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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2017.66.195

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Жалелева Р. З. ПРЕДПРИНИМАТЕЛЬСКИЙ РЕСУРС КАЗАХСТАНА В РЕЗУЛЬТАТАХ ХОЗЯЙСТВЕННОЙ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ / Р. З. Жалелева, С. З. Жалелева, А. А. Пастернак // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2018. — № 12 (66) Часть 3. — С. 30—32. — URL: https://research-journal.org/economical/entrepreneurial-resource-of-kazakhstan-in-the-results-of-economic-activity/ (дата обращения: 16.09.2019. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2017.66.195
Жалелева Р. З. ПРЕДПРИНИМАТЕЛЬСКИЙ РЕСУРС КАЗАХСТАНА В РЕЗУЛЬТАТАХ ХОЗЯЙСТВЕННОЙ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ / Р. З. Жалелева, С. З. Жалелева, А. А. Пастернак // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2018. — № 12 (66) Часть 3. — С. 30—32. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2017.66.195

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ПРЕДПРИНИМАТЕЛЬСКИЙ РЕСУРС КАЗАХСТАНА В РЕЗУЛЬТАТАХ ХОЗЯЙСТВЕННОЙ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ

Жалелева Р.З.1, Жалелева С.З.2, Пастернак А.А.3

1ORCID: 0000-0002-4448-1753, доктор экономических наук, главный научный сотрудник ИЭ КН МОН РК,

2ORCID: 0000-0002-5669-0018, PhD, доцент кафедры менеджмента и бизнеса,

3ORCID: 0000-0001-7326-3045, PhD, доцент кафедры финансов и учета,

2,3Университет Международного Бизнеса, Алматы, Казахстан

ПРЕДПРИНИМАТЕЛЬСКИЙ РЕСУРС КАЗАХСТАНА В РЕЗУЛЬТАТАХ ХОЗЯЙСТВЕННОЙ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ

Аннотация

Современные хозяйственные системы повсеместно в мире наращивают использование предпринимательского ресурса, которое позволяет добиваться значительных экономических результатов. Особенно очевидно это наблюдается в практике зарубежья, в частности в развитых экономических системах, активно эксплуатирующих данный ресурс, вносящий существенный вклад в совокупный продукт этих стран. В Казахстане результативность предпринимательского ресурса остается не столь существенной. В этой связи, дальнейшее развитие национальной экономической системы связывается с включением в оборот предпринимательского ресурса.

Ключевые слова:  предпринимательство, предпринимательская деятельность, предпринимательский ресурс.

Zhaleleva R.Z.1, Zhaleleva S.Z.2, Pasternak A.A.3

1ORCID: 0000-0002-4448-1753, doctor of economic sciences, chief researcher of IE CS MES RK

2ORCID: 0000-0002-5669-0018, PhD, ass.prof. of Management and Business department,

3ORCID: 0000-0001-7326-3045 PhD, ass.prof. of «Finances and Accounting» department,

2,3University of International Business

ENTREPRENEURIAL RESOURCE OF KAZAKHSTAN IN THE RESULTS OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY

Abstract

Modern economic systems throughout in the world ramp up the consumption of entrepreneurship resource which allows achieving significant economic results. Especially it is observed abroad, in particular, in developed economic systems exploiting this resource actively, making significant contribution to the total product of these countries. In Kazakhstan the effectiveness of entrepreneurship resource remains less integral. Thus, the following development of national economic system is connected with introducing the entrepreneurship resource.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial activity, entrepreneurial resource.

Introduction: Economic performance of the economy of Kazakhstan is determined by the contribution of entrepreneurship to the economic activities of the country. In the work it is estimated by indicators of gross domestic product by 1 tenge of investment. Further development of the economy is determined by three scenarios – optimistic, realistic, pessimistic.

The aim: determining contribution of entrepreneurship of the national economy of Kazakhstan.

Results

Entrepreneurship environment is formed based on development of productive works, improvement of production (economic) relation, creation auspicious social and government mentality, formation of market as environment of existence (activity) of entrepreneurs and other important conditions [1].

Famous scientists investigating auspicious conditions of development of entrepreneurship, think that effective entrepreneurship environment must provide civilized and lawful entrepreneurs with necessary economic freedom, as the first determining condition of development of entrepreneurship, and the second condition is development of organizational and economic innovation [2], [3], [4], [5]. In some way, these are two important elements of entrepreneurship environment.

Nowadays the current Kazakhstani model of entrepreneurship management in the whole keeps positive dynamics of growth in the economy of country, which was a result of global changes and internal features of national economy, main of them are connected with raw-material orientation of its organizational structure and aptitude to impact of market conjecture. The latter was reflected on domestic economic effectiveness reduced basic cost characteristics of products, conditioned by falling of prices on it. Such situation can be partially analyzed as a result of cycling of demand on raw-material products in the world market. In addition, this situation has political background that cannot be omitted in changes of market conjecture. That is why attention of economists is paid to diversification of economy of country, its structural non-raw diversity, manufacturing production and development of service sector [6]; [7]. In our point of view, the latter in Kazakhstan according to study was developed but it should be noted that structural majority in the sphere of services at present time is explained by striving for improving volume parameters of domestic production through changing price characteristics. Thereby, inflation expectations are justified which are not always caused by growth of expenses for producing products and services.

