THE ORIGINALITY OF WAYS OF LITERATURE OF “METROPOL” AND ABROAD
Бакова З.Х.1, Вологирова А.А. 2, Ойтова Ф.М. 3
1 ORCID: 0000-0002-2777-380X, Доктор филологических наук, профессор; 2 магистрант, 3 магистрант, Кабардино-Балкарский государственный университет им. Бербекова Х.М.
О СВОЕОБРАЗИИ ПУТЕЙ РАЗВИТИЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ «МЕТРОПОЛИИ» И ЗАРУБЕЖЬЯ
В статье авторы акцентируют своё внимание на наиболее спорных вопросах литературы «метрополии» и зарубежья: каким образом проблема диаспоризации коснулась адыгов; что послужило причиной возникновения столь обширной адыгской диаспоры за рубежом; и в какой мере творчество того или иного зарубежного писателя адыгского происхождения сопоставимо с национальной художественной культурой.
Исследование окажет методическую помощь магистрантам, изучающим спецкурс «Литература адыгского зарубежья».
Ключевые слова: литература адыгского зарубежья, национальный облик, образ жизни.
Bakova Z.H.1, Vologirova A.A. 2, Oytova F.M. 3
1 ORCID: 0000-0002-2777-380X, PhD in Philology, professor, 2 Undergraduate, 3 Undergraduate, Kabardino-Balkarian State University named after Berbekov J.M.
THE ORIGINALITY OF WAYS OF LITERATURE OF “METROPOL” AND ABROAD
The authors emphasize its focus on the most controversial issues of literature "metropolis" and abroad: how the problem diasporization touched Circassians; that was the cause of such a vast Adyghe diaspora abroad; and to what extent the work of a foreign writer Adygeyan origin comparable to the national artistic culture.
The study will provide methodological assistance to undergraduates studying course "Adygeyan foreign literature."
Keywords: Adyghe literature abroad, national identity, a way of life.
The history of culture and literature abroad Adygeyan contains a solid socio-historical formation: Statistics deportees and scattering problems ingrowth Circassians in the cultural environment while preserving the national identity and way of life, etc.
Emigration and Diaspora lived and worked many national artists, functioned charities, published newspapers, magazines, books.
In today's world (and it could not but reflect on the literary criticism), there are two main trends: the tendency to blur the boundaries set by class or ideological principle, which is not the opposite of the trend to establish the boundaries of the new, based on the principles of awareness of national identity, resurrection and strengthening the national consciousness of races and ethnic groups.
The need for a new look at the history of the Adyghe literature was due to democratic changes 90 years, to dispel the thick haze that lay over a century in our relationship with the countries and peoples of the Middle East and Southwest Asia. This fact has slightly opened a thick veil and gave us the opportunity to more thoroughly acquainted with the work of our fellow-writers, the Circassian diaspora, with the Emir of Arabic poetry al-Baroudi, classics from Turkish and world literature Ahmed Midhat, Ömer Seyfettin modern talented writers Osman Celik, Muhadin Quandour, Kadyr Nath, Shaban cubes and many others.
Literature as an indispensable component of the cultural environment, of course, is not only deserves, but also requires the most careful consideration. However, for it to be truly complete, you must not only be considered in the same contextual space Adyghe, Kabardian and Circassian literature (such three "pieces" Adyg literature "cut" at the I Congress of the USSR Union of Writers). We must podverstat to the context and the literature that has been created and is created Circassians, by the will of fate, found themselves abroad.
Development of culture and, in particular, literature - the dialectical process. It is impossible to state categorically that the time (it was the time!) Isolation of national culture (or part thereof) is uniquely her detriment. After all, every single creator feels the need for solitude, for solitude and freedom are necessary conditions for creativity. On the other hand, having reached a certain outcome, the creator of the same immutability feels the need to go public, to assess the audience, fellow writers, critics. One can easily imagine that some parts of the literary stream are arranged similarly to his private jets.
Achievements Adyghe diaspora would be completely useless to the root, that is produced in the historic homeland of literature, if we, as before, remained in cultural isolation from each other, but the changes that have occurred both in Russia and in other countries, have allowed we begin the process of reunification. This, of course, is not about leveling cultures - we are talking about their mutual enrichment - or rather about finding a qualitatively new status Adyghe literature, taken in the unity of all its branches - Adyghe, Kabardian, Circassian and founded the Diaspora.
Of course, this process is not one-sided. Getting acquainted with the creative achievements of foreign colleagues, we do not just have to experience a genuine pride in our, so to speak, pets luck. The foreign Circassians have much to learn from masters such words as Alim Keshokov, Zuber Thagazitov Boris Utizhev, Habas Beshtokov, Aflik Orazaev, Abdulcherim sones, Zarema Kugotova and others.
However, the division into "ours" and "not ours" - it's just that at the moment has exhausted itself and needs to be recognized as an anachronism. Geographical fragmentation may not cause us to be strangers to each other. Otherwise it would have been groundless and do talk about the literary community.
