Research article
Issue: № 4 (46), 2016


The media in the formation of the everyday view of the world widely used historical images related to a term such as historical memory of society. This article presents an analysis of the content of TV channels in Russia and Ukraine, stating that in political communication strategy, historical images, which are important symbols of the historical memory of a people , are used as an effective means of information warfare .

 Даутова Р.В.1, Нуриева Д.А. 2

1 Профессор, Доктор Исторических наук , 2 Ассистент, Казанский Федеральный университет



Средства массовой информации в формировании повседневной картины мира широко используют исторические образы, связанные с таким понятием, как историческая память общества. В данной статье представлен анализ контента телеканалов России и Украины, подтверждающий, что в политической коммуникационной стратегии исторические образы, являющиеся важными символами исторической памяти того или иного народа,  применяются в качестве эффективного средства информационной войны.

Ключевые слова:  историческая память, политическая коммуникация, телевидение, стратегия, манипулирование, разработка политических мифов.


Dautova R.V.1, Nurieva D.A.2

1 PhD in History, 2 Assistant, Kazan Federal University



The media in the formation of the everyday view of the world widely used historical images related to a term such as historical memory of society. This article presents an analysis of the content of TV channels in Russia and Ukraine, stating that in political communication strategy, historical images, which are important symbols of the historical memory of a people , are used as an effective means of information warfare .

Keywords: historical memory, political communication, television, strategy, manipulation, designing political myths.



Historical memory is understood by us as a definitely focused consciousness that reflects the special importance and relevance of the information about the past , in close connection with the present and the future. As the Russian philosopher JT Toshchenko , historical memory , tend to place emphasis on certain historical events , personified , hold in the minds of the major historical events of the past up to the conversion of historical knowledge in various forms of ideological perception of the past experience, it is locked in legends , fairy tales, . Noted philosopher and opportunity hyperbole , exaggeration individual moments of the past , which is due , primarily , to the importance of historical knowledge and historical experience, currently taking place in the events and processes and the possible impact on the future[1].

Historical memory is rightly considered an important component of the researchers of national consciousness. From the viewpoint of VE Boikova , perceptions of the heroic events of national history , on prominent figures and brilliant achievements of the country play the role of values ​​that promote civic consciousness and patriotism[2].

Related to the history associated SN Ikonnikova with political and ideological situation prescription power should be remembered , and what should be excluded from memory forgot [3]. Historica memory is often the scene of ideological conflicts, emotional dramas and tragedies. .Emotional perception of the historical memory of the people are often characterized by a term such as "the soul of the people ." If we turn to the terminology of Le Bon , the " soul of the people " are national myths that hold a special place among the so- called "eternal " myths[4]. National myths , tend to add up in the making of the nation and accompany her throughout history . Myths underlie the formation of national consciousness , " all bright in terms of the nation through mythological events [5]." According to N. Kirillova , " become significant historical events for posterity , when entered into the structure of the national myth .[6, 132]"

Content-analysis of materials channel "Russia 1" and TRK "Ukraine"

This thesis clearly confirms unfolded media information war between Russia and Ukraine during the Ukrainian crisis. To identify features of the use of images of historical memory in political communication was conducted content analysis of materials channel "Russia 1" and TRK "Ukraine" for the period from 1 December 2013 to 31 March 2014 . Chronological framework - December 1, 2013 to March 31, 2014 . This period is characterized by a gradual increasing in the Ukraine protest activity .

 We have to give a brief description for the selected media studies . TV channel "Russia 1" - the state broadcaster , one of two Russian TV channels which broadcast for the entire state. According to figures on the official website of the channel , the audience of " Russia 1" is 98 , 5 percent of the population , over 50 million citizens of CIS countries and the Baltic States are also permanent channel audience [About the channel / TV channel " Russia 1". URL:]. This is the one of the leading conductors of the state information policy in Russia.

Channel " Ukraine " is part of the "Media Group Ukraine " , 100 % of the share capital of which is owned by " System Capital Management " , the largest Ukrainian diversified group (the main shareholder - Rinat Akhmetov , Ukrainian deputy from " Party of Regions "). Media is in the top six national TV channels of Ukraine [ About the channel / TRK Ukraine . URL:]. The total coverage of broadcasting - about 90 % of the population .

