern Europe (Poland and further East), most of Russia.

2) M. m. domesticus is a large part of Europe, America, Australia, Africa.

3) M. m. bactrianus Asia (except the Southeast).

4) M. m. castaneus Southeast Asia.

Until recently, the fifth is the Japanese M. m. type molossinus was considered, according to recent data, M. m. musculus and M. m. between castaneus.

For example, in Ancient Rome, the mouse was not separated from the rats, so the mice were called Mus Minimus, and the rats were called Mus Maximus.

Lifestyle. Domestic mice live in various landscapes and biotopes, including anthropogenic landscapes. In General, it is closely related to people (synanthropic form) and is often located in residential buildings and household structures. In the North, seasonal migration of mice is typical. At the end of summer and autumn, animals begin to be located everywhere in feeding places: residential buildings, vegetable and grain storage facilities, warehouses. The range of autumn migration reaches 3-5 km. They often overwinter in the forests [9].

Rodents destroy not only cereals, but also vegetables, melons, beetroot crops, and also destroy forest crops. The most significant harm to agriculture in some years is caused by ground squirrels, which produce a large amount of desertification. Especially gophers cause damage to the crop of bread. They eat green shoots of bread and do great harm to autumn and summer loaves when they go out in the tube. Mouse-like rodents destroy tree species lying on the surface or planted on the Ground, in new areas, as well as in woodlands in places of its reproduction. Some species of rodents are eating the trees before the seeds ripen. Rodents also harm fruit and vegetable farms. Here, the mice choose seeds that fill the soil, damage various crops: plow the sunflower stalks, leave only the roots and hard leaves of cabbage, leave large holes on the surface of zucchini, pumpkins, melons.

Конфликт интересов Не указан. Conflict of Interest None declared.

Список литературы / References

  1. Physical geography of the Republic of Kazakhstan : textbook. – Almaty. – 1998.
  2. Kaman Ulykpan Animal Ecology : textbook – Pavlodar, Kereku -2009. – 204 P.
  3. Gorbich O. A. Medical deratization: study-method. manual / Gorbich. – M42 Minsk: BSMU, 2011. – 46 p.
  4. Bernstein, A.D. The Impact of forest clearing on the number of small mammals // Influence of anthropogenic transformation of the environment on the population of terrestrial vertebrates: studies. manual / A.D. Bernstein, Yu.A. Myasnikova. – M., 1987. – P. 671.
  5. Zhigarev I. A. Anthropogenic disturbances and relationships of rodents in the community / I. A. Zhigarev. – M., 1990. – P. 32-42.
  6. Бобринский Н.А. Определитель млекопитающих СССР / Н.А. Бобринский, Б.А. Кузнецов, А.П. Кузякин. - М.: Просвещение, 1965. - 381 с.
  7. Большая советская энциклопедия / гл. ред. А.М. Прохоров. - М.: Большая советская энциклопедия, 1969. - 573 с.
  8. Ветеринарная энциклопедия / гл. ред. К.И. Скрябин. - М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1969. - 1190 с.
  9. Naumov N. P. Animal Ecology / N. P. Naumov. – M.: Sov.Nauka, 1955. – 533 p.
  10. Кроукфорт П. Всё о мышах / П. Кроукфорт. - М.: Мир, 1970. - 173с.

Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

  1. Physical geography of the Republic of Kazakhstan : textbook. – Almaty. – 1998.
  2. Kaman Ulykpan Animal Ecology : textbook – Pavlodar, Kereku -2009. – 204 P.
  3. Gorbich O. A. Medical deratization: study-method. manual / Gorbich. – M42 Minsk: BSMU, 2011. – 46 p.
  4. Bernstein, A.D. The Impact of forest clearing on the number of small mammals // Influence of anthropogenic transformation of the environment on the population of terrestrial vertebrates: studies. manual / A.D. Bernstein, Yu.A. Myasnikova. – M., 1987. – P. 671.
  5. Zhigarev I. A. Anthropogenic disturbances and relationships of rodents in the community / I. A. Zhigarev. – M., 1990. – P. 32-42.
  6. Bobrinskij N.A. Opredelitel' mlekopitajushhih SSSR [Determinant of mammals of the USSR] / N.A. Bobrinskij, B.A. Kuznecov, A.P. Kuzjakin. – М.: Education, 1965. - 381 p. [in Russian]
  7. Bol'shaja sovetskaja jenciklopedija [Great Soviet encyclopedia]. – М.: Great Soviet encyclopedia, 1969. – 573 p. [in Russian]
  8. Veterinarnaja jenciklopedija [Veterinary encyclopedia]. – М.: Soviet encyclopedia, 1969. – 1190 p. [in Russian]
  9. Naumov N. P. Animal Ecology / N. P. Naumov. – M.: Sov.Nauka, 1955. – 533 p.
  10. Kroukfort P. Vsjo o myshah [All about mice] / P. Kroukfort. – М.: Mir, 1970. – 173 p. [in Russian]