LANDSCAPING OF SOCHI IN ASPECT OF THE OLYMPIC GAMES-2014
Доктор биологических наук, доцент, Сочинский институт моды, бизнеса и права, Всероссийский научно-исследовательский институт цветоводства и субтропических культур, Сочи, Россия, Oksana191962@mail.ru
ЛАНДШАФТЫ СОЧИ В АСПЕКТЕ ОЛИМПИЙСКИХ ИГР-2014
В статье рассмотрены вопросы озеленения города Сочи. Представлен краткий исторический аспект проблемы и показаны изменения в оформлении ландшафтов, связанные с реконструкцией города в рамках Олимпийских игр-2014. Уделено внимание экологическому благополучию жителей и гостей города во время подготовки и проведения Олимпийских игр.
Ключевые слова: Олимпийские игры, озеленение, парки, эндемические растения, благоприятная окружающая среды.
Doctor of biological science, Sochi institute of Design, Business and Law,
The State Research Institution All–Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Floriculture and Subtropical Crops, Sochi, Russia, Oksana191962@mail.ru
LANDSCAPING OF SOCHI IN ASPECT OF THE OLYMPIC GAMES-2014
The questions of gardening of the city of Sochi at the article are considered. The historical aspect of a problem is given. The changes connected with landscape construction, during preparation of the winter Olympic Games-2014 are shown. Questions of ecological wellbeing of inhabitants and guests during preparation and carrying out the Olympic Games are brought up.
Keywords: Olympic Games, gardening, parks, endemic plants, environmental friendliness.
Our city was created as the city the resort. It was created very intensively, despite existence during this period very popular Crimea. It seems, the same sea, too warm summer, but our city had a highlight – the ridge which turned Sochi into the city of greenhouse.
Only on the Black Sea coast it is possible to meet such unique combination of climatic factors: the sun, the seas, the air filled with iodide aroma, relic and endemic plants (near Sochi from 3000 plants of 22% it is relicts, and 24% - endemic plants), etc. All listed allowed to create the real southern Riviera on the coast of Russia and also to bring and is fertile to grow up here many unprecedented earlier in the country subtropical plants. Big territories were for this purpose got. Park farmers as Crimean were imitated and a landing material brought generally from the Crimean parks. As a result, the city turned not simply into the next resort, and started functioning as the recreational center, urged to restore forces, to support health, to take esthetic pleasure. In this regard, creators of the city tried to strengthen as much as possible medical party for what filled city streets with specific cultures.
The first parks in Sochi appeared in the seventies the XIX century. In them there were most various species of pines, including such unique, as Tunberg's Japanese black pine, a pine resinous, Pallasov's pine (or Crimean), etc. Not only for beautiful blossoming landed oleanders (Nerium), and not only for honey aroma the pittosporum (Pittosporum) was imported into Sochi, and the cypresses (Cupressus), rosemary (Rosmarinus), geraniums (Pelargonium), cinnamon camphoric (Cinnamomum camphora), laurels (Laurus nobilis), osmanthus (Osmanthus), the well-known eucalyptuses (Eucalyptus) was imported. All these plants can be carried to phytoncids are group as their essential oils contain the substances, destroying pathogenic microorganisms.
Landscape designer was carried out serious scientific work. The air movement at parks which it became clear was investigated, for example, on the open district air faster moves at 3 times, than in the massif. Thus the open place gets warm more, heated air goes up, and from below is tightened colder. It is established that the optimum sizes of such open massifs have to be 60 to 150 m². At the big sizes air are excessive overheat, at smaller - the role of the air filter vanishes. The therapeutic influence of parks was investigated also. It became clear that factors which have direct impact on a condition of the person, are heat, air and фитонциды are. These researches allowed to create really unique conditions in the city to which numerous vacationers not only esthetic pleasure began to come, how many to correct the got naughty nerves, to strengthen immunity, to cope with problems of respiratory and blood systems.
The style of a subtropical pearl created in Sochi, successfully was maintained and during the Soviet period. At this time actively cared of how not only to preserve, but also to fill up primitive beauty and charm of the city. Even on a flat roof of circus constructed "hanging gardens", artificially increasing the area of the the subtropical earth. In the resort town the park cult was created, everything became for image of the garden-city. Not incidentally, since 1951 in the city there is the real school of landscaping under the leadership of the landscape designer S. I. Venchagov. Thanks to this master and his school, in Sochi there are cozy corners on territories of a number of sanatoria ("Russia", "Belarus", "Stavropol Territory", etc.), hotels ("Moscow", "Dagomys", "Actor", "Olympic", "Sheksna", etc.) squares ("Fitofantaziya", Garden of Russian-Japanese friendship, etc.).
As a result, the parks of Riviera and the Tree nursery with again created squares and parks at port are merged, the former cinema of "Stereo", the monument to Lenin, with the Seaside Park, the park at a television center, the Summer Theater and the circus was merged at the uniform green massif. The Japanese square are now occupies a small site about school of arts, but it was planned between av. Morskoy and str. Voykov as a unique green corner with ponds, with "rock-garden" and "a garden of mosses" for creating romantic and philosophical mood the persons . Gradually in the city the special style of the gardening was created which has gained recognition not only in the country, but also abroad too.
