COMPARISON OF ARABIC LOANWORDS IN BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH IN THE PROCESS OF INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION

Research article
DOI:
https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2024.141.53
Issue: № 3 (141), 2024
Suggested:
04.02.2024
Accepted:
16.02.2024
Published:
18.03.2024
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Abstract

The article provides a comparative analysis of Arabic borrowings in British and American English in the process of intercultural communication.

The object of the study is Arabisms in British and American English.

The purpose of the article is to analyze the specifics of the use of Arabisms in the process of intercultural communication.

Conclusion. In the process of intercultural communication, the comparison of Arabisms in British and American English represents an opportunity to exchange cultural experiences and deepen understanding of the differences between these two linguistic communities. It also promotes respect for cultural diversity and the development of effective intercultural communication skills.

1. Introduction

English, as an international language of communication, includes many concepts that may have different analogues and interpretations in other language communities. For example, the concept of freedom in English can have different connotations in different cultures, since freedom can be perceived differently in different sociocultural contexts. In the process of intercultural communication, it is important to take these differences into account for deeper understanding and interaction.

Comparisons of linguistic communities also reflect the influence of cultural values, traditions, and historical experiences on linguistic expression. For example, the concept of family in English may differ from concepts of family in other languages, since it may include different forms of kinship relationships, responsibilities and expectations in different cultures.

In the process of intercultural communication, it is necessary to take into account these differences for successful interaction and to avoid misunderstandings. This may require active learning and cultural awareness of other language communities, as well as the ability to find common ground and understanding.

2. Research methods and principles

The comparison of Arabisms in British and American English is a fascinating topic, reflecting the influence of Arabic culture on both varieties of English and their reception in different cultural contexts. Let's consider several examples of comparison of Arabisms in British and American English in the process of intercultural communication.

The process of intercultural communication and comparison of Arabisms in British and American English represents an opportunity to exchange cultural experiences, and it also promotes respect for cultural diversity and the development of effective intercultural communication skills.

3. Main results

A comparison of Arabisms in British and American English allows us to better understand the influence of Arabic culture on both varieties of language and their interpretation in different cultural contexts. This is important for successful interaction and communication between British and American cultural communities, as understanding these differences promotes respect for cultural diversity and promotes greater understanding between people from different countries and cultural communities.

Arabisms in British and American English can differ both in number and in semantic nuances. For example, in British English one may encounter the words souk "market", "bazaar" or shisha "water tube",

,
which are Arabisms, while in American English these words may be less common or have other equivalents. Also, some Arabisms may have different meanings or connotations in different varieties of English, which can lead to misunderstandings or misinterpretations in the process of intercultural communication.

4. Discussion

These morphological borrowings are actively used in modern English to form new scientific terms. For example, the semantics of the Greek prefix aero- (aer / air) determines the breadth of its use in aviation terminology and scientific discourses related to the use of gaseous substances: aero-optics “atmospheric optics”, aeroacoustics “aeroacoustics”, aeroallergen “aeroallergen” (pollen plants), aerobridge “telescopic gangway” (from the airport terminal to the aircraft)

,
.

The semantics of the Greek prefix allo- (alios / other)

,
, on the contrary, is not decisive in the formation of new words that replenish the composition of a wide variety of scientific discourses: medicine, psychology, biology, physics, phonetics, semasiology: alloaesthesia “alloesthesia "(a feeling of irritation in another place of the body), alloantigen "alloantigen", "allotypic antigen", allobiosis "allobiosis" (change in the nature of the body's reactions when the internal or external environment changes), allochronic "allochronic" (occurring at different times, existing non-simultaneously), allopsychic “allopsychic”, allophone “allophone a set of sounds that have the same properties or the same information content”, allosematic “allosematic”
.

The semantics of the Latin prefix audio- (audire / hear) largely determines the use of words formed with its help in physical, telecommunication, polytechnic and other discourses focused on the functioning and perception of sound: audio record “phonogram”, audio-typist “audio-scribe” (an employee typing printed text from an audio recording)

.

The semantics of the Greek prefix astro- (astron / star) predetermines the use of formed words in astronomical terminology: astro power “power with spaceships”, astrobiology “astrobiology”, astrodynamics “astrodynamics”

.

The Greek prefix auto- (autos / self) is closely associated with the automotive industry and other scientific discourses associated with automatic (not requiring time or thought) reaction: auto camera “car with a television camera”, “television car”, auto carrier “trailer for transporting cars”, autoanswer “automatic answer”, “auto answer”

.

The Greek prefix stereo- (stereos / stiff) is associated primarily with physics and chemistry: stereoscopic camera “stereoscopic camera”, “stereo camera”

.

One of the striking examples of Arabism in English is the word alcohol, which comes from the Arabic الكحول [al-kuḥl]. In British and American English the word means "spiritual drinks", however in American English the word liquor is often used to refer to spirits, while in British English liquor can mean "sauce" or "liquid"

,
.

This may lead to different interpretations and attitudes towards alcohol use in different cultural contexts.

Another example of Arabism in English is the word coffee, which comes from the Arabic قهوة [qahwah]. In British and American English, the word refers to a drink made from roasted and ground coffee beans. However, in intercultural communication it is worth considering that in the United States the more common use of the word coffee is to denote “black coffee,” while in the UK the term black coffee is more often used

.

This can cause misunderstandings when ordering drinks or discussing preferences in different cultural environments.

Another interesting example of Arabism is the word sugar, which comes from the Arabic سكر [sukkar]

. In British and American English, this word means sugar, but in intercultural communication it is worth considering that in the USA the word sugar is more common to use to denote crystalline sugar, while in the UK the term granulated sugar is more often used
. This can cause misunderstandings when preparing meals or purchasing food in different cultural environments.

5. Conclusion

Thus, the comparison of Arabisms in British and American English in the process of intercultural communication plays an important role in promoting intercultural dialogue, respect for cultural diversity and successful interaction between people from different linguistic communities. This contributes to the development of effective intercultural communication skills and broadening the horizons of understanding cultural connections and differences.

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