Thus, both the channel are approximately equal relative volumes audience. Conducted their information policy heavily influences the formation of public opinion in Russia and Ukraine. Historical images used on both channels in the information counter. Most pronounced change in the information policy of the channels studied in selected period showed on stage program schedule of channel "Russia 1" . Net broadcasting this period differs from the previous period prevalence of historical documentaries, special formats (for example , the program "Special Correspondent" is the usual broadcasting network ) , feature films and historical themes . So , from 1 December 2013 to 31 March 2014 in the TV channel "Russia 1" overlook such documentaries as " Victory’s Sunrise. Dnepr . Collapse of the " Eastern Wall " ( the occurrence of the Red Army on the territory of the left-bank Ukraine during World War II ), " Forbidden History" . Also during the period “Russia 1” starts broadcasting the soap opera " Liquidation ", dedicated to the restoration of Ukraine after World War II . Topics of the Great Patriotic War , united struggle of the Ukrainian and Russian peoples with the invaders - the most frequently used on Russian TV images of the historical memory. In this case, tragic images aimed at the formation of a unified presentation historical past of the general tests, the historical roots and links the peoples of Russia and Ukraine. Particular attention - the image of Stepan Bandera : his biography and political path . The wording used " fascist hero" follower " fascist ideas of Ukraine."

Forming the image of a unified strategy in World War II and maintained at the level of tactics - information program " Vesti" TV channel "Russia 1" . One of the best examples - the material from January 16, 2014 on the presentation of the concept of a new history textbook . The key message of TV story - a single view of the Great Patriotic War , the impossibility of the alternative interpretations of history of the victory over the fascist regime . The image of a unified struggle between the two peoples against fascism in news broadcasts receives continued in another story - Ukraine opposition associated with fascism and Nazism. Material from January 12, 2014 ( kor.E. Rozhkov ) - " Ukrainian nationalists want to erase the memory of Soviet soldiers " tells about how opposition leaders offer a new perspective on the history and rejection of the term "Great Patriotic War ". Report of February 25, 2014 (Korean D.Melnikov ) " Bandera eliminate everything that is connected with Russia " is about how Lviv fascists dealt with monuments to the heroes of the Great Patriotic War. These are just two examples of the huge array of materials of Ukrainian opposition forces as close to fascism.

If at the beginning of the period Russian journalists used the term "opposition" , then to the beginning in January 2014 , it is replaced by a more historically concrete "Nazis " / " fascists " / "bandits" , and closer to January dominates the term " extremists " who actively supported by special materials within the news in the "Vesti" program . One example - the story "The Forgotten Lessons of History : Israel extremism scares Kiev’s evromaydana" ( S.Pashkov ) . " We thought that these terrible times passed. Only 70 years ago in Europe there was a tragedy that claimed the lives of six million. Such actions will not lead to success will not be blessed. They will only lead to ruin and victims " - said in an interview with the Chief Rabbi of Israel .

The next image , appeal to which was conducted as often as the image of the brotherly people of Ukraine . At the level of tactics - broadcasting a documentary "The Tsar's business. Romanovs . Forward - to a great empire "( about the time of accession Ukraine to Russia , beginning the" great reforms " ) , the series" The White Guard " ( TV channel " Russia 1 " - March 3, 2014) and several others. Stands out particularly broadcast on state television fiction film " Taras Bulba" , widely announced in the Russian media . Presentation of the movie says: " " Russia 1 " reminds viewers of a single history and common roots of Russia and Ukraine. Channel shows " Taras Bulba ", a film with an international team , with Bogdan Stupka in the title role , which fully and accurately brings to the screen the famous story by Gogol. His classic is considered in both countries. Why is this so relevant historical drama during the current turmoil in the Ukraine ? ". Thus, the broadcast pattern is another means of constructing the image of the fraternal peoples . Maintain and broadcast the series "While sleeping village " dedicated to Ukrainian village life .

Another fairly popular image is the heroic story of the Black Sea Fleet , about the Sevastopol, the city of Russian glory. So, the story of 15 March 2014 in the " News" is not traditionally information , but rather historical and narrative in nature:  Restoration of historical truth have been waiting for residents of Sevastopol. For many years they kept evidence wins the Black Sea Fleet, and all that is connected with the names of the great Russian admirals Nakhimov, Lazarev, Istomin, Kornilov.

