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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2021.105.3.012

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Балгынова A. M. УТИЛИЗАЦИЯ ОБЕЗВОЖЕННОГО НЕФТЕШЛАМА В ДОРОЖНОМ СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВЕ В РЕСПУБЛИКЕ КАЗАХСТАН / A. M. Балгынова, Кызы. Ардак. Мереке, Р. Ф. Сагитов и др. // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2021. — № 3 (105) Часть 1. — С. 71—74. — URL: https://research-journal.org/technical/disposal-of-dehydrated-oil-sludge-in-road-construction-in-the-republic-of-kazakhstan/ (дата обращения: 20.04.2021. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2021.105.3.012
Балгынова A. M. УТИЛИЗАЦИЯ ОБЕЗВОЖЕННОГО НЕФТЕШЛАМА В ДОРОЖНОМ СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВЕ В РЕСПУБЛИКЕ КАЗАХСТАН / A. M. Балгынова, Кызы. Ардак. Мереке, Р. Ф. Сагитов и др. // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2021. — № 3 (105) Часть 1. — С. 71—74. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2021.105.3.012

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УТИЛИЗАЦИЯ ОБЕЗВОЖЕННОГО НЕФТЕШЛАМА В ДОРОЖНОМ СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВЕ В РЕСПУБЛИКЕ КАЗАХСТАН

УТИЛИЗАЦИЯ ОБЕЗВОЖЕННОГО НЕФТЕШЛАМА В ДОРОЖНОМ СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВЕ
В РЕСПУБЛИКЕ КАЗАХСТАН

Научная статья

Балгынова A.M.1, Мереке Кызы Ардак2, Сагитов Р.Ф.3, *, Колотвин А.В.4,
Василевская С.П.5, Дудоров В.Е.6, Рахимова Н.Н.7

1, 2 Актюбинский региональный университет им. Жубнова, Актобе, Республика Казахстан;

3 ООО «Научно-исследовательский и проектный институт экологических проблем», Оренбург, Россия;

4, 5, 6, 7  Оренбургский государственный университет, Оренбург, Россия

* Корреспондирующий автор (rsagitov[at]mail.ru)

Аннотация

В последние годы вопрос о возможности использования техногенных отходов стоит достаточно остро. Занимая огромные площади, они несут существенную экологическую нагрузку на окружающую среду. Это особенно заметно в промышленно развитых регионах в Республике Казахстан этому уделяют пристальное внимание. Многие из отходов нашли свое применение в различных отраслях промышленности, главным образом в строительной индустрии. К ним можно отнести шлаки горнообогатительных комбинатов, отработанные цеолиты газоперерабатывающих заводов, ил водоумягчения ТЭЦ, различные отходы нефтедобычи и нефтепереработки. Оренбургским государственным университетом и Научно – Исследовательским и Проектным Институтом Экологических Проблем была исследована возможность применения данного вида отхода в технологии сероасфальтобетонов.

Ключевые слова: сероасфальтобетон, нефтешлам, сернобитумные вяжущие, кек, золошлаковая смесь.

DISPOSAL OF DEHYDRATED OIL SLUDGE IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION IN THE REPUBLIC
OF KAZAKHSTAN

Research article

Balgynova A.M.1, Mereke Kyzy Ardak2, Sagitov R.F.3, *, Kolotvin A.V.4,
Vasilevskaya S.P.5, Dudorov V.E.6, Rakhimova N.N.7

1, 2 Zhubnov Aktobe Regional University, Aktobe, Republic of Kazakhstan;

3 “Research and design Institute of environmental problems”, Orenburg, Russia;

4, 5, 6, 7 Orenburg State University, Orenburg, Russia

* Corresponding author (rsagitov[at]mail.ru)

Abstract

In recent years, the question of the possibility of using man-made waste is quite acute. Occupying huge areas, they carry a significant environmental burden on the environment. This is especially noticeable in the industrially developed regions in the Republic of Kazakhstan, this is given close attention. Many of the waste found their application in various industries, mainly in the construction industry. These include slags from ore-dressing plants, spent zeolites from gas processing plants, water softening sludge from thermal power plants, various wastes from oil production and refining. The Orenburg State University and the Scientific – Research and Design Institute of Environmental Problems investigated the possibility of using this type of waste in the technology of sulfur-falto concrete.

Keywords: sulphur-asphalt concrete, oil sludge, sulphur-bitumen binders, cake, ash-slag mixture.

In recent years, the question of the possibility of using industrial waste is quite acute. Occupying huge areas, they carry a significant environmental burden on the environment. This is especially noticeable in the industrialized regions. Many of the wastes have found their application in various industries, mainly in the construction industry. Waste from the heat and power complex – ash-slag mixtures and dry ash discharge is successfully used in the production of wall products, binders. Metallurgical slags have found their application in the production of various mixed binders. However, despite this, a huge number of by-products of production have not yet found their application or are processed in very small quantities. These include slags from mining and processing plants, spent zeolites from gas processing plants, silt from water softening power plants, and various waste products from oil production and refining.

Oil production and preparation inevitably form oil-containing wastes – slurries. Until recently, they were simply burned or stored in special earth pads, storages. During their operation, up to 200 thousand tons of oil sludge are accumulated at the treatment facilities of the average NGDU (oil-and-gas production department). Every year, about 5 thousand tons of bottom sediment and 60 thousand tons of persistent hard-to-get water-in-oil emulsions – the so-called floating oil sludge – are “added” to it.

The line for processing oil-containing slurries with a capacity of 70 thousand tons per year, implemented at one of the NGDU of JSC Samaraneft, practically solves the problem of their further accumulation. However, the incompleteness of the sludge processing process is indicated by the accumulation of their residue, so-called oil cake, dehydrated to a humidity of 40-45%. Stored in open areas, it is naturally dried, eroded by precipitation and carried by the wind, which immediately affects the environmental situation of the surrounding areas. The Orenburg State University and The Research and Design Institute of Environmental Problems investigated the possibility of using this type of waste in the technology of sulfur-asphalt concrete.

Technical sulphur from the Orenburg gas processing plant was used as part of the sulphur-bitumen binder. It is successfully used in the chemical industry for the production of acids, in the rubber and tire industry. However, insufficient consumption and processing of sulphur leads to significant accumulation of it on the maps of the OGPZ.

One of the prerequisites for the possibility of using it in asphalt concrete technology is the proximity of the operating temperatures of hot asphalt concrete production and the transition temperatures of crystalline sulphur to a viscous flow state. Production of sulphur-asphalt concrete is possible at the existing asphalt concrete mixing plant with minor modernization. The technology involves melting sulphur, mixing it with modifying additives and bitumen. After preparation of sulphuric mastic, it is mixed with aggregate and fillers. It is possible to enter the filler directly into the mastic.

The prerequisite for the use of oil cake in the technology of sulphur-asphalt concrete was the following. Replacing a part of bitumen with sulphur in an asphalt binder determines its physical, mechanical and rheological properties. Liquid sulphur contains three allotropic modifications, the quantitative content of which depends on the heating and cooling conditions of the melt and the presence of various modifying additives (plasticizing, stabilizing, air-entrapping, increasing fire resistance, biostability). In the technology of sulphur-containing materials, the main role is assigned to stabilizers, the mechanism of action of which is to attach additives to the chains of polymer modification of sulphur and saturate its valence bonds. Polymer sulphur has a higher elasticity, strength, resistance to organic solvents, better adhesion to fillers, and low internal stresses compared to other allotropic modifications [1], [2].

Stabilizing additives are organic and inorganic materials introduced into the composition of the sulphur melt from 0.1 to 5%. However, almost all additives are quite expensive and difficult to access. In our opinion, the presence of oil cake in the sulphur melt may have a stabilizing effect when preparing the binder.

The organic part of the cake is represented by carbenes, carboids, oils, and resins. The presence of paraffin is insignificant. The mineral component washed in the alcohol-benzene mixture is mainly calcium and silicon oxide. The content of Al2O3 and Fe2O3 is in the range of 8%. The modification of sulphur occurs due to the addition of chemically active groups, both the organic part of the cake and the bitumen itself to the free bonds of the polymer modification of sulphur and its stabilization in this state.

Due to the lack of normative and technical documentation for sulphur-asphalt concrete, the authors developed and approved TU 5718-001-02069024-2002 based on GOST 9128. Mixtures of sulphur-asphalt road and sulphur-asphalt concrete [1], [2].

The projected composition of sulphur-asphalt concrete: dense, type B, grade II, applied to the II-III climate zones. Projected sulphur-asphalt concrete mix: crushed stone, hot, fine-grained (aggregate size is not more than 10 mm).

The normalized physical and mechanical properties include: compressive strength at a temperature of 500C, 200C and 00C, water resistance, water resistance during prolonged water saturation, and water saturation.

Raw materials in the selection of the composition and study of the properties of sulphur-asphalt concrete: coarse aggregate – Krutorozhino gravel, 5-10 mm fraction, fine aggregate – natural sand Samorodovo field and screening of Krutorozhino crushed stone, the filler is screenings of Orenburg CHP slag mixture, ground Akkermanovsky limestone, as binders – technical sulphur of the Orenburg Gas processing plant and oil bitumen BND 130/200. Raw materials were checked for compliance with the requirements of regulatory documents [1], [2].

One of the important factors that ensure the required quality of sulphur-asphalt concrete is the grain composition of its mineral part. The latter should give an optimal density, and if necessary – increased roughness. When appropriate materials are available (mainly coarse and medium sand or crushing screenings), it is recommended to select the mineral part of sulphur-asphalt concrete on the principle of continuous granulometry, which was done in our research.

The composition was selected in several stages using the method of mathematical planning. Two-factor saturated experiment plans were used. At the first stage, the range of variation of sulphur in a sulphur-bitumen binder without cake was determined. After evaluating the graphical dependence of the strength of sulphur-asphalt concrete on the sulphur content, it was concluded that the introduction of sulphur more than 40% leads to an inversion of the structure of the sulphur-bitumen binder, and as a result, an increase in its brittleness. For further determination of the composition, the range of variation was chosen: 25-40% sulphur, 30-70% cake. Moulded series of sulphur-asphalt concrete has been tested according to GOST 12801. Tests have shown that when sulphur and cake are added to the mastic, the strength of samples increases by 15%, and the water resistance in some series increases from 0.86 to 0.92. However, the water saturation of sulphur-asphalt concrete and asphalt concrete of the control series does not meet the requirements of the technical conditions [1], [2].

To reduce the water saturation of sulphur-asphalt concrete at the next stage, the intervals of variation of sulphur and cake in the binder were reduced, fine-ground limestone was introduced as a filler, and the content of mastic in concrete was increased. Since the variation intervals were changed, the density of the sulphur-bitumen mastic with cake was calculated according to the points of the new experiment plan. The calculated composition of the mineral part of sulphur-asphalt concrete: 46.74% crushed stone, 39% crushing screening, 6.27% river sand, ground limestone 6.96%. The accepted amount of bitumen in the control samples of asphalt concrete is 5.5% [1], [2].

Some series of sulphur-asphalt concrete, moulded according to the new plan, had acceptable values of water saturation and water resistance. This made it possible to obtain regression equations and construct isolines of water saturation, water resistance, and strength of sulphur-asphalt concrete to determine its optimal composition.

The final stage of research was the production of samples of optimal composition and testing them for physical and mechanical properties, which are presented in Table 1.

 

Table 1 – Characteristics of the worked-out composition of sulphur-asphalt concrete [1], [2]

Indicator Statutory value Value for worked out composition
1. The limit of compressive strength at a temperature of 500 ° C, MPa, min 2.5 3.96
2. The limit of compressive strength at a temperature of 200C, MPa, min 4.2 6.6
3. The limit of compressive strength at a temperature of 0 0C, MPa, max 12.0 11.1
4. Water resistance, min 0.85 0.91
5. Water resistance during long-term water saturation 0.8 0.83
6. Water saturation, percentage by volume 1.5 – 4 3.4

According to the presented data, it can be concluded that using oil cake as an additive to the sulphur-bitumen binder, it is possible to produce the design composition of sulphur-asphalt concrete. The launch of this technology requires capital investment in the manufacture and modernization of technological equipment. Such equipment primarily includes a cake preparation line, mixing equipment, additional aspiration and gas cleaning systems. To reduce capital costs, it is desirable to link the production of sulphur-asphalt concrete mix geographically to the existing asphalt concrete plant and the sludge dewatering line. In this case, the need for investment will be small. With proper organization of labour, compliance with the technological process and safety regulations, the production of sulphur-asphalt concrete with the use of oil cake as an additive solves the problem of accumulation of this waste on the territories of oil-producing units and makes it possible to obtain a cheaper and more durable material compared to traditional asphalt concrete.

Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

Список литературы / References

  1. Горбик Г.О. Модифицированный серо-асфальтобетон / Г.О. Горбик, В.Н. Рубцова, Е.В. Левин // Новости высших учебных заведений. Строительство, 2004, № 7, с. 43-47.
  2. Горбик Г.О. Утилизация обезвоженных нефтешламов на дорожных покрытиях / Г.О. Горбик, В.Н. Рубцова, Е.В. Левин // Материалы Международной научно-практической конференции «Актуальные проблемы ветеринарии и биологии», Оренбург: Оренбургская губерния, 2003 – с. 405-409.
  3. Коротков В.Г. Снижение потребления энергии в процессе ректификации n-бутилового спирта / В.Г. Коротков, Р.Ф. Сагитов // Перспективы развития пищевой и химической промышленности в современных условиях. Материалы Всероссийской научно-практической конференции, приуроченной к 45-летию факультета прикладной биотехнологии и инженерии Оренбургского государственного университета. 2019.С. 360-363.
  4. Bashirov V.D. Analysis of technological processes by processing of oil sludges with application of highly technological equipment for receiving high quality products / D. Bashirov, A.M. Balgynova, M. Ardak et al. // IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2019. P. 012037.
  5. Bashirov V.D. Analysis of technological processes by processing of oil sludges with application of highly technological equipment for receiving high quality products / D. Bashirov, A.M. Balgynova, M. Ardak et al. // IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2019. P. 012037.
  6. Dzhanzakov I.I. Analysis of the environmental status and measures for safety and environmental protection in oil and gas producing areas / I. Dzhanzakov, S.M. Medetov, G.E. Imangalieva et al. // IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2019. P. 012089.
  7. Ponikarov S.I. Features of technology for producing wood and polymer composites by extrusion method / I. Ponikarov, R.F. Sagitov, V.D. Bashirov et al. // IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2019. P. 012090.
  8. Bashirov V.D. Integrated waste management by chemical production of composite materials extrusion / D. Bashirov, V.G. Korotkov, R.F. Sagitov et al. // International Journal of Professional Science. 2017. № 2. P. 6-11.
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Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

  1. Gorbik G. O. Modificirovannyj sero-asfal’tobeton [Modified sulphur-asphalt concrete] / G.O. Gorbik, V.N. Rubcova, E.V. Levin // Novosti vysshih uchebnyh zavedenij [News of higher educational institutions. Construction], No. 7, 2004, 43-47. [in Russian]
  2. Gorbik G. O. Utilizacija obezvozhennyh nefteshlamov na dorozhnyh pokrytijah [Utilization of dewatered oil sludge in road surfaces] / G.O. Gorbik, V.N. Rubcova, E.V. Levin // Materialy Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii «Aktual’nye problemy veterinarii i biologii» [Materials of the International scientific and practical conference “Actual problems of veterinary medicine and biology”], Orenburg: Orenburgskaya gubernia, 2003 – p. 405-409. [in Russian]
  3. Korotkov V.G.Snizhenie potreblenija jenergii v processe rektifikacii n-butilovogo spirta [Reducing energy consumption in the process of rec-tification of n-butyl alcohol] / V.G. Korotkov, R.F. Sagitov // Perspektivy razvitija pishhevoj i himicheskoj promyshlennosti v sovremennyh uslovijah. Materialy Vserossijskoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii, priurochennoj k 45-letiju fakul’teta prikladnoj biotehnologii i inzhenerii Orenburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, [Prospects for the development of the food and chemical industry in modern conditions. Materials of the All-Russian scientific-practical conference, timed to the 45th anniversary of the Faculty of Applied Biotechnology and Engineering], Orenburg State University. 2019. P. 360-363. [in Russian]
  4. Bashirov V.D. Analysis of technological processes by processing of oil sludges with application of highly technological equipment for receiving high quality products / D. Bashirov, A.M. Balgynova, M. Ardak et al. // IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2019. P. 012037.
  5. Bashirov V.D. Analysis of technological processes by processing of oil sludges with application of highly technological equipment for receiving high quality products / D. Bashirov, A.M. Balgynova, M. Ardak et al. // IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2019. P. 012037.
  6. Dzhanzakov I.I. Analysis of the environmental status and measures for safety and environmental protection in oil and gas producing areas / I. Dzhanzakov, S.M. Medetov, G.E. Imangalieva et al. // IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2019. P. 012089.
  7. Ponikarov S.I. Features of technology for producing wood and polymer composites by extrusion method / I. Ponikarov, R.F. Sagitov, V.D. Bashirov et al. // IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2019. P. 012090.
  8. Bashirov V.D. Integrated waste management by chemical production of composite materials extrusion / D. Bashirov, V.G. Korotkov, R.F. Sagitov et al. // International Journal of Professional Science. 2017. № 2. P. 6-11.
  9. Sagitov R.F. Puti racional’nogo reshenija problemy pererabotki promyshlennyh othodov v rossijskoj federacii [Ways of rational solution of the problem of processing of industrial waste in the russian federation] / R.F. Sagitov, S.V. Antimonov, E.V. Ganin et al. // Novosti Orenburgskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta [News of the Orenburg State Agrarian University]. 2015. No. 2 (52). P. 246-248. [in Russian]
  10. Bashirov V.D. Analiz sovremennyh tendencij v oblasti pererabotki neftjanyh othodov [Analysis of modern trends in the sphere of oil-containing waste processing] / V.D. Bashirov, N.Z. Sultanov, R.F. Sagitov et al. // Gornaja nauka i tehnika [Mining science and technology]. 2014.No. 1. P. 65. [in Russian]

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