Economic effectiveness of national economy is conditioned by its investment activity. For the period 2011-2016 investments in fixed capital in the country grew up. Structural components by the resources of financing have been increased through own funds and other loans (in restraining volume of non-residents). Whereby funds of non-residents were represented in 2016 by the sum extending the sizes of investments of republican budget. For the studied period technological structure of investments to fixed capital has changed, and indicators of gross national product per 1 tenge of investments in the whole Kazakhstan had been reduced. That was the result of reduction of indicators in producing goods (from 4.40 to 3.50). The same dynamics was observed at agricultural, fish and forest sectors, (from 12.88 to 8.44), industries (from 3.28 to 2.73). Only in producing services there was growth but it turned out to be not so significant to affect total economic indicator (from 6.31 to 8.5) (table 1) [8]; [9, P. 79-94].

Table 1 – Comparative indicators of investments in fixed assets and production of gross domestic product in the Republic of Kazakhstan, 2011-2016

15-02-2018 10-31-22

Research includes optimistic, realistic and pessimistic versions. The first case was based on presence of favorable external and internal environment as the factors of maintaining, when the market conjecture meets the interests of country and finally provides high social and economic position and ecological balance. Realistic (neutral) version is based on more or less stable factors of external and internal environment what allows keeping satisfactory positions with annual gross national product formation more than 1.5 percent and the same social parameters which are determined by the Gini coefficient in the limit 0.28-0.30 and index of human potential development 0.80-0.85. Finally, the third pessimistic version is represented by us when factors of external environment do not meet the interests of domestic manufacturers, in other words, the market conjecture does not allow the Kazakhstani entrepreneurship resource to show up. In the last case there were two versions reviewed. When internal factors are mobilized and able to provide stable position of economy and the second one is when formed internal conditions do not allow countering the external factors. By the first scenario of pessimistic version effectiveness is estimated as satisfactory, by the second – unsatisfactory.

In Kazakhstan transformation of organizing economic activity management is carried out at different levels. It is conducted with regular consequence, at macro-, mezo- and micro- levels and comprises government authority, large, medium and small business [10].

Improvement of management system was carried out recently and at present time managing system of national economy is transformed in the part of government sector that includes 14 ministries and more than 30 committees. In general, managing subsystem of national economy is built by functional principle, excluding doubling from the first sight which was more peculiar to the previous schemes. Under more detailed analysis of government sector, its structural components elements of doubling were revealed. This can be observed by the structure of ministries and their departments.

At present time in Kazakhstan there is consequent and result-oriented system of measures on providing necessary conditions of the Kazakhstani entrepreneurship what includes multiple structures of large, medium and small business. Undoubtedly, for successful and effective development of national economy it is necessary in its formation to have participation of organizations various by the scale and complementing each other. These can be different unites combining formations of large, medium and small business. Economic return, in our opinion, can be more considerable through increasing manufacturing chains, elements allowing obtaining products with higher value added. Schemes of increasing these chains and elements can be formed with participation of large, medium and small business, organized by the aegis of base productions, local authority. Thereby, using flexibility and mobility of small and medium business with applying large entrepreneurship resources, it is possible to achieve rather productive schemes of organizing production activity.

Conclusion

To date, in Kazakhstan, the effectiveness of an entrepreneurial resource, whose huge opportunities and prospects are opening up in the event of effective activation of the potential of the subjects of the real sector of the economy, remains not so significant. Part of the reason is that the establishment and development of entrepreneurship in Kazakhstan has been taking place in difficult and not always favorable socio-economic conditions of the transit period, against a backdrop of a serious macroeconomic crisis and a decline in people’s living standards. The process of forming the sector of the economy is now faced with a number of difficulties of an objective and subjective nature that hamper its dynamic development. The first ones are connected with the general crisis state of the economy and the lack of the required financial resources to give a strong impulse to the large-scale development of entrepreneurship. The second – with the fact that the society has not overcome prejudices regarding the receipt of profit and enrichment.

Список литературы /References

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Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

  1. Najt F.H. Risk, neopredelennost’ i pribyl’ [Risk, uncertainty and profit]. – M.: Delo, 2003. – 360 p. [in Russian]
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  3. Smit A. Issledovanie o prirode i prichinah bogatstva narodov [A Study on the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Peoples]. – M.: Jeksmo, 2007. – 960 p. [in Russian]
  4. Zh.B. Traktat po politicheskoj jekonomii [A Treatise on Political Economy]. – M.: Direkt media Pablishing, 2008. – 68 p. [in Russian]
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  6. Zhaleleva R.Z., Kosmambetova R.I., Gabdullin R.B. i dr. Faktorno-celevoe upravlenie innovacionnoj industrializaciej RK. Strategicheskoe upravlenie innovacionnoj industrializaciej RK [Factor-target government of innovative industrialization of the RK. Strategic government of innovative industrialization of the RK]. – Almaty, 2013. – Book 1. – 222 p. [in Russian]
  7. Zhaleleva R.Z., Kosmambetova R.I., Zhaleleva S.Z. i dr. Faktorno-celevoe upravlenie innovacionnoj industrializaciej RK. Innovacionnaja modernizacija nacional’noj jekonomiki na baze strategicheskogo gavenmenta i menedzhmenta [Factor-target government of innovative industrialization of the RK. Innovative modernization of the national economy on the basis of strategic government and management]. – Almaty, 2014. – Book 2. – 256 p. [in Russian]
  8. Predvaritel’nye dannye za 2015 god. [Preliminary data for 2015]. Statistical compendium. – Astana, 2015. – 196 p. [in Russian]
  9. Predvaritel’nye dannye za 2016 god. [Preliminary data for 2016]. Statistical compendium. – Astana, 2017. – 190 p. [in Russian]
  10. Zhaleleva S.Z. Upravlenie partnerskimi otnoshenijami v Kazahstane [Managing Partnerships in Kazakhstan]. – Almaty, 2016. – 163 p. [in Russian]

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