THE COMPLEX OF COGNITIVE-SEMANTIC OPERATIONS IN THE DESCRIPTION OF EXPLICIT MAKROPROPOSITIONS

Research article
DOI:
https://doi.org/10.18454/IRJ.2016.46.110
Issue: № 4 (46), 2016
Published:
2016/04/18
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Abstract

The analysis of linguistic material identified the number of cognitive-semantic operations and realized them in explicit makropropositions. Working with explicit makropropositions we get opportunity to describe them not only theoretically, but also realize them in syntactic structures. In this way attention is drawn to the literary texts, in which each of the chapter, in spite of the titles or numbers, preceded by a sequence of statements, which reflect the thematic repertoire of the chapter and is not more, than a prospective explicit makropropositions of the main text, because each of these statements are the results of the semantic operations of the main text. The basic material of our research is the story «Three men in a boat: to say nothing of the dog» by English writer Jerome K. Jerome.

Оганесова И.С.

ORCID: 0000-0001-5376-6251, кандидат филологических наук, Кубанский государственный университет, филиал в г. Армавире

СОВОКУПНОСТЬ КОГНИТИВНО-СЕМАНТИЧЕСКИХ ОПЕРАЦИЙ В ОПИСАНИИ ЭКСПЛИЦИТНЫХ МАКРОПРОПОЗИЦИЙ 

Аннотация

В ходе анализа лингвистического материала был определен ряд когнитивно-семантических операций, на основе которых были выведены эксплицитные макропропозиции. При работе с эксплицитными макроструктурами мы получаем возможность оперировать не гипотетическими когнитивно-семантическими единицами, но единицами эксплицированными, облеченными в синтаксические структуры.  В этом отношении обращают на себя внимание художественные тексты, в которых каждая из глав, помимо названия или номера, предваряется последовательностью высказываний, отображающих тематический репертуар главы и являющихся не чем иным, как проспектовыми эксплицитными макропропозициями основного текста, поскольку каждое из таких высказываний является результатом семантических операций основного текста. Материалом нашего исследования послужил художественный текст английского писателя Джерома К. Джерома «Three Men in a Boat: To Say Nothing of the Dog!» («Трое в лодке, не считая собаки»).

Ключевые слова: дискурс, макропропозиции, констатация объекта, квалификация объекта, квалификация состояния, констатация действия, квалификация действия, констатация события, квалификация события, комбинированные семантические операции.

Oganesova I.S.

ORCID: 0000-0001-5376-6251, PhD in Philology, Kuban State University, branch in Armavir

THE COMPLEX OF COGNITIVE-SEMANTIC OPERATIONS IN THE DESCRIPTION OF EXPLICIT MAKROPROPOSITIONS

Abstract

The analysis of linguistic material identified the number of cognitive-semantic operations and realized them in explicit makropropositions. Working with explicit makropropositions we get opportunity to describe them not only theoretically, but also realize them in syntactic structures. In this way attention is drawn to the literary texts, in which each of the chapter, in spite of the titles or numbers, preceded by a sequence of statements, which reflect the thematic repertoire of the chapter and is not more, than a prospective explicit makropropositions of the main text, because each of these statements are the results of the semantic operations of the main text.  The basic material of our research is the story «Three men in a boat: to say nothing of the dog» by English writer Jerome K. Jerome.

Keywords: discourse, makropropositions, statement of the object, qualification of the object, qualification of the status, statement of the action, qualification of the action, statement of the event, qualification of the event, combined semantic operations.

 

The given article deals with the number of cognitive-semantic operations such as: statement of the object, qualification of the object, qualification of the status, statement of the action, qualification of the actions, statement of the events, qualification of the events, combined semantic operations [1, 42-43]. Describe them into details: the statement of the object is the semantic operation, where the name of the object is predicated in the appropriate segment of the text;

qualification of the object is the semantic operation, where the object is predicated particular feature;

qualification of the status is the semantic operation, where the state of the object is predicated with specific characteristics;

statement of the action is the semantic operation, where the action is predicated its implementation;

qualification of the action is the semantic operation, where the action is predicated with certain characteristics;

statement of the event is the semantic operation, where the event is predicated its implementation;

qualification of the event is the semantic operation, where the event is predicated with its certain characteristics;

combined semantic operations are combinations of two different semantic operations, which are creating one makroproposition.

Describe the macrostructure of the first chapter of the novel «Three Men in a Boat:! To Say Nothing of the Dog» by Jerome K. Jerome:

(1) Three invalids. – (2) Sufferings of George and Harris. – (3) A victim to one hundred and seven fatal maladies. – (4) Useful prescriptions. – (5) Сure for liver complaint in children. – (6) We agree that we are overworked, and need rest. – (7) A week on the rolling deep? – (8) George suggests the river. – (9) Montmorency lodges an objection. – (10) Original motion carried by majority of three to one.

Makroproposition (1) Three invalids, means the state of group of persons, and describes the conversation of three friends. Nomination invalids does not appear in the text, so it should be qualified as the result of semantic processing of text by the author with the explication of this operation as makroproposition. The essence of this operation can be defined with the qualification of the object (objects), which is based on building of macrorules [1, 42-43].

Makroproposition (2) Sufferings of George and Harris is derived from the segment, consisting of one of complex sentence (four lines), and means the state of group of persons. Nomination sufferings does not appear in the text, so it can be also qualified as the result of semantic processing of text by the author with the explication of this operation as makroproposition. So makroproposition (1) Three invalids describes the relation of these persons and makroproposition (2) Sufferings of George and Harris the sign sufferings describes the condition of these persons, so in this case, the essence of makropropositions can be defined as the qualification of the state (object) [1, 42-44].