Stories of "ordinary citizens" , causing the greatest confidence in the audience were also aimed at creating an image of the brotherly people . One example - the story of one family , revived the countryside on the border with Ukraine - in the Belgorod region ( kor.K. Kibkalo on January 21, 2014 ) . TV-report having no newsworthy , appeals to the events of 10 years ago , when the three brothers decided to "revive the earth and bring the territory of its historic status ." Thus emphasizes special bond between Ukraine and Russia , not implanted "from above" , and leaving the roots in the tradition of the Ukrainian people.

Important in shaping the image of the brotherly people and is an appeal to the allied relations between Russia and Belarus , emphasized the dominant terms" closest state" and " union state" . This symbolic formation also refers to the fact of union of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, and the possibility of creation of the Customs Union.

In addition , widely used treatment to the deep layers of mental consciousness. In the story of January 24, " Gifts of the Magi We ask the peace for Ukraine," says that " to Ukrainian split is gone , today Orthodox Ukrainians prayed one of the main shrines - the Sacrament of the Magi . Prior to that, the relics visited Moscow , St. Petersburg and Minsk. Asked about the peace. Ukraine , which now resembles a mannequin of a looted shop radicals , you need it most . "

Summarizing the content analysis materials channel "Russia 1", situation in Ukraine has several historical images:

  • image of a unified struggle of the Russian and Ukrainian people against the fascist invaders : a reference to a common understanding of the Second World War , the general history of military glory of the two peoples ; • image of the brotherly people , united historically - from the time of the Romanovs, with particular reference to the period of the Soviet Union , the history of the Black Sea Fleet. Religious background image is also very important : here’sa constructed opposition of " Orthodox Russia " - " ‘corrupted Europe’ , which is lost traditional values ​​."
  • the image of Ukrainian opposition as extremists / fascists with reference to the time of the Holocaust and the Nazi camps.

Turning to the analysis of materials TRK "Ukraine", it should be noted that some of the images of information counter are very closed to “Russia 1”s , however, often acquiring diametrically opposite meanings.

Mythmaking strategy on TRK " Ukraine" almost does not fit , designing images and a references to the historical memory is all at the level of myth-making tactics , in television news programs . One of the few examples - broadcasting 5 - part documentary film "1941" , where , as the authors of the picture say, " disclosed the facts of WWII, which history books are silent ," " given the unreliability of the evidence of many established opinions ... from the curriculum ." Stepan Bandera image on the TV channel "Ukraine" is different : it is " a fighter for national independence of the Ukrainian state , and OUN collaboration with the Nazis justified " noble purpose to create an independent state . "

Thus, at this stage we see the manifestation of alternative different from that adopted in Russia , the concept of understanding the Second World War , the image of a unified struggle of the Russian and Ukrainian people against the fascist invaders destroyed , Ukraine and Russia are opposed to each other. Here’s built the image of Russians - the occupier . This historical allusion journalists will be used in the future - in covering the events in the Crimea in March 2014 . March 25, 2014 on TV channel "Ukraine" in the program "Today" was showed the report about the Ukrainian Insurgent Army’s veteran, Russian Vladimir Chermoshentsev , Who fought against the Soviet partisans veteran UIA leaves Crimea " from Russia." Material ends by the interview with V. Chermoshentsev: "The Germans were invaders and Russians do the same ." As you can see , the image of Russian invader of the Great Patriotic War is associated with the image of Russia in the present, with the events on the Crimea.

What about the image of the fraternal peoples , widely represented in the Russian air , Ukrainian media builds dramatically opposite image . Phrase " brotherly nations " and " brotherly state" are used in an ironic sense, as well as the expression " Kiev - mother of Russian cities ." Thus, the historical allusions get negatively stained shade , destroying the concept of two nations as fraternal, congenial.

It should be noted that the image of Russian - Soviet successor is based on the other two pillars: a totalitarian state invaders + / imperialists . This historical parallel journalists spend every fourth TV reports where was mentioning Russia . For example, emphasizes the remoteness of Russia " European values ​​of democracy" , " the protesters in Moscow traditionally arrested by the police ", "if Ukraine wins democracy, then sooner or later it will happen in Russia ' " - is just a small sample of the lexical constructing the image .

One of the important keys in shaping the image of Russian aggressor successor of the USSR - the history of the Crimean Tatars. Journalists of TRK "Ukraine" apply to this position about 10 times only in February,2014. One of the most revealing in this point - TV story from March 24, 2014 , read in eyeliner : "Do not give offense to the Tartars. This statement was made by Turkey - Prime Minister Erdogan. He called Putin and warned suffer at least one Tartar - override the Bosphorus for Russian ships.

