ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PRODUCTION MEAT OF CATTLE IN THE VOLGOGRAD REGION
ORCID: 0000-0003-3775-1169, Старший преподаватель, ФГБОУ ВО «Волгоградский государственный аграрный университет»
ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ АСПЕКТЫ ПРОИЗВОДСТВА МЯСА КРУПНОГО РОГАТОГО СКОТА В ВОЛГОГРАДСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ
В статье определена актуальность производства экологически безопасной продукции животноводства, в частности, мясного скотоводства в Волгоградской области; проанализирована динамика производства и потребления основных видов мяса с учетом установленных рациональных медицинских норм; выявлены несоответствие и дисбаланс между основными видами мяса в структуре потребления, а также негативные тенденции ее изменения на протяжении ряда лет; обоснованы условия и предпосылки развития мясного скотоводства в регионе на основе экологически ориентированных технологий с учетом местных особенностей и гибкого использования конкурентных преимуществ.Ключевые слова: мясное скотоводство, экологическое сельское хозяйство, экологически безопасная продукция, условия развития.
ORCID: 0000-0003-3775-1169, Senior lecturer, Volgograd State Agricultural University
ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PRODUCTION MEAT OF CATTLE IN THE VOLGOGRAD REGION
It is determined the relevance of ecologically safe production of animal products in the article, particularly beef cattle in the Volgograd region; dynamics of production and consumption of main types of meat is analysed taking into account the established rational medical standards; identified the mismatch and imbalance between main kinds of meat in the consumption structure, as well as negative trends for a number of years; grounded conditions and preconditions of development of meat cattle breeding in the region on the basis of ecologically oriented technologies taking into account local circumstances and flexible use of the competitive advantages.Keywords: meat, beef cattle, ecological agriculture, ecologically safe production, conditions of development.
According to statistical information, Russian Federation takes the 105th place in the world on quality of life. If in 1989 the ecological safety in the country was on the third place, then in 2014 it takes only the 18th place. Consumer risks don't decrease, but increase. In production of foodstuff it is authorized to use over 500 synthetic additives for today. Crops of genetically modified plants in the world approach 60 million hectares. All this exerts a negative impact on health of the person already now.
The ecological principles and criteria become an important factor of market grouping of goods and services where the crucial role is played by consumer preferences taking into account product quality.
Environmental safety is largely qualitative indicator that reflects the impact of elements of the diet on the individual. It is known that the majority of hazardous and harmful substances entered the body with food, but because of requirements quality properties of food products are extremely high.
The work experience of livestock farms and complexes shows that the livestock production intensification often isn't followed by improvement of hygienic and veterinary and sanitary conditions in livestock rooms, makes negative impact on health of animals, the environment is intensively polluted. Big concentration of animals on confined areas, not always the balanced feeding reduces their natural resistance, productivity and finally worsens product quality.
Now in livestock production various chemicals are intensively applied. For preserving and improvement of quality of forages various preservatives, nonprotein nitrogen-containing additives, vitamins, antioxidants, and also other biologically active agents are used. Among them there are also hormonal medicines capable to make considerable changes to biological processes in an organism of animals, and through a food chain – and in a human body.
Ecologically safe products shall conform to the requirements and indicators enshrined in medical and biological standards rates, and standards, specifications and not to pose hazard to life and human health. In these products content of some hazardous substances in concentration, maximum permissible for the person, is allowed. In case of production of ecologically safe products, except observance of strict quality requirements of forages, controlled special conditions of keeping are provided.
In the current economic conditions provide the population with quality food is the most important task. Volgograd region has great potential and conditions for development of meat cattle breeding. The modern production rate of meat products in the region is provided to table 1.
Agrarian policy in the field of development of meat livestock production and the developed macroeconomic conditions caused a situation when the priority was given to poultry farming and pig-breeding as to the subindustries of agricultural industry providing the most rates return of investments. It led to the fact that in 2010 the beef share in total amount of the consumed meat in the Volgograd region was reduced to 25,8 %, and in 2014 – up to 25,5% (tab. 1) though, it agrees to the recommendations about the rational regulations of consumption of foodstuff meeting the modern requirements of healthy food  developed and approved by a ministry of health and social development of the Russian Federation shall constitute at least 35,7 %.
Table 1 - Dynamics of structure average per capita and rational norms of consumption of main types of meat in the Volgograd region in 2000-2014
According to the analysis of structure of consumption in the region, some growth of consumption of meat of all types has happened only at the end of the analyzed period, and consumption of beef, having sharply decreased during 2000-2010, in 2014 remained practically at the level of 2010, and growth of consumption of fowl was considerable – on 9,7 items in structure of consumption at consumption of pork, traditionally high for the Volgograd region, which, by data , exceeds norm of rational consumption of this type of meat for 29,3%.
Thus, the actual structure of meat consumed in the region does not meet the «Recommendations about the rational regulations of consumption of foodstuff meeting the modern requirements of healthy food» , resulting in the exceedance of pork consumption by 29,3%, other types of meat – 3,3 times, a lack of consumption of poultry at 29,0 %, beef – by 41,6 %.
Fig. 1 – Production of meat in all categories of farms in the Volgograd region in 2007-2014
Feature of production of meat of cattle is the prevalence of small-scale production. In 2014 family farms and country farms made beef in 92,8 %.
Production of ecologically safe products of livestock production assumes creation of the mechanism of market grouping of ecological products and identification of the environmentally friendly territories. The Volgograd region in this relation possesses all necessary conditions and prerequisites.
The technology of meat cattle breeding is based on the maximum use of the natural and improved pastures, rough and juicy forages in case of rather small specific weight of the concentrates mainly fed by an animal during final sagination. The meat cattle breeding doesn't require considerable capital investments, energy and labor costs therefore it can successfully develop in regions with big areas of pasturable grounds and a limited manpower.
In modern conditions in case of receipt of beef it is necessary to be guided by low-cost technologies, the maximum use of potential of the cattle of specialized meat breeds and fodder resources that will allow to receive ecologically safe products.
According to ecological system of traceability on which are based the international standard ISO 22000: 2005 and GOST R ISO 22000-2007, production of food shall be performed in the environmentally friendly territories. In the Volgograd region the territories, and it is generally Pallasovsky and Staropoltavsky districts, where the entities on cultivation of meat breeds of cattle are located, satisfy to the quality standards. Therefore when using highly productive specialized breeds of the cattle of the meat direction, providing cost efficiency of production, at the same time the ecological effect is reached that in modern conditions is indisputable competitive advantage and grants the right to use the Ecologically Safe Products brand.
Thus, development of meat cattle breeding in the region on the basis of ecologically oriented technologies of cultivation will promote preserving ecologically favorable territories, increase in competitiveness, release of natural and safe food, increase in demand for meat products, improvement of quality of life of the population.
- Metlitsky F.F. About market grouping of ecologically safe goods and technologies. Environmentally friendly areas. Access mode: http://www.ecochistyproduct.ru/
- GOST R ISO 22000-2007 «Food safety management systems. Requirements for organizations in the food chain». – M.: Standartinform, 2007. – 28 p.
- «Recommendations about the rational regulations of consumption of foodstuff meeting the modern requirements of healthy food» [digital resource] // Help search engine ConsultantPlus.
- Production and consumption of main products of food: statistical review / Territorial authority of Federal State Statistics Service in the Volgograd region. – Volgograd : VolgogradStat. – Volgograd, 2014. – 71 p.