What and how this community achieved? First of all, in our opinion, the stability of artistic view of the world, provided that the multilingual writers more or less equally clings to the inexhaustible source of "adygstva" - Adyg to folklore, to the Nart sagas.
The developed system of genres Adyghe folklore since ancient times is a means of artistic expression of the spiritual culture of the Circassians. Folklore does not destroy any decisions of the Party and government. We first focused and absolutely deliberately destroyed the roots of their cultural traditions, and then began to wonder that the tree does not bloom. Today, we were witnesses of what has resulted, the systematic destruction of their own roots and cultural memory. Leading scientific debates about the languages merger of the rapprochement of cultures the concepts of a unified all national literatures of socialist realism, many politicians, artists have tried to paint the same color all the bouquet of the literatures and cultures of the peoples of the USSR, to unify the diversity of literature, not without reason, beware of "seditious "concepts: national identity, national character, national artistic consciousness. As it was not dry up the roots, windswept when the native language is taught only as a subject, and then once a week, and in primary school has been canceled?
It all started it much earlier, when, unfortunately, due to the well-known events of the first half of the XIX century in the Caucasus, the Adyghe (Circassian) people were scattered around the individual states (Russia, Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Israel, the USA and others) and its culture for a long time developed a variety of ways, not touching at all, or not in contact as often as you like.
This naturally gave rise to numerous debates, literary scholars of foreign authors belonging to the people, to whom leave their roots, or to the people whose books have enriched it with their creativity.
In our view, this issue should be approached very carefully, and differentiated. This should not take the author and his work as a single, indivisible whole. Religious people - it is a constantly evolving substrate. It changes with time, under the influence of the environment, public events, scientific discoveries, etc. This is best seen in the works of writers and poets, which the Almighty has given a long career.
An example is the work of the founder of the Turkish literature, the first novelist of the Ottoman Empire, educator and philosopher Ahmed Midhat, whose views have changed many times throughout his life. However, making a huge contribution to Turkish literature, it is a lot of works devoted to it Circassians, their history and worldview, as in his time, perhaps only foreign Circassian writer who has never hidden his adygskih roots, has not released any product without signing Circassian him his name - Hagur. Moreover, he was the author of the first truly Adygeyan novel "Caucasus", so it can be argued that in itself it is combined and the first novelist of the Ottoman Empire, and the founder of the Turkish drama, and it did not stop him until the last days of life remain Adygea, and openly, despite all the trouble and inconvenience, which could bring him in this circumstance far adverse times that experienced when the Ottoman empire, more precisely, the "aliens" living in it.
And a completely different position taken Ömer Seyfettin, the former consistent pan-and I wish all the people from other countries (including the Circassians) turn to the Turks, to oblige them to speak only Turkish, strictly follow the Islamic religion and have a purely Turkish education. Ömer Seyfettin is the author of the situation, talk about the need to unite all Turks into a single empire stretching "from the Adriatic coast to the borders of China." He regarded them as a people chosen by God. We believe that in the process of Turkishizing small nations (including Circassians) Ömer Seyfettin important role belongs to (among other things, the Turks, and still consider it one of the most prominent representatives of the nation).
Thus, even on the basis of the above examples, we consider it necessary to focus attention on the need for a differentiated approach to the issue of affiliation of a worker of culture to culture it Circassian: sometimes education and habitat of the author, has a strong tribal roots, and therefore each case should be considered separately.
On this basis, it is clear that as a methodological basis of research should be elected detailed literary analysis of creativity of individual representatives of the Circassian diaspora and their comparison with the works of those authors who created their works in their historical homeland, in terms of relationship in the field of folk roots, themes and style - in this case, regardless of the language in which to create certain works. We do not aim to make mandatory all the poets and writers of the foreign diaspora Circassians. We want to first of all find out how the problem diasporization touched Circassians; that was the cause of such a vast Adyghe diaspora abroad; as shown by the Circassians themselves in those countries where there were by force of circumstances, and to what extent the work of a foreign writer Adygeyan origin comparable to the national artistic culture.
Return Heritage Adyghe diaspora and exile in Adyg culture into the public consciousness requires first and foremost the development of the entire volume of unpublished documents. Therefore, special attention is paid to the tasks of sources. The study was conducted on the basis of archival materials of the largest archival collections in Russia, Turkey, Syria, Jordan, and the CBD.
1.Bakova Z. Edinstvo naroda – edinstvo literatury. Nauch. izd. Majkop, izd-vo MGTI, 2002. 126 s.
2.Bakova Z. Formirovanie i razvitie literatury adygskogo (cherkesskogo) zarubezh'ja i ejo hudozhestvennoe svoeobrazie: Avtoref. dis. dokt. filolog. nauk. – Majkop, 2002. – 43 s.
3.Bakova Z. Tvorchestvo pisatelej adygskogo zarubezh'ja. Ucheb. pos. Min – vody: Prajs media. 2013, 68 s.