But in life of our city there were also sad moments. So, during reorganization the city to endured decline – at the country did not time for resorts, landscapes and their maintenance. The of skyscrapers came to park “Dendrariy”, private hotels was create in the park “Juzhnye culture”, parking was in Komsomolsky Square and in once one of the most beautiful streets of the country - Kurortny Avenue. But the car "eats" about 800 kg of oxygen into a year and to restore this quantity can only 5 - 6 big trees of middle age. For an average tree this period makes 50 – 80 years, but life expectancy of trees in the city is less, than in the wood. And in an urban environment trees start dying off in 40 - 50 years, just at that age when they give the greatest positive effect.
The one more problem which became actually for a resort: by number of cars Sochi was overtook even such city as Moscow which loaded by transport. There are 360 cars at the Moscow, and in Sochi - already 419 cars for 1000 people. If to consider that for the present period in Sochi there are on average 180 000 cars (with visitors), only for their providing at city must raise about 900 000 developed trees. On norms the usual city on one person requires 21 m2 of green plantings, and we had only 5 m2 during the period of reorganization.
As a result, the principle which was carefully supported for long years was missed: city which was blowing off by a wind, city was cool. The city-greenhouse, the garden-city turned into the city- bath! And the plants were felt it first: pines began to dry; a magnolia and oleanders became covered by a black raid; cypresses, chestnuts and plane was perished. And then the discomfort was felt by the person, the city is regained consciousness. The new generation of gardeners was invited and they were started correcting errors of the reorganization period. They did not consider subtropical color of the southern pearl of Russia, but that did not their fault, that is their trouble. The bright, elegant spots of pansies and petunias were on city streets.
However our subtropical heavy rains of the autumn and winter period turned this beauty into dirt. And annual aren't capable to carry out those functions which are assigned to plants in the city.
The Olympic Games – 2014 are the real gift for the city, are popularity and comfortable. Amendments to the Olympic Charter will be the guarantees of that comfort and environmental friendliness. The Olympic Games have held in the conditions of respecting environment . In this connection, corresponding changes were made for candidates for the Olympic Games and the management of the cities wishing to receive Games for the first time had to answer some questions on "environment protection" which formed additional, so-called "the green document" . The idea of "green" winter Games became an everyday occurrence since 1994 - of the period of the Olympic Movement in Norway. Not incidentally the president of the IOC Jacques Rogge in comments for "Financial Times" declared that the Olympic Games have to fight both for ecology and for gold (Olympics Must Go for Green as Well as Gold) .
During preparation for the Olympic Games – 2014 at the resort there were put some tens of thousands of new trees and bushes, works on restoration of parks, squares and phytocorners was carried out. Since the end of 2011 within of compensation for destroyed landscape landings of plants are carried out on Teatralnaya st., Ordzhonikidze str., on Kurortny Avenue, at Winter theater, the 50 years old of the USSR str., Vinogradnaya str., Constitution str., in Tsvetnoy parkway, Lenin str., in the village Veseloye, in the square of Teachers and around hotel "Bereg" in the settlement of Kudepsta, in the square of the settlement of Khosta, etc. During preparation for the Olympic Games were considered of defects in gardening of last years and were invited the phytodesign specialists from national park, the staff of institute "Gorleseko" (park "Dendrariy") and the research institute of floriculture and subtropical cultures, is a oldest institute in the city. And magnolias, azaleas, palm trees, sycamore trees etc. began to come back to the city. Within the Olympic grants the staff of institute of floriculture conducted work not only on the gardening of city streets and Olympic venues, but also on preservation of many endemic types of plants. Besides, at institute of floriculture in the preolympic years active selection work was conducted on chrysanthemum which is so popular at residents. Scientists decided to create a grade which will adequately represent the Olympic Sochi, having given it the honorable name "Olympic Games". For the comprehensively of discussion over green construction to Sochi in 2013 to the conference on problems of decorative gardening arrived experts from Bulgaria, Azerbaijan, Armenia, etc.
As a result, it is possible to tell that the concept of the "green" winter Olympic Games in Sochi was completely executed. Moreover, also a disputed issue that wasn't always taken into account in earlier held games was considered . So, the Olympic village in Krasnaya Polyana and tracks for bobsled and sledge were initially planned in a buffer zone of Caucasus Biosphere Reserve which is the world heritage of UNESCO. And, as we know, according to zoning of Sochi National Park, construction of infrastructure for tourism and rest within such territories isn't authorized. In this connection, residents and many ecological organizations of Russia were extremely concerned. Quite justified opinion was expressed that carrying out the Olympic Games in Sochi will cause enormous damage to the wild nature and biological diversity, will be damaged, and the Olympic Games will threaten social and economic wellbeing of residents of Sochi. However the Minister of Regional Development D. Kozak in 2010 sounded the decision of the government that the ecology of Sochi not will suffer from Olympic Games . According to him, environmental problems collected in the city for a long time. In the master plan of development of the resort town till 2032 was specified that replacement of sewer networks was required; deep-water drains are polluted: 11 from them are faulty and 5 demand of lengthening, through 10 years the sewer will be directly made at coastal line. В то же время, he declared that the Olympic Games will help with the decision and these problems. Among the main objectives he called liquidation of solid waste landfills and a solution of the problem of emissions of sewage in the sea.
And the environmental friendliness of games was delivered to Sochi on one of the first places: problems were solved and were transfer of the respective sporting venues. Replacement of systems of the sewerage, dump recultivation in Adler was made, six incineration plants in Anapa, Gelendzhik and Tuapse are constructed, the complex and laborious work on preservation of many endemic species of plants is carried out. As a result, the city is received not only modern sports and city infrastructure, new parks and squares, but also recognition of the whole world. It is necessary to hope that the direction in maintenance of ecological comfort of the city which was created during preparation for the Olympic Games will turn into a steady tendency.
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