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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 18+

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2018.67.073

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Евменова Е. В. ПРОБЛЕМЫ КАДРОВОГО ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЯ РАЗВИТИЯ АРКТИЧЕСКОЙ ЗОНЫ РОССИИ / Е. В. Евменова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2018. — № 1 (67) Часть 3. — С. 84—87. — URL: https://research-journal.org/social/the-problems-of-human-resourcing-in-development-of-the-arctic-zone-of-russia/ (дата обращения: 17.10.2018. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2018.67.073
Евменова Е. В. ПРОБЛЕМЫ КАДРОВОГО ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЯ РАЗВИТИЯ АРКТИЧЕСКОЙ ЗОНЫ РОССИИ / Е. В. Евменова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2018. — № 1 (67) Часть 3. — С. 84—87. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2018.67.073

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ПРОБЛЕМЫ КАДРОВОГО ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЯ РАЗВИТИЯ АРКТИЧЕСКОЙ ЗОНЫ РОССИИ

Евменова Е.В.

Старший преподаватель,

Северный (Арктический) федеральный университет имени М.В. Ломоносова, Архангельск

ПРОБЛЕМЫ КАДРОВОГО ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЯ РАЗВИТИЯ АРКТИЧЕСКОЙ ЗОНЫ РОССИИ

Аннотация

Для полноценного освоения Арктики необходимы трудовые кадры.   По оценкам специалистов, для обеспечения выполнения только намеченных программ развития Севера, в регионе должно проживать и заниматься высокотехнологичной производственной деятельностью не менее 7-8 млн. человек. Однако численность населения в областях, входящих в Арктическую зону Российской Федерации, последние 10 лет продолжает сокращаться.  

Автором проведено социологическое исследование, целью которого было определить основные причины, по которым происходит отток молодежи из региона. Исследование касается прежде всего Архангельской области, в которой проживает более 1млн 165 тыс. человек.

Ключевые слова: Арктика, человеческие ресурсы, миграция, экология, климат, занятость населения.

Evmenova E.V.

Senior Teacher,

Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov

THE PROBLEMS OF HUMAN RESOURCING IN DEVELOPMENT OF THE ARCTIC ZONE OF RUSSIA

Abstract

Human resources are incredibly necessary for Arctic development. According to experts’ opinions, there must be at least 7-8 million residents who are engaged in high-tech production activities or related sphere workers for providing development of the North. Having analyzed the quantity of population in these areas over the past 10 years it can be seen that the number of residents is constantly declining. 

The purpose of carried out sociological survey was to determine the main reasons for the departure of the young generation from the region. The research was conducted in the Arkhangelsk region which population is over than 1 million 165 thousand people.

Keywords: Arctic, human resources, migration, ecology, climate, employment.

Introduction

The Arctic: Territory of Dialogue International Arctic Forum was held in Arkhangelsk on March, 29-30 2017 where more than 2400 participants took place. More than 450 mass media representatives worked at this business event from Russia and other 31 countries of the world: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Great Britain, Vietnam, Germany, Greenland, Denmark, India, Ireland, Iceland, Spain, Italy, Canada, Kenya, Cyprus, China, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Abkhazia Republic, Korea Republic, Singapore, the USA, Faeroes, Finland, France, Switzerland, Sweden, Japan.

As Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation (and Chairman of the State Commission for Arctic Development) Dmitry Rogozin noted that the main Forum topic is “the human in the Arctic”. He also added, that “the Arctic from “the uttermost point of the earth” must become attractive territory for all aspects of business and living environment” [1].The Arctic: Territory of Dialogue International Arctic Forum was held in Arkhangelsk on March, 29-30 2017 where more than 2400 participants took place. More than 450 mass media representatives worked at this business event from Russia and other 31 countries of the world: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Great Britain, Vietnam, Germany, Greenland, Denmark, India, Ireland, Iceland, Spain, Italy, Canada, Kenya, Cyprus, China, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Abkhazia Republic, Korea Republic, Singapore, the USA, Faeroes, Finland, France, Switzerland, Sweden, Japan.

One of the Arctic forum aims was to work out active channels of interaction for quick solving problems in the Arctic region.  Joint development of the Arctic territories and integrity of residents were also discussed extensively.

Material and results

Speaking about human resources, you must realize essentially that employees in variable spheres are urgent for absolute development of the Arctic territory.

Experts have counted and claimed, that only for making all necessary action programs of the North development at least 7-8 million highly qualified specialists have to live and work in this northern territory [2].

By presidential resolution of May, 2nd, 2014, the Arctic territory of the Russian Federation involves: Murmansk region, the Chukchi, Yamal-Nenets autonomous areas, municipality of the city district Vorkuta (Komi Republic), as well as the city district of Norilsk, the territory of Taimyr and Turukhansk districts of Krasnoyarsk Region, a number of territories of the Arkhangelsk region (The Onega, Primorsky and Mezen municipal districts, the districts of Arkhangelsk, Severodvinsk and Novodvinsk, the Nenets Autonomous Area, the Arctic islands which administratively belong to the Arkhangelsk Region (Novaya Zemlya, Franz Joseph Archipelago, etc.), some of the northern Uluses of Yakutia, lands and islands in the Arctic Ocean.

The total land territories of the Arctic Region of the Russian Federation make about 3,7 million square kilometres [3].

Analyzing the population quantity in these areas over the last 10 years it can be seen that the number of residents is constantly reduced.

This research concerns data about the Arkhangelsk region where more than 1 165 000 residents live.

During the Soviet period about 2 500 000 people have been living around this territory.

Special social and economic policy about Arctic region has been enforced during the Soviet Union times. Special features of the Northern territories were in the focus of this policy. The level of rewards and compensations for workers in these Arctic areas became much higher, than the ones in the central regions of the country because of harsh environment and isolated location. Northern extra charges and additional coefficients to the base wage also played important role to attract highly qualified specialists. Besides comfortable living conditions and correct facilities for young workers and their families have been organized in the Russian North.

Nowadays, in the market economy period, a lot of things have been changed in the Russian Federation as well as in the Arctic region policy. Many companies and businesses have been abolished. Unemployment is constantly growing around all territory of Russia. The central region of the country gets more winning and compelling conditions and proposals for young people and highly-trained professionals. So, more than 93 000 residents left the Arkhangelsk region and moved to the other more challenging workplaces for the last ten years (2005-2015) [4].

The population in the Arkhangelsk region continued reducing by the same reasons in 2016 furthermore. By the beginning of 2017 it has already been no more than 1 166 000 inhabitants, and this number is still decreasing by 7 900 people or 0,7 percent respectively, than it was in January, 2016.

The redundancy of population is influenced by the enduring and permanent migration of the northerners out of the Arkhangelsk and close regions to the other more comfortable and potentially productive territories of the Russian Federation. It has contained 81 percent of people of total decrease figure. As a result of migration about 6 400 inhabitants left the Arkhangelsk region in 2016. It means that 17 400 people arrived at this region and 23 800 people left this area. In 2015 these figures were 15 900 and 23 900 residents respectively [5].

And there is still no clear strategy or program for the solution of this demographic and economic problem.

The author of the article has carried out some sociological research. The purpose was to define the main reasