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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18454/IRJ.2016.51.043

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Большакова Л. С. ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ ВЛИЯНИЯ ФЕРМЕНТАТИВНОГО ГИДРОЛИЗА НА ИЗМЕНЕНИЕ ПИЩЕВОЙ ЦЕННОСТИ ЖМЫХА РАПСОВОГО / Л. С. Большакова, Г. В. Гудименко, О. Н. Степина и др. // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2016. — № 9 (51) Часть 2. — С. 12—15. — URL: https://research-journal.org/technical/study-of-the-influence-of-enzymatic-hydrolysis-on-the-change-of-the-nutritional-value-of-rapeseed-cake/ (дата обращения: 28.05.2020. ). doi: 10.18454/IRJ.2016.51.043
Большакова Л. С. ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ ВЛИЯНИЯ ФЕРМЕНТАТИВНОГО ГИДРОЛИЗА НА ИЗМЕНЕНИЕ ПИЩЕВОЙ ЦЕННОСТИ ЖМЫХА РАПСОВОГО / Л. С. Большакова, Г. В. Гудименко, О. Н. Степина и др. // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2016. — № 9 (51) Часть 2. — С. 12—15. doi: 10.18454/IRJ.2016.51.043

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ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ ВЛИЯНИЯ ФЕРМЕНТАТИВНОГО ГИДРОЛИЗА НА ИЗМЕНЕНИЕ ПИЩЕВОЙ ЦЕННОСТИ ЖМЫХА РАПСОВОГО

Большакова Л.С.1, Гудименко Г.В.2, Степина О.Н.3, Шелепина Н.В.4, Кузина А.В.5

1 ORCID: 0000-0003-4074-4461, Кандидат биологических наук, Доцент, 2 ORCID: 0000-0001-5042-0191, Доктор экономических наук, Профессор, 3 Кандидат технических наук, Доцент, 4 ORCID: 0000-0002-1154-8624, Доктор сельскохозяйственных наук, Доцент,  5 Кандидат биологических наук, Доцент, Орловский государственный университет экономики и торговли, Орёл, Россия

Работа выполнена в рамках выполнения Государственного задания Министерства образования и науки РФ

ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ ВЛИЯНИЯ ФЕРМЕНТАТИВНОГО ГИДРОЛИЗА НА ИЗМЕНЕНИЕ ПИЩЕВОЙ ЦЕННОСТИ ЖМЫХА РАПСОВОГО

Аннотация

В работе проведено исследование влияния ферментативного гидролиза на изменение пищевой ценности жмыха рапсового. Ферментолиз проводили с применением полиферментного препарата РовабиоТМ Макс АР, производство  Франция. Полученные в ходе исследований результаты показали целесообразность ферментативной обработки жмыха рапсового с целью повышения его пищевой ценности. Ферментативный гидролиз позволяет снизить количество клетчатки и гемицеллюлоз, увеличить количество свободного фосфора в жмыхе рапсовом. Несмотря на уменьшение содержания протеинов, в результате ферментативной обработки их перевариваемость увеличивается, что свидетельствует о возрастании биологической ценности белков. Полученный в ходе биотрансформации продукт может быть использован в качестве функционального обогатителя при производстве пищевых продуктов.

Ключевые слова: жмых рапсовый, ферментативный гидролиз, пищевая ценность

 

Bolshakova L.S.1, Gudimenko G.V.2, Stepina O.N. 3, Shelepina N.V. 4Kuzina A.V. 5

1ORCID: 0000-0003-4074-4461, PhD in Biology, Associate Professor,  2ORCID: 0000-0001-5042-0191, PhD in Economics, Professor, 3 PhD in Engineering, Associate Professor,   4 ORCID: 0000-0002-1154-8624, PhD in Agriculture, Associate Professor, 5 PhD in Biology, Associate Professor,  Orel State University of Economy and Trade, Orel, Russia