BY TRK “Ukraina”, “Tatars have already suffered . One person died”. They fear the arrival of Tatars from Crimea ". The answer to the question " what are afraid Tatars" we see in the TV news , which has repeatedly made ​​reference to the deportation of the Crimean Tatars in 1944 . This historical allusions are supported by interviews of the Crimean Tatars on fear of a repetition of history and a new wave of deportations . Thus, Russia is once again appears as the successor to the USSR.

Importantly, in the period from December 2013 to April 2014 , on Ukrainian television we see a gradual increasing of patriotism . Mention the words "patriot" and "patriotism" was growing exponentially since the second half of January 2014. In March 2014 many TV channel was showing by the phrase " unity of Ukraine "," United Ukraine " or "One Country" in the upper left corner of the screen . So, actually we see the two opposed images: constructed image of the Russian media fraternal peoples and historical community of Russia and Ukraine and the image created by the Ukrainian media - the image of Ukraine as a separate state with its own history , not related to Russia.

Summarizing the results of the content analysis of materials TRK "Ukraine" , we see the following historical images , widely used in political myth-making:

  • Russian occupant : This historical allusion refers primarily to the events of the Great Patriotic War . There’s the new interpretation of understanding of events . Russia appears not as the winner of fascism , but as the occupier , the invader.
  • Russia, the successor of the USSR : the image of the opposition to democratic Europe . Image is based on highlighting the lack of democratic freedoms in Russia , used the phrase " imperial spirit," " undemocratic regime " and others make reference to negative pages of Soviet history (in particular, for the deportation of the Crimean Tatars in 1944).

Thus, informational confrontation between Russian and Ukrainian media analyzed for the period from late 2013 to April 2014, it was based largely on historical allusions . It may be noted the commonality of the images on the thematic focus ( history of the USSR , the history of the Great Patriotic Union of Russia and Belarus , etc.) and their diametrically opposed semantic .

Mythologizing of consciousness - one of the most frequently used methods of manipulation. Its characteristic features are : no reasoned explanation , semantic substitution , "construction " messages from scraps of statements or video. Danger of mythological consciousness is that person born in the imagination as irrefutable facts irrational reality picture. Causal relationships are replaced by analogy and association.

Returning to the results of our analysis , we emphasize : television news and documentary projects based on real events , but it does not mean that they are a "mirror of reality" , although the viewer's perception psychology on a " set ." Researcher of the transformation of media culture N.B.Kirillova calls facts merely a pretext , the starting point for the creation of the myth of television . In this mythological interpretation of actual events TV is so believable that the audience accepts myth as reality . People tend to believe what they see as the visual perception channel seems intuitively the most reliable [6, 178].

According to N.B.Kirillova, the broadcast programs behavior literally [6, 193]. As a result, the consciousness of the viewer is " multi-layer " (Theodor Adorno’s term) : entertainment superimposed on political , they are - a movie , etc. The " multi-layered man" this raises the total hodgepodge of concepts and no correlation of events. The only system in which it is able to substitute the individual facts is a system of stereotypes - already formed in his mind. Visualization perception stands feature generations TV era : the language of words is simplified , giving place in the minds of dynamic visuals clip. That video communication opens vast opportunities in reality constructed myth.

Ways to influence television became the object of attention of the American researcher D.Fiske . According to the author , television does not reflect the fragment of reality , but rather constructs it. Reality is a product of discourse. Television camera does not record , and encodes a reality. Encoding gives sense of reality which is ideological[7].

Development of the industry " manipulation images" helps to ensure that the TV image is more important than the referent ( the message itself) . According D.Fiske [8], we live in the era of the simulacrum ( similarity of sight) . An hour of TV watching viewer can " survive " is the number of images which man of the previous era failed to learn throughout life . As a result , the TV is compatible with the culture of the fragment , as images of mass consume ( form ) , without delving into the essence of the matter.

Arthur Berger compares the effect of television news production at the viewer with the mechanism of suggestion, widely used advertising and dubbed the " strategy of persuasion ." Its meaning that the ideas are repeated often, in small portions , resulting is thet the person first gets used to them , and then learns and in the final already considers his . Therefore, repeatability of information programs ( they aired 5-7 times a day) conveys certain attitudes of the individual.[9] "Television - is not just an intermediary between myth-makers and audiences . This special environment has a number of unique properties that make it not only in the delivery channel myths , but in the factory to produce them , "- writes political scientist A.Tsuladze[10].


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