Harris said he felt such extraordinary fits of giddiness come over him at times, that he hardly knew what he was doing - Sufferings of Harris.

 George said that HE had fits of giddiness too, and hardly knew what HE was doing - Sufferings of George.

It should be also noted, that the author displays makroproposition (2) Sufferings of George and Harris and qualifies the state of these characters not as the narrative of their illnesses, but as the basis of the characters’ stories about their illnesses.

Makroproposition (3) A victim to one hundred and seven fatal maladies is derived from extended segment (two pages), where the narrator tells the story about one of the character had read the medical book and found practically all signs of his diseases, and it means the state of this person. Nomination victim does not appear in the text, so it should be qualified as the result of semantic processing of text by the author. In this case, the semantic essence of this operation can be qualified as the qualification of the object.

Makroproposition (4) Useful prescriptions is derived from the segment of length one page, where the narrator tells the story of how, following the prescriptions of his doctor, he got of imaginary diseases, and means the quality of the action (actions). Noun prescription has the meaning of prescription (instructions) and prescription (recipe) uses twice in the text; to indicate the doctor's actions, uses the noun directions. However, in the explicit makroproposition the noun prescription uses in the plural form, which gives the reason to translate it as a prescription (although the Russian translation of makroproproposition Useful prescriptions is a saving recipe).

Makroproposition (5) Cure for liver complaint in children is derived from the segment (half a page), where the narrator tells the story, how the cuff could successfully treat this man from imaginary liver disease, it expresses the quality of actions, because in this case, the nomination Cure for liver complaint in children uses as the qualification of successful actions of adults (cuffs). Nomination Cure for liver complaint in children does not present in the text, so it should be seen as the result of semantic processing of text by the author. In this case, the essence of semantic operations can be also defined as the qualification of the action (actions), which is based on the construction of macrorules.

Makroproposition (6) We agree that we are overworked, and need rest is derived from the segment of the length of one page in which the narrator tells the story of how the main characters, had supper, came to the conclusion, that they need in relaxation, it means the actions of characters, in this case - verbal. Makroproposition We agree that we are overworked, and need rest in this form absents in the appropriate segment of the text, and displays as the result of the operation, which can be defined as the statement of the events, which is based on the construction of macrorules.

As for makropropositions (8) George suggests the river, (9) Montmorency lodges an objection, (10) Original motion carried by majority of three to one - are the operations, which we defines as the statement of the events.

Makropropozitsiya (7) A week on the rolling deep? Has the form of an elliptic interrogative sentence and is derived from the segment (two pages), in which Harris offers a journey by sea, as the narrator leads its sharply negative associations with the boat trips. Obviously, the proposition (7) describes a hypothetical situation, so the semantic makroproposition can be defined as the statement of a hypothetical event.

Also describe the macrostructure of the fourteenth chapter of the novel «Three Men in a Boat: To Say Nothing of the Dog» by Jerome K. Jerome:

(1) Wargrave. - (2) Waxworks. - (3) Sonning. - (4) Our stew. - (5) Montmorency is sarcastic. - (6) Fight between Montmorency and the tea-kettle. - (7) George's banjo studies. - (8) Meet with discouragement. - (9) Difficulties in the way of the musical amateur. - (10) Learning to play the bagpipes. - (11) Harris feels sad after supper. - (12) George and I go for a walk. - (13) Return hungry and wet. - (14) There is a strangeness about Harris. - (15) Harris and the swans, a remarkable story. - (16) Harris has a troubled night.

First, pay attention to the makropropositions (1) Wargrave, (2) Waxworks, (3) Sonning, (4) Our stew - in which the object are predicated its existence without any qualifications, so the semantic operations can be defined as the statement of the object; these operations are based on the semantic makrorule.

Further identifies the following semantic operations, underlying the derivation of makropropositions of the chapter:

qualification of the object: (5) Montmorency is sarcastic, (14) There is a strangeness about Harris; describes the existence of some oddities, but actually performs the predication of trait object – Harris;

qualification of the status: (11) Harris feels sad after supper, (16) Harris has a troubled night; makroproposition (16) actually describes the state of the object - Harris after a restless night;

statement of the event: (6) Fight between Montmorency and the tea-kettle, (8) (George) Meet with discouragement;

statement of the action: (7) George's banjo studies, (10) Learning to play the bagpipes, (12) George and I go for a walk. Makropropositions (7) and (10) describe the actions, as appear in the unfinished form and therefore have not become the events; makropropositions describe the onset of action, which in conjunction with other actions will become an event (walk);

qualification of the event: (9) Difficulties in the way of the musical amateur. In this case, the sequence of events occurred on the way an amateur musician and is characterized with series of difficulties;

combined semantic operations: (13) Return hungry and wet, in this case we see the combinations of statement action and qualification of the object within a single proposition; (15) Harris and the swans, a remarkable story, in this case –the combination of two makropropositions, one of which is derived as the result of statement of the object, the other one, as the result of the qualification of the object.

To sum our comparison up, the realization of explicit makroproposition depends on a certain set of semantic operations and the differences between the analyzing macrostructure depends on not only individual, cognitive and ideostilistic features of the author, but also on genre-stylistic differences of the plot.

References

  1. Dejk T.A. van, V. Kinch. Makrostrategii // Jazyk. Poznanie. Kommunikacija. – M.: Progress, 1989. – p. 41-67.