The work is done within the framework of State order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation

STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS ON THE CHANGE OF THE NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF RAPESEED CAKE

Abstract

The paper studied the influence of enzymatic hydrolysis on the change of the nutritional value of rapeseed cake. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out with the use of the polyenzyme preparation RovabioTM Max AR, made in France. The results have shown the advisability of enzymatic processing of rapeseed cake to improve its nutritional value. Enzymatic hydrolysis allows reducing the amount of cellulose and hemicellulose, increasing the amount of free phosphorus in rapeseed cake. Despite the decrease of protein content, as a result of enzymatic processing, the digestibility increases that indicates the increase of the biological value of proteins. The product obtained during biotransformation can be used as a functional fortifier in food production.

Keywords: rapeseed cake, enzymatic hydrolysis, nutritional value.

Introduction

Oil cake is a byproduct of oil production from oil plant seeds by pressing. The main use of oil cakes is in fodder production as a component of animal feed and as a separate feed [8.12]. The factors limiting the use of oil cakes for food are high content of cellulose and lignin, and the presence of anti-nutritional compounds, which include phytates, phytic acid, lectins, chlorogenic, quinine, erucic acid and others [2].

In general amount of oil cakes produced both in Russia and in the world, rapeseed cake takes one of the leading places [8]. Rapeseed cake is characterized by the presence of protein with full amino acid composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids with a predominant content of linolenic (ω-3) acid, dietary fiber, significant amount of choline, niacin, riboflavin, folic acid, thiamine, mineral substances – calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper manganese [3,5,6], which indicates the prospect of its use in food production.

The presence of large amounts of cellulose and phytic compounds limits using of rapeseed cake as a functional ingredient in food production. Phytin content in rape is 1-3%. Phytic acids of cakes bind calcium and phosphorus. From 40 to 70% of total phosphorus of rapeseed cake is connected with phytin [9.14]. Protein, linked by phytates, can’t be the subject of hydrolysis with pepsin. This is due to decreased protein solubility and structural changes after the merger with phytate. In addition, protein-phytic complexes react readily with iron, zinc, manganese, copper, impeding their absorption [1,13]. These aspects need to find the effective ways of processing and to improve the quality of rapeseed cake that will allow to save the protein component, increasing its digestibility, and at the same time, to eliminate the factors that reduce the nutritional value of the rape. One of the promising directions of improving the quality of rapeseed cake is its enzymatic treatment with the help of cellulolytic enzyme preparations with phytase activity to get a product with a low content of cellulose and phytic compounds [4,7].

The purpose of the work is to study the influence of enzymatic hydrolysis on the change of the nutritional value of rapeseed cake.

Objects and methods of the research

The objects of the research work are:

– rapeseed cake of increased oil content of  “Orelrastmaslo” production (TU 9146-005-00336527-2005);

-enzyme preparation Rovabio Max AR (production – France, Endo-1,4-in-xylanase -14000 AXC- u/g, Endo-1,3 (4) -in-glucanase -2000 AGL- u/g, 6-Phytase-10000 FTU- u/g).

Analysis of samples was carried out according to conventional techniques:
– mass fraction of crude protein – according to GOST 13496.4-93;

– fractional composition of proteins – by Osborne method (in VIR modification) [10];

– mass fraction of crude fiber in the fat-free product, based on absolutely dry substance – according to GOST R 52839-2007;

– determination of qualitative and quantitative composition of vitamins – by the method of high performance liquid chromatography;

– content of minerals – by atomic absorption spectrophotometry;

– determination of free phosphorus concentration – by the method of Ermakov A.I. [11];

– protein digestibility – by colorimetric method (by Lowry) [11].

The reliability of experimental data was evaluated by methods of mathematical statistics with the use of Microsoft Excel.

Results and their discussion

For carrying out the enzymatic processing of rapeseed cake polyenzyme preparation RovabioTM Max AR was chosen, made in France, consisting of  20 enzymes, which are produced by strains of Penicillium Funiculosum and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The main groups of enzymes are xylanase, β-glucanase, phytase, cellulase, protease, pectinase. This preparation hydrolyzes non-starch polysaccharide and phytates of plant origin, allowing on the one hand, partially to hydrolyze the matrix cell wall seed coats of rapeseed cake, and on the other hand, will promote the release of phosphorous bound in phytate.

At the first stage of the study the optimal parameters for enzymatic hydrolysis were determined: hydraulic module, pH, temperature, time and dosage of the enzyme preparation. We studied the influence of these factors on the degree of hydrolysis of rapeseed cake, which was judged by the change in crude fiber content, free of phosphorus and total compressive strain.

On the basis of the experiments and mathematical processing of results some optimal parameters of enzymatic hydrolysis of rapeseed cake by using enzyme preparation RovabioTM Max AR were established (Table 1).

Table 1 – Rational parameters of enzymatic hydrolysis of rapeseed cake

Hydrolysis parameters Hydrolysis modes
Hydraulic module 1:3
рН 5,5
Soaking temperature, °С 40
Soaking duration, min 180
Dosage, % 0,05

 

Technological process of enzymatic hydrolysis of rapeseed cake includes the following operations: preparation of raw materials for production; carrying out enzymatic hydrolysis by the preparation  Rovabio Max AR; dispersion; drying; grinding; screening; labeling, packaging, transportation and storage.

Since the main objective of the enzymatic influence on rapeseed cake was to increase its nutritional value, at the second stage the changes in its chemical composition, digestibility and fractional composition of proteins, as a result of enzymatic hydrolysis, were studied. The results of chemical composition of the research are presented in Figure 1.

image002

Fig. 1 – Change of the chemical composition of rapeseed cake as a result of enzymatic hydrolysis (Content of nutrients in rapeseed cake to enzymatic hydrolysis is taken as 100%.)

The studies found that as a result of enzymatic processing  of rapeseed cake protein content decreased by 7%, cellulose – 15%, hemicellulose – 15%; the amount of digestible (free) phosphorus increased by 42%, calcium – 9,3% respectively. No significant differences in changes of magnesium, sodium, chlorine and sulfur, as well as microelements and vitamins are determined.

Changes in fractional protein composition of rapeseed cake in the enzymatic hydrolysis are shown in Table 2.

Table 2 – Fractional protein composition of rapeseed cake before and after enzymatic hydrolysis

Fractions of proteins Content to total amount of protein, %
before enzymatic hydrolysis after enzymatic hydrolysis

 

Water-soluble (albumins) 39,72 40,38
Salt-soluble (globulins) 26,38 27,21
Alkali soluble (glutelins) 16,8 16,27
Insoluble residue 17,1 16,14

 

As seen from the table, content of the main protein fractions of rapeseed cake under the action of enzymatic processing remains practically unchanged.

Data on the influence of enzymatic hydrolysis on protein digestibility of rapeseed cake are reflected in Figure 2.

image004

Fig. 2 – Influence of enzymatic hydrolysis on the protein digestibility of rapeseed cake

The obtained data indicate that proteins attacked by digestive enzymes in the enzymatic hydrolysis increase and consequently their digestibility increases. Besides, protein product digestion of enzymatic hydrolysis of rapeseed cake requires a minimum amount of pepsin.

Conclusion

The results of the research have shown the advisability of rapeseed cake enzymatic processing to improve its nutritional value. During the experiments it was found that the use of the polyenzyme preparation RovabioTM Max AP for the enzymatic hydrolysis, having cellulase and phytase activity, reduces the amount of cellulose and hemicellulose, increases the amount of free phosphorus. Despite the decrease in protein content, as a result of enzymatic processing, the digestibility grows up that shows the increase of biological value of proteins. The product obtained during biotransformation can be used as a functional fortifier in food production.

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