**DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2018.72.6.034**

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# МЕТОДИКА ОПТИМИЗАЦИИ ВНУТРИГОРОДСКИХ МАРШРУТОВ ДВИЖЕНИЯ АВТОМОБИЛЬНОГО ПАССАЖИРСКОГО ТРАНСПОРТА

**МЕТОДИКА ОПТИМИЗАЦИИ ВНУТРИГОРОДСКИХ МАРШРУТОВ ДВИЖЕНИЯ АВТОМОБИЛЬНОГО ПАССАЖИРСКОГО ТРАНСПОРТА**

Научная статья

**Шавыраа Ч,Д. ^{1, }* Кара-Сал Б.С.^{2}**

^{2 }ORCID: 0000-0003-1361-319,

^{1,2 }Тувинский государственный университет», Кызыл, Россия

* Корреспондирующий автор (shavyraa[at]mail.ru)

**Аннотация**

Вопросы качества транспортного обслуживания являются наиболее актуальными для системы автомобильного пассажирского транспорта, т.к. обслуживая население, он существенно влияет на его деятельность, экономическую и социальную ситуацию в регионе. Основной задачей оптимизации является выбор оптимальной схемы автобусных маршрутов по критерию минимального суммарного времени, затраченного всеми пассажирами на передвижения. В данной статье дается пошаговая инструкция процесса оптимизации.

В последнее время наблюдается тенденция снижения объемов перевозок на дотационном пассажирском транспорте. Ее основными причинами являются снижение качества транспортного обслуживания, рост уровня автомобилизации, изменение структуры спроса на транспортное обслуживание, развитие коммерческого пассажирского транспорта, старение парка транспортных средств (ТС). Ситуация, когда платежеспособный спрос на транспортное обслуживание удовлетворяется частным коммерческим транспортом, а на муниципальный транспорт падает перевозка льготных категорий населения, приводит к сокращению доходов от перевозок и росту потребности в бюджетном финансировании. Особенно остро данная проблема ощущается в малых городах, где из-за ограниченных финансовых ресурсов муниципальных органов власти общественный транспорт находится на грани исчезновения.

Для более качественного обслуживания пассажиров в малых городах актуально провести обследования пассажиропотоков и оптимизация маршрутной сети.

**Ключевые слова:** транспорт, качество, маршрут, пассажиры, оптимизация, сеть.

**OPTIMIZATION METHODOLOGY OF INTRAURBAN TRANSPORT ROUTES OF AUTOMOBILE PASSENGER TRANSPORT**

Research article

**Shaviraa**** Ch.D. ^{1, }* Kara-Sal B.S.^{2}**

^{2 }ORCID: 0000-0003-1361-319,

^{1,2 }Tuva State University, Kyzyl, Russia

* Corresponding author (shavyraa[at]mail.ru)

**Abstract**

The issues of quality of transport services are the most relevant for the system of automobile passenger transport, since serving the citizens, it significantly affects the activities of these people, as well as the economic and social situation in the region. The main task of optimization is to select the optimal bus route scheme according to the criterion of the minimum total time spent by all passengers on their journeys. This Research article provides step-by-step instructions for the optimization process.

In recent years, there has been a downward trend in the volume of transportation on subsidized passenger transport. Its main reasons are a decrease in the quality of transport services, an increase in the motorization level, a change in the structure of demand for transport services, the development of commercial passenger transport, the aging of the vehicle fleet (VF). The situation when the solvent demand for transport services is met by private commercial transport, and the transportation of preferential categories of the population falls on municipal transport, leads to a reduction in revenue from transportation and an increase in the need for budgetary financing. This problem is especially topical in small towns, where, due to limited financial resources of municipal authorities, public transport is on the verge of extinction.

For better servicing of passengers in small towns, it is important to conduct passenger traffic surveys and optimize the route network.

**Keywords:** transport, quality, route, passengers, optimization, network.

**Introduction**

In order to improve the service of the population, when forming a route network, it is advisable to focus on the following indicators: total time for movement “from door to door”, remoteness of stop points, frequency of urban passenger transport (ATG), number of transfers during the journey, filling of rolling stock (PS), fare, convenience of using transport, etc.

One of the most common criteria in the evaluation of transport services for the population is the time spent on traveling. As a criterion for the formation of the optimal route network in Kyzyl, it is necessary to use the total time spent by passengers to travel using the optimal schemes of bus routes.

