Research article
Issue: № 12 (66), 2017

Кысылбаикова М.И.

ORCID:0000-0003-2082-3883, старший преподаватель

Северо-Восточный федеральный университет им. М.К. Аммосова, Якутск



Статья посвящена исследованию структуры концепта КУЛЬТУРА в языковом сознании носителей якутского языка. Целью работы является представление структуры исследуемого концепта. Для достижения этой цели были поставлены следующие задачи: выявить слова-стимулы исследуемого концепта по итогам анализа словарных статей, провести ассоциативный эксперимент среди носителей якутского языка, выявить семантические признаки, представить ядерные, ближние, дальние и крайние  периферии концепта КУЛЬТУРА. Выделены и описаны семантические особенности исследуемого концепта в языковом сознании якутов. Автор предлагает метод «Семантический гештальт» Ю.Н. Караулова как наиболее подходящий метод структурирования концепта. Результаты данной работы могут быть использованы в исследованиях и анализе, связанных с языковым сознанием, психолингвистикой.

Ключевые слова: концепт, языковое сознание, ассоциативный эксперимент, семантический гештальт, культура.

Kysylbaikova M.I.

ORCID:0000-0003-2082-3883, senior lecturer

North-Eastern Federal University named after M.K. Ammosov, Yakutsk



The article is devoted to the study of the structure of the concept CULTURE in the language consciousness of the Yakut language speakers. The aim of the work is to represent the structure of the concept under study. To achieve the goal there were set the following tasks: to reveal the stimulus-words of the examined concept on the results of analysis of the entries, to make an associative experiment among the Yakut language speakers, to reveal the semantic signs, to present core, near and far peripheries of the concept CULTURE. The semantic features of the explored concept in the language consciousness of the Yakuts are singled out and described. The author suggests method of "Semantic gestalt" by Yu.N. Karaulov as the most suitable method for structuring the concept. Results of this work can be used in the research and analysis connected with language consciousness, psycholinguistics.

Keywords: concept, language consciousness, associative experiment, semantic gestalt, culture.


According to cognitologists the language of each people reflects the past experience of society which in the final analysis crystallizes into cultural concepts. They are verbalized in symbolic images by the mental representations of the native speakers of the surrounding world and, thus, form a "world image" of the representatives of the corresponding culture [9, P. 112], [10, P. 17], [8, P. 24].

In our research as a method we use a free associative experiment as this experiment makes it possible to find out how the fragments of language consciousness are organized by native speakers. We agree with the opinion of        V.P. Belyanin, who believes that the associative experiment shows the presence of a psychological component in the meaning of a word (and also an object denoted by a word). In this connection it should be noted that the main advantage of the associative experiment is its simplicity, ease of use as it can be performed with a large group of native speakers simultaneously [1, P. 133].

Material and methods

The concept CULTURE is presented by the following 15 stimulus words, which were revealed as a result of the analysis of 25 Russian and 25 English definitions of the word “culture”: culture, tradition, civilization, language, science, history, folklore, literature, art, religion, education, sport, spirituality, humanism, upbringing. There was held the questionnaire with 15 stimulus words of the concept CULTURE among 2000 Yakut people. Let’s see the example of the analysis of stimulus word Tradition. Reactions of Yakut language speakers to the stimulus word Yges/Tradition: suguruyuu / admiration (30 %), ysyakh / ysyakh (25 %), bult / hunting (4 %), byraabyla / rules (4 %), ite5el / faith, religion (4 %), nomoh / saying (4 %), sier-tuom / ritual (4 %), tuom, duom / rite (4 %) etc. Sporadic answers: djol / happiness (0,3 %), mas / tree (0,3 %), olonkho / olonkho (0,3 %), ys kut / human soul (0,3 %), uhuyeen / myth (0,3 %), ayyylarga suguruyuu / worship to the highest Gods (0,25 %) etc.

As you see the most frequent reaction among the Yakut language speakers is suguruyuu / admiration. Suguruyuu / admiration is one of the main traditions of Sakha people. Yakut language speakers mostly worship Aiyy - Deities, Deity worship ceremony can be seen in all large-scale events, as it is in the tradition of the Yakut culture. Ysyakh - a national holiday of the Yakuts, meeting summer, celebration of awakening of nature and fertility. Various rituals, rites are the main things of this holiday. In our time, in a quick rhythm of modern life, when old foundations are replacing, no one really does not try to observe the rituals. And only once a year on Ysyakh you can watch the careful and precise execution of the rituals of our ancestors. It is the national holiday, where you can see the various rituals of worship to the highest deities.

It should be clarified that the blessing (algys) as a ritual is performed with the ritual feast of fire or spirits of the earth, according to the pagan beliefs of the Yakuts. Traditionally algys - an appeal to a higher power, the spirits of earth and sky with a request or gratitude [5, P. 357], [3, P. 88], [4, 121]. Also, the traditions are observed in a significant event - the birth of a child, weddings, housewarming, funeral. Hunters follow their rites, there are a number of unwritten rules to be followed in the nature, in the hunt. The ritual is always fraught with the beliefs of the religion. Yakut people believe in spirits, deities, and this is reflected in their reactions: there were mentioned sacred Uriing Aar Toyon - the supreme god and Bayanay - spirit of the forest, the patron of hunters [2, P.101].

The results of associative experiment among Yakut language speakers gave us too many reactions that it was rather difficult to identify the conceptual, semantic signs of the concept. As it was mentioned above, we decided to use “Semantic Gestalt method” proposed by Yuriy Karaulov [7, P. 191].

After Y. N. Karaulov we highlight the following semantic zones:

1) who (a person associated with the stimulus-word); 2) what (subject associated with the stimulus-word); 3) what (includes permanent (integrated) features, viewed from the perspective of an outside observer); 4) what is (estimated performance in the framework of "good - bad" scale); 5) it is (quasi definitive structure in which the pronoun "it" plays the role of a hypothetical ligament); 6) do (action associated with the stimulus-word); 7) where (the place associated with the stimulus-word); 8) when (the time period associated with the stimulus-word) [7, p. 191]. 9) Semantic Zone 9 "What" (abstract concept associated with stimulus-word). The necessity to add the additional list of semantic zones another zone (№ 9) due to the fact that the monitoring contact areas presented concept can not be fully represented [6, P. 27].

The example of semantic zone № 2 “What” (subject associated with the stimulus-word) in the language consciousness of Yakut language speakers (Reactions and quantity): compyuter / computer (400), hartyyna / picture (400), kinige / book (160), khomus / khomus (harp, the national instrument of the Yakuts) (160), globus / Globe (30), tiis / teeth (30), bukubaar / ABC book (27) etc.

Semantic Zone № 2 "What" offers a lot of reactions, so they should be distributed according to the semantic proximity. The number of reactions is represented in parentheses.

Group 1 - sign "Education": kinige / book (160), globus / globe (30), bukubaar / ABC book (27), achyky / glasses (10), tyldjyt / dictionary (10), uereh kinigete / textbook (2) . In total 239 responses.

Group 2 - sign "Informational Technology": compyuter / computer (400), TV / TV (13), araadjyia / radio (9). In total 422 responses.

Group 3 - sign "Attributes of culture": khomus / khomus (harp, the national instrument of the Yakuts) (160), tiis / teeth (30), salama / cord of horsehair (20), serge / hitching post (20), sahalyy tanas / national dress (10), skripichney kuluus / treble clef (8), pianino / piano (4), binseek / jacket (3), seleeppe / hat (2). In total 257 responses.


So, as a result of the submission of the Yakut language speakers’ reactions to 15 stimulus-words of the concept CULTURE and their distribution to 9 zones based on "Semantic gestalt", proposed by Y.N. Karaulov, also presenting the conceptual signs within the zones, we have identified the following conceptual signs: sign "Folklore" (7,7%), sign "Literature" (5,8%), sign "Human Values" (5,3%), sign "Relationships" (4,8%), sign "Faith" (3,7%), sign "Institutionalization" (3,6%), sign "Physical action" (3,2%), sign "Sport" (2,8%), sign "Teaching" (2,8%), sign "Periodization of culture" (2,55%), sign "Art" (2,1%), sign "National holidays" (2 %), sign "Cultural actions (events)" (1,9%), sign "Informational technologies" (1,6%), sign "Art 2", (1,4%), sign "Geography" (1,4%), sign "Family" (1,1 %), sign "Cultural attributes" (0,95%), sign "Evaluation of representative of culture" (0,91%), sign "Education" (0,9%), sign "Mass Media" (0,08%), sign "Nature" (0,5%), sign "Attitude to the culture" (0,4%), sign "History" (0,2%), sign "Transport" (0,01%).

As we see, the core of the concept CULTURE in the language consciousness of Yakut language speakers is "Folklore" (7.7%). It includes such reactions as: olonkho / olonkho (Yakut heroic epos) (616), folklor / folklore (200), Saha tyla / Yakut language (600), sier-tuom / rite (100), Ysyakh / Ysyakh (Yakut national holiday) (560), ritual / rite (8).

The first layer of the structure of concept CULTURE in Yakut language consists of the following signs: "Literature" (5.8%), "Human values" (5.3%), "Relationships" (4.8%). The second layer - "Faith" (3.7%), "Institutionalization" (3.6%), "Physical actions" (3.2%). The third layer - "Sport" (2.8%), "Education" (2.8%), "Periodization of culture" (2.55%).


We can say that we could distinguish the structure of the concept CULTURE in the language consciousness of Yakut language speakers. We should notice that “Semantic Gestalt method” proposed by Y.N. Karaulov helped us to identify the conceptual signs of the concept “Culture” in Yakut language consciousness. In the consciousness of Yakut people the conceptual sign “Folklore” is in the first place.

Список литературы / References

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