A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CORPORATE MOTIVATION BETWEEN COMPANIES IN CHINA AND BELARUS ON THE BASIS OF GERCHIKOV’S MOTIVATION MODEL
Чередник М.Ю.1, Лиу Вэн Ю2
1 Магистрант-соискатель, 2 Профессор, Даляньский технологический университет
ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ КОРПОРАТИВНОЙ МОТИВАЦИИ БЕЛАРУСИ И КИТАЯ НА ОСНОВЕ МОТИВАЦИОННОЙ МОДЕЛИ ГЕРЧИКОВА В.И.
В этой статье будет проведено исследование корпоративной мотивации Беларуси и Китая на основе типологической модели трудовой мотивации Владимира Исааковича Герчикова. Во введении мы приведем обоснование выбора данной модели в качестве базы для нашего исследования. Основная часть статьи будет посвящена самому исследованию. В заключении мы предоставим результаты анализа, которые помогут выявить ключевые моменты, на которые необходимо обратить внимания при взаимодействии компаний из Беларуси и Китая.
Ключевые слова: корпоративная мотивация, Беларусь, Китай, Герчиков.
Cherednik M.Y.1, Liu Wen Yu2
1 Postgraduate student, 2 Professor, Dalian University of Technology
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CORPORATE MOTIVATION BETWEEN COMPANIES IN CHINA AND BELARUS ON THE BASIS OF GERCHIKOV’S MOTIVATION MODEL
This research examined corporate motivation in Belarus and China on the basis of Gerchikov’s motivation theory. We will bring theoretical substantiation for the work and state why we have chosen Gerchikov’s motivation model as foundation for the analysis. On the basis of the results gathered with the help of the research we will propose a suggestion on what peculiarities in the framework of corporate motivation we shall pay special attention in the course of Belarusian and Chinese companies’ cooperation.
Keywords: corporate motivation, Belarus, China, Gerchikov.
In this article we will take Gerchikov’s motivation theory as a basis of the analysis. It was decided to choose this concept as, first of all, it unites experience of traditional, procedural and substantive concepts, supplementing and combining them in the one theory. Secondly, Gerchikov's theory allows describing motivational character of not only every employee, but also of the whole company in general. Moreover, motivational theory of Gerchikov shows the direction for efficiency increase, revealing both the most effective, and the least desirable methods of stimulation for each worker individually. Gerchikov’s motivation model also reveals the ways for employees’ self-motivation. By means of this concept it is possible to understand what exactly attracts employee in the current work, what advantages it gives to the worker now and what he can receive in the future.
According to Gerchikov’s concept there are five types of labor motivation: instrumental, professional, host, patriotic and avoiding (lumpen) .
Instrumental type. For this type work itself has no special value. It is considered to be a source of earnings and other benefits gained as a reward for work.
Professional type values work’s content and possibility to show his knowledge and resolve challenges. This type prefers to work independently and is notable for developed professional characteristics.
Patriotic type. This type is interested in taking part in the implementation of significant organizational goals. He usually considers himself to be very important for the organization and is notable for readiness to take additional responsibility.
Host type is reflected by taking voluntary responsibility for work. This type will do his work with maximum efficiency without asking for special content or high pays. Nevertheless, host type is hard to rule because he stand instructions.
Lumpen (Avoiding). This type has a very low motivation and qualification and doesn’t strive to increase it. He’s irresponsible and tries to avoid any work connected with personal responsibility. At the same time, he’s in favor of equality and accepts low salary if nobody else gets more.
As a rule, there are no pure motivation types. Each employee represents a combination of all or some of motivational types to a certain proportion. Thus, each person is described by motivational profile showing at what degree each motivational type takes part in each employee’s motivation character. Each type suits to the most and the least effective forms of work motivation. This typological model is implemented in the Motype test created by Gerchikov . The test helps to find out motivation structure of both selected employees and personnel groups. Referring the results to the Table 1 we will see which motivation forms are more useful, neutral and forbidden in every organization .
Table 1. Motivation types and motivation forms
Different motivation forms are more effective for different employee motivation types. Thus, for Instrumental type monetary stimuli would be basic, for Patriotic – moral, for Lumpen – negative and natural. Basic is the most effective form. Possible could be used without damage. Neutral will give no influence. Forbidden is not allowed to be used.
In order to make the research as full as possible, we decided to choose three companies from each country: one large, one average and one small by the number of employees. For the accuracy of the analysis it was decided to take Belarusian and Chinese companies similar by activity field and the number of employees. Big companies were represented by YILIY from China and Kompensator from Belarus. Both companies are occupied in the sphere of the construction equipment. Average-size companies work in the sphere of IT technologies: Chinese Allrun Electronics and Belarusian company Belitsoft. Small-size companies were represented by Dalian Extend Development Company and the Arguments and Facts in Belarus.
2.2. Research questions
Q1. What differences do Chinese and Belarusian companies have in respect to corporate motivation?
Q2. What corporate motivation peculiarities should be taken into consideration when Belarusian ad Chinese companies interact to maximize benefits for each company?
Q3. What suggestions for improvement of corporate motivations’ interaction should be proposed to make mutual cooperation even more effective?
2.3. Belarusian companies
75 people, including 1 managing director, 3 heads of departments, 1 translator and 70 sales managers from Kompensator company took part in the research. According to the results of the Motype test the prevailing average coefficient of Kompensator company motivation type is Professional, with an index of 32.1 points. The second place was taken by Instrumental type which gained 23.0 points; the third place is held by Host with 19.8 points. The smallest number of points was gathered by Patriotic and Lumpen types with 18.9 and 6.2 points respectively.