In general, the problem of constructing an optimal scheme of bus routes can be formulated as follows.

There is a transport network – the streets of the city, for which bus traffic is possible. The major points of origin and repayment of passenger traffic are given – the nodes and the sections of streets connecting them – the links of the transport network (the graph of the transport network). It is known the time of following buses for each link in the transport graph. The dimensions of the passenger traffic between the vertices of the transport graph are established and the interval of the buses on the routes is set.

It is necessary to define such a scheme of bus routes, in which the total time spent by all passengers on the movement would be minimal. At the same time, the following restrictions may be imposed on the solution: the use of the capacity of buses should not be lower than the specified ratio; The length of the route must be not less than the minimum and not more than the maximum length, which is set in advance; routes must not start and end in those nodes that can not be used to organize the final points of the routes, and other restrictions arising from the local conditions of the city.

**Material and methods**

Thus, the objective function will look like this:

F = ∑Q_{ij}*T_{ij} → min, (1)

where *Q _{i}*

_{j }– passenger traffic, pass / h;

*T*

_{ij}_{ }– time of trip, h.

Proceeding from the above formulation of the problem of choosing the optimal bus route scheme by the criterion of the minimum total time spent by all passengers on the following, the following basic data are needed to solve it [1,2,3].

- A map of the city with a transport network consisting of points of origin and repayment of passenger traffic (transport city microdistricts) and streets connecting these points, according to which bus traffic is possible. When dividing Kyzyl into zones, it was taken into account that the time for passengers to pass to the center of the transport district should not exceed 5 minutes, so when solving this problem it is assumed that pedestrian crossings to and from the stop depend not on the route scheme but on the branching of the transport network . In this regard, the total time spent by passengers on foot movements is assumed to be constant, independent of the route scheme, and therefore, calculations for the choice of the route scheme are not taken into account. The transport column shows the length of each of its links and the time of the bus journey along these links, taking into account the given operational speed for each link in the transport graph.
- The size of passenger traffic between all points (microdistricts) of the city, which is expedient to determine based on a questionnaire survey of passenger traffic, which allows for the processing of questionnaires to determine the corresponding microdistricts beginning and end of travel of passengers. It is most expedient to develop a route scheme on the basis of labor and other trips in the morning and evening hours “peak”. Thus, it is expedient to determine the passenger flow at the specified time.
- Specified interval of bus traffic on the routes.
- Specify the tops of the beginning and end of the routes, as well as the minimum or maximum length of the routes.

Proceeding from the listed initial data, the number of possible variants of constructing the route scheme is expressed by a very large value, and the best solution lies between the extreme variants.

1 option. All micro districts are connected directly to each other by direct routes, and then during trips all transplantationswill be completely excluded and the number of routes will be the largest and their number will be:

*m* = [(*n *– 1) *n*] / 2,

At the same time, the passenger traffic flowing on each route will be small, and the interval for the buses, given the use of their capacity, is quite large, which will cause passengers to lose their time waiting for buses to stop.

Option 2. With the simplest linear arrangement of micro districts, all routes are assigned only between neighboring micro districts, and their number will be:

*m* = (*n* – 1).

However, the maximum possible number of passenger transplants and the corresponding costs of their transplant time will take place.

Thus, it is necessary to choose a certain combination of routes, which would ensure minimum total travel time for passengers.

In general, the route network optimization technique [4,5,6] will consist of the following sequence of actions:

- Formation of the transport graph, indicating the shortest distances between all adjacent vertices and indicating the operational speed of the bus for each link of the graph. The data is tabulated and is the input data for entering into the computer program. It is done manually.
- Formation of a matrix of passenger correspondence (tables of passenger movement), including labor, educational and cultural-domestic trips. The matrix is constructed for the most loaded period of time and has the dimension of pass / h (for calculations we will use the morning and evening hours “peak”, as most characteristic).
- The construction of the passenger traffic flow chart, which is built on the basis of the passenger correspondence matrix (the table of moving passengers) and the matrix of shortest (in time) paths between the vertices of the graph. It is executed by means of the computer program (in the form of a matrix) and manually (in the form of a graph).
- Assign routes for the movement of buses (the formation of a route network) according to the cartogram of passenger traffic.
- The redistribution of passenger traffic along the designated routes of bus traffic is carried out by route selection. In the case of passing several routes along the link, the passenger traffic on this link is distributed proportionally between the routes passing along this link.
- For the designated routes of bus traffic (the formed route network), taking into account the redistribution of passenger traffic, the objective function is calculated:

*F* = ∑*Q _{ij}**

*T*→

_{ij}*min*, (2)

where *Qij* – passenger traffic (from the redistributed matrix of the passenger flow chart), pass / h; *Tij* – travel time (from the matrix of the minimum time of motion), h. It is carried out by means of a computer program.

