SOCIAL ASPECT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN MODERN RUSSIAN SOCIETY
ORCID - 0000-0001-6832-3795, кандидат социологических наук, Саратовский национальный исследовательский государственный университет имени Н.Г. Чернышевского
СОЦИАЛЬНЫЙ АСПЕКТ ПРЕДПРИНИМАТЕЛЬСТВА В СОВРЕМЕННОМ РОССИЙСКОМ ОБЩЕСТВЕ
Актуальность выбранной темы обусловлена растущим значением предпринимательства в жизни общества и в меняющейся российской экономике. Появилась необходимость дальнейшего развития теоретических и методологических основ предпринимательства. При этом фундаментальное исследование развития предпринимательства приобретает важное значение в контексте решения социальных проблем современного российского общества. Субъекты предпринимательства должны принимать решения не только с учетом экономических факторов, но также социальных и экологических. В этом случае можно контролировать социальные процессы и отвечать за них. Поэтому предпринимательство считается не столько движущей силой экономики, сколько фактором ее социально-экономической стабильности.
Ключевые слова: предпринимательство, социология, экономическая теория, исследование, социальная ответственность.
ORCID - 0000-0001-6832-3795, PhD in Sociology, Saratov National Research University named after N.G. Chernyshevsky
SOCIAL ASPECT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN MODERN RUSSIAN SOCIETY
The relevance of the chosen topic is determined by the growing importance of entrepreneurship in the life of society and in the changing Russian economy. There is a need to further develop theoretical and methodological foundations of entrepreneurship. At the same time, a fundamental study of the development of entrepreneurship becomes important in the context of solving social problems of the modern Russian society. Entrepreneurs should make decisions taking into account economic, social and environmental factors. In this case, you can both monitor social processes and be responsible for them. Therefore, entrepreneurship is considered a factor of its socio-economic stability rather than the driving force of the economy.
Keywords: entrepreneurship, sociology, economic theory, research, social responsibility.
There is a strong opinion that the study of such a complex phenomenon as is the enterprise the most clear and consistent expression is found in economic theory.
Evolution of views on the economic nature of entrepreneurship is associated with the history of the development of productive forces and social and production relations. Each stage of development of market economy was accompanied by the desire of entrepreneurs to realize their goals and carry out their functions. The main properties and characteristics of entrepreneurship as an activity were outlined in the works of Zh. B. Say, J. Schumpeter, F.A., P. Drucker. Economic theory is based on certain grounds: the assumption of rationality of choice, free access to information freedom of economic actors, which gives the possibility of positive, normative and functional analysis and economic-mathematical modeling. Economic theory considers entrepreneurship as a significant resource for economic activities, along with material, financial, commodity, and other information, the presence of which in society is not questioned. Economic theory treats the entrepreneur as a theoretical category, denoting the subject which makes in the economy a certain specific function, contributing dynamism in economic processes. Entrepreneurship is present in the behavior of market subjects is often above and beyond objective economic laws.
The theory of entrepreneurship, thus, develops economic science and ventures into the realm of subjective, psychological and sociological approaches.
Starting from the middle of the XX century, the social responsibility of business entities acquires the character of a large-scale social phenomenon. P.Druker, who unlike his predecessors asserted that the main factors of entrepreneurship are not only risk, innovation, profit, but also mandatory participation in solving social problems of society, which create a positive image of the company, increasing it competitiveness [1, P. 92].
In paragraph 1 of Art. 2 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, business is considered to be an activity that is carried out independently, at its own risk, and is directed at the systematic receipt of profits from the use of property, the sale of goods, the performance of work or the rendering of services by persons registered as such in the manner prescribed by law. .
Materials and methods
Today there is still no established opinion about the subject and the object of entrepreneurship. There are some attempts and it was successful. As famous sociologist V. V. Radaev considers that in the field of research of sociologists involves elements of entrepreneurial culture, which covers the practices and ethics of business relations, the social composition of enterprise groups, channels of recruitment and their place within the structures of interpersonal relations, the value-normative basis of economic activities performed by the enterprise symbolic roles emerging around social climate, methods of identification of different enterprise groups [3, P. 124].
Or, to put it differently, social scientists study the Institute of entrepreneurship, its social possibilities and prospects of development, guided not only narrowly understood professional interests, and the interests and values of Russian society as a whole. This is a very important point to understand the subject of sociology of entrepreneurship. So, the object of entrepreneurship becomes a very complex configuration, which includes diverse aspects of contemporary socio-economic and political life of Russian society. The object of entrepreneurship appears to us in the form of a socio-economic phenomenon that requires a comprehensive assessment and consideration of all its elements and components.
The aim of the scientific developments in the field of entrepreneurship is quite obvious - it is to promote the complete identification and mobilization of all the potentials of entrepreneurship to solve local and national problems.
We now turn to the question: how, by what methods and principles in the specialist field of entrepreneurship should lead to podstavitsya, studying your subject? Simply put, what is the methodology of this discipline?
Methodology - the doctrine about structure, logical organization, methods, principles of cognitive activity. It should reflect the specific nature and purpose of knowledge of the studied subject. Since the topic of the sociology of entrepreneurship is quite complex, and the methodology of his
research diverse. It includes General scientific methods: analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, comparative method, experiment, as well as specific historical, structural-functional approaches, surveys, questionnaires, content analysis, method, statistics, etc. All depends on those particular sides of the objects that are studied. In the generalization of the obtained results, information material about the subject studied productive system approach with the aim of building a comprehensive and holistic theoretical models of this subject.
Methods of entrepreneurship, like any other science, must meet the following principal [4, P.12]:
- clarity, or observatoty (effective recognizability);
- determinism, or the absence of arbitrariness (and the sequence) in the application of learning tools;
- orientation, or the subordination of a certain goal (task);
- efficiency, or the ability to achieve on-labeled target (result);
- productivity, or the capacity to give, in addition to the intended results, other, side, but sometimes no less important;
- reliability, or the ability with high probability (in the limit) to provide the desired result;
- frugality, or the ability to produce results with the least amount of effort, time and money.
Social stereotypes are of a dual nature, depending on the way they are formed. On the one hand, they are developed as a result of entrepreneurial activity of the individual, on the other hand, are perceived, adapted and reproduced under the influence of the social environment, which has a significant impact on the entire set of social stereotypes.
At present, large Western companies have developed their own concepts of social responsibility, in accordance with which they are building their entrepreneurial activities. The course on the theoretical and methodological foundations of the concepts of corporate social responsibility has become an obligatory training course in the leading economic universities in the world [5, p.8].
The analysis of the world practice of consumer communities points to a general tendency to integrate the principles of social responsibility into corporate strategy and to the formation of an ideology of investment in social relations that meet the long-term interests of society and entrepreneurship .
The theory of entrepreneurship, thus, develops economic science and ventures into the realm of subjective, psychological and sociological approaches. Recall that in conditions of administrative-command economy, which was the economy of the Soviet Union to talk about entrepreneurship was unthinkable and dangerous. The Soviet state did not create conditions for development of entrepreneurship, presenting his ideologically alien to socialism. Real change in this area began only in the middle 80 of the last century, when the government was forced to recognize the right of the people to the manifestation of activity and initiatives in various spheres of life, including previously unavailable. Almost instantly there were a variety cooperatives and partnerships took "over" a lot of what was already unavailable to the state. In a strictly hierarchical society, which was the Soviet Union, the entrepreneur had no opportunity to "swing" social ties. In crisis of the post-perestroika Russian society, society of chaotically disintegrating the former entity, entrepreneur is easily enough transformed a decaying social bonds to their advantage. The activities of the entrepreneur in these circumstances was largely accelerate by development in society utilitarian motives, curiosity to new social forms, a large number of utilitarian unmet needs, a significant array of unstructured and senseless information.
It began a difficult process of finding entrepreneurs their place in the social structure of society, its identity, awareness of their role in the transformation of society. In fact, sociology has received "rights of citizenship" and became in demand in the changing society around the same time and developed largely in parallel with the development of entrepreneurship.
A sociological approach today allows you to see the process of creating the entrepreneurs of new economic relations not only as a process of social creativity, but also as the process of development of social activity of the entrepreneur. So appeared the phenomenon of entrepreneurship, the economic agent must contribute to the system of socio-economic agreements and deals with any new item, which may be a new subject of agreements, there is such a product that was previously unknown in a given social group, change any of the qualitative characteristics already known of the product, any deviation from traditional, typical options transactions. Entrepreneur creating new, sustainable socio-economic ties and relations is an important criterion of social activity of the entrepreneur, not only today but entrepreneurs actively participate in public life. This part is defined by its specific needs in material goods and an existing social-class structure of modern Russian society and the division of lab our, but also the prevailing ideas about the meaning and proper way of life, about social order, about the prestige or convenience of these or other activities, for the material welfare and wealth, success and people’s relationships.
So far, the Russian law as the basis of reforming of Institute of entrepreneurship operates mainly in two main definitions - "business activity" and an individual entrepreneur", entrepreneurship referring only to the economic activity. A fairly comprehensive definition of "entrepreneurship" is enshrined in the legislation, does not reflect the essence of entrepreneurship as a social phenomenon and impedes the effective development of the process of institutionalization of entrepreneurship. [7, P. 24].
At the present time civilized enterpreneurship, considered as a definite kind of social activity, has social responsibility as its inalienable attribute. There are four forms of responsibility: economic, legal, ethical and social [8, P. 30-37].
The modern Russian state is at a complex and ambiguous stage of their development, burdened by the global financial crisis, which significantly affected all spheres of society, including entrepreneurship. Today, Russian entrepreneurs are in a difficult situation, drastically narrowed the possibilities of the lending business, many medium and small enterprises ceased their activity, decreased the amount of real business partners. However, entrepreneurship in General as a social institution and a crucial factor of real economy left. Moreover the majority of entrepreneurs quite successfully adapted to the modern realities of the Russian society.
The modern Russian state and society, while supporting a common goal of social development, demonstrate the lack of commitment to social change: not finding adequate joint responses to emerging challenges, including the issues of support and development of entrepreneurship. The reason for the misunderstanding is on the level of values and consists of different representatives of different social groups the dynamics of social and economic life, the evaluation of key phenomena, including - the understanding of the essence of entrepreneurship.
So long as entrepreneurships, as a matter of fact, social activity, its development parameters should be considered in three most important spheres of the social life, where formed the main directions of corporate social responsibility: economic, environmental and social [9, P.171-178].
Entrepreneurship, as we have noted previously is generally very difficult socio-economic complex, which in structure and purpose, is defined under the influence of the personal interests of entrepreneurs and numerous external factors. When personal interests change, usually depending on the achieved economic results. Entrepreneurship in General is pretty clearly adapts to external factors. Personal interests, as a rule, do not change. Entrepreneurship in General and women in particular, is heavily dependent on the General economic life of the country
A basic property of entrepreneurship is economic freedom, i.e. the existence of a certain set of rights that guarantee Autonomous, independent decisions on search and selection of the type, form and scope of activity, methods of its implementation, the use of the product and revenues generated from this activity.
For successful development of entrepreneurship is necessary and competitive environment - the presence of a large number of producers - sellers are identical in their function or interchangeable products. Competition, admittedly, is a key element in the functioning of the market and the market economy in General. Under the competition in market economy refers to an economic process of interaction, relationship and struggle of owners of goods and services at the most advantageous terms of production and sales. This implies the absence of a monopoly of production, hindering the development of competition. The role of competition in shaping business is to identify the most efficient, effective ways of developing by comparison, select the best ways of working.
In terms of competition, rigorous verification of ideas and personal qualities of the entrepreneurs, their education levels, the ability to orientate themselves in the surrounding world. And on the top of the rise, only those who know how to correctly understand and correctly assess and satisfy social needs. Such is a little. Most of the huge number of new businesses usually fail and disappear. Some declare themselves bankrupt; others self-destruct when it becomes clear that the PA hopes the success won't come true. But a sufficient number of companies are working quite successfully, creating new jobs, new activities and new value added, which is necessary for the modern economy.
Today, when entrepreneurship became not only a reality in the life of the country, but the real factor in its economic development, on the agenda the question arises not only about the conditions conducive to entrepreneurship, but also about public control over this social institution. This is because the business structure even in conditions of complete economic and informational freedom in itself is not capable of the proper level to perform their social functions. The specificity of entrepreneurship as a form of activity is that in the pursuit of profit constantly reproduces various kinds of abuse is, to some extent contrary to the public interest.
However, to reduce the role of entrepreneurship only to the economic side of things would be wrong. Solving economic problems, creating conditions for economic recovery, job creation, expanding consumer sector, development of competition, market saturation by goods and services, entrepreneurship thus provides a social orientation of market economy, performs socially important functions. It thereby promotes the development of modern Russia, the consolidation of the foundations of civil society.
Social entrepreneurship allows you to apply the mindset, principles and tools of entrepreneurship in the social sector, to use innovative solutions to the most painful problems of society-poverty, hunger, unemployment, illiteracy, diseases. [10, P.13].
The entrepreneurship promotes the direction of the social development towards the social progress, agreement of the person and society’s interests. The social responsibility of the Russian entrepreneurship must not come to single cases of charity. The problem is to create such a culture and moral in the society, that would form the motivation of the business people to raise the image of the entrepreneurship activity. It is necessary to stimulate the system development of the not state social protection, to encourage active participation of the companies in the sponsor activity and social meaningful projects.
The understanding of the real essence of the social function of the entrepreneurship and necessity of real actions on behalf of the government and business in this direction will create favorable conditions for a harmonious combination of all interests with the optimal redistribution of the burden of the social problems of the modern society.
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