There were 32 employees participated in the test which took place in Belitsoft company. According to the received results, Professional type of motivational behavior (38.0 points) with elements of Instrumental type (22.0 points) prevails in the company. The third type – Patriotic - slightly lags behind and takes 21 points. Last two positions are occupied by Host and Lumpen types and gathered 10 points each.
2.3.3. Arguments and Facts in Belarus
11 people, including 3 heads of departments and 8 managers took part in the research from Arguments and Facts in Belarus company. The results of test showed that in this company prevails Host type of motivation which earned 31.0 points. Professional type with 26.9 points is on the second place by average quantity of points. The third and the fourth positions are taken by Instrumental (24.6 points) and Patriotic (17.8 points) types. Lumpen type with 14,5 points finishes the list.
With the help of the obtained data we calculate an average motivational type of Belarusian employee. For this purpose, we sum up the data gathered from Belarusian companies on each type separately and divide it on number of companies, i.e. in 3. According to the calculations stated above it is possible to draw a conclusion that the prevailing motivation type in Belarus is Professional (32.3 points) with elements of Instrumental (22.9 points). Host type is on the third place. Patriotic and Lumpen types finish the list with 19,2 and 10,2 points respectively.
2.4. Chinese companies
75 people took part in the research in YILIY company, among them 1 managing director, 4 heads of departments and 70 managers. According to test results, Professional motivation type with 28.5 points prevails in the company. Patriotic type of motivation with coefficient in 21.85 points holds the second place. Host type with 21.8 points closes the first triplet of motivation types. Instrumental and Lumpen types gathered 20.0 and 7.2 points respectively.
2.4.2. Allrun Electronics
37 people completed the test in Allrun Electronics company, among them 4 heads of divisions and 33 managers. On the base of the Motype test results it was determined that the dominating motivational type in this company is Professional with average company coefficient of 25.6 points. Coefficient of Patriotic type is 22.2 points what makes it the second-large. Instrumental type takes the third place with 21.3 points. Host one gained 21.2 points, slightly lagging behind from Instrumental type, while Lumpen gathered only 9.2 points.
2.4.3. Dalian Extend Development Company
There were 12 people participated in the research from Dalian Extend Development Company: 1 head of department and 11 employees. The Motype test showed that in this company, as well as in two previous ones, Professional type of motivational behavior with average coefficient of 29.7 points prevails. The second and the third places are taken by Patriotic type with 21.7 points and Host one with 20.8 points. Instrumental type with 14.1 points and Lumpen with 12.5 points closes the list.
Thus, on a basis of the carried out questioning and the analysis of the results it is possible to draw a conclusion that leading motivational type in Chinese companies is Professional (27.9) with elements of Patriotic (21.9). The third place is taken by Host type (21.3). Instrumental and Lumpen types which gained 18.5 and 9.6 points close the list.
According to Gerchikov's theory two dominating motivation types are taken into account for the further research. Thus, on the basis above-made calculations it is possible to draw a conclusion that Professional and Instrumental types of motivation prevail in Belarusian companies. As far as China is concerned, Professional motivation type leads there as well. However, the second by importance is Patriotic type that changes a picture in general.
On the basis of the data obtained by questioning of three Belarusian and three Chinese companies, and also using motivational model of Gerchikov we will make the table of comparison that describes Chinese and Belarusian models of motivation and the types of stimulation corresponding to them:
Table 2. Chinese and Belarusian motivation types and the forms of stimulation corresponding to them.
As we can see from the table, there are peculiarities in forms of stimulation in the companies from Belarus and China. Negative stimulations can be applicable in the companies of both countries. However, their content differs from country to country. If in Belarus monetary forms are more effective, then in Chinese companies sign or token forms will have much higher influence. Basis of the natural method of motivation is the same. Monetary type of motivation will play a key role in the Belarusian company, but won't be as effective in China where moral type of stimulation will be more successful. The paternalism, as a rule, can be used in China while in Belarus it will be ambiguously perceived and can even lead to deterioration of motivation.
- Final conclusions
On the basis of the above-stated analysis of the companies from Belarus and China which was carried out on the basis of Gerchikov’s motivational concept the following conclusions were drawn:
- Prevailing motivational type in the Belarusian companies is Professional, with average coefficient in 28.5 points. Instrumental type takes the second place with coefficient of 21.7 points
- In the Chinese companies Professional type also takes the first position with 27.8 points. It is supplemented by Patriotic type of motivation with 21.9 points.
According to Gerchikov pure types of motivation don’t exist, that is why it is necessary to take into account two types of motivation which gathered the highest number of points. Thus, answering to the first question of this research:
Q1. Motivation types in Belarusian and Chinese companies have differences. Taking into consideration Gerchikov's motivation model and information from the Tab.1 in particular, we have revealed what these differences are.
Q2. The most effective type of stimulation in Belarus is monetary. It is followed by moral stimulation and possibility of career development. At the same time in the Chinese companies the first place is taken by the moral stimulation, and only then goes monetary stimulation, paternalism and participation in company management.
Thus, we can draw the final conclusion:
Q3. In the process of collaboration of Belarusian and Chinese companies, managers shall pay attention to the fact that for Chinese employees moral type of stimulation is the most effective, then goes monetary method. At the same time when motivating Belarusian employees, it is more preferable to place emphasis on monetary stimulation.
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