- For designated bus traffic routes (a formed route network).

The estimated capacity of the MS on each route is determined. (*q*_{расч}):

*Q*_{расч} = *Q _{ijмах}**

*I*, (3)

where *Q _{ijмах}* – the maximum passenger traffic on the route segment (from the redistributed matrix of the passenger flow chart), pass / h;

*I*– bus interval (manually set for each route), h.

A comparison is made between the estimated capacity and the maximum capacity of buses (qvm max) from the existing PAZ bus type. In case of exceeding the estimated capacity above the maximum, the estimated capacity is equal to the maximum capacity and based on the latter, a new traffic interval (Iн) is calculated.

7.1 We compare the new interval of bus traffic with the minimum allowable interval (Imin), which for calculations is taken equal to 3 min based on the minimum necessary time for boarding and disembarking passengers. In the case of Iн Imin, the new bus interval is equal to the minimum and the estimated capacity of the rolling stock is recalculated on the basis of the latter.

7.2. Determines the number of buses to work on each route (А_{м}):

А_{м} = *t*_{об} / *I* = (2**L*_{м}) / (*V*_{э}**I*) = (2**L*_{м}* *Q _{ij}*

*) / (*

_{мах}*V*

_{э}*

*q*

_{расч}), (4)

where *tob* – time of turnover of the bus on the route, h; Lm – length of the route (from the matrix of shortest distances), km; *Vе*-is the operational speed of the bus, km / h. Change the bus routes (the formation of a new route network) according to the cartogram of passenger traffic (see paragraph 4).

- Performing the actions described in cl. 6 – 8, each time performing a comparison of the newly created version of the route network, according to the specified criterion of optimality, with those calculated earlier. For example, with the existing version of the route network.

In order to improve the quality of servicing the population by carriers of all forms of ownership, based on optimization of the city’s route network, it is possible to reduce the total time for traveling “from door to door”. It is also possible to reduce the remoteness of stopping points, increase the frequency of urban passenger transport, reduce the number of transfers during the journey of passengers, ensure the safety of passengers traveling by public transport, the cost of transportation, the convenience of using transport, etc.

When optimizing bus routes, many of its customers benefit significantly, such as reducing waiting times, using the capacity of rolling stock, determining the adequate number of employees on the bus line, scheduling the vehicle traffic, etc.

Carriers with a rolling stock of different capacities can use them at their discretion, i.e. release during the peak hours the entire park of the existing PS. At the same time, the cost of travel by buses of small capacity is higher. They make business trips due to the comfort and speed of delivery of passengers. When the passenger traffic decreases, these buses can be used on the streets, but the fare will be equal to the fare on buses. The number of routes served by buses of small and especially small capacity in some regions reaches 70% [9], [10].

For small cities, low quality of service is typical due to insufficient financing of transport from the budget of municipalities, as well as aging of the PS fleet. Traffic flow surveys are not conducted for a long time, although new organizations and enterprises, schools, kindergartens are being opened, residential neighborhoods are being built [7], [8].

**Discussion**

For the city of Kyzyl, as the criterion for selecting applicants who will serve the routes, we have chosen the smallest amount of subsidies requested, provided that the requirements of regulatory documents on the quality and safety of transportations are complied with. A carrier who fails to comply with the conditions of the transport service may be removed from transport, and the right to carry out the transportation is transferred to another Carrier.

Thus, the results of the study allowed to develop a consistent method of organizing the service of the public by bus transport, to identify the most appropriate form of organization of the market for passenger transportation, based on the model of a regulated market and to form a possible management structure for the GPT. There are no such complex methods for organizing public services. Therefore, this method is the most rational in the organization of service by bus transport in small towns.

Конфликт интересов
Не указан. |
Conflict of Interest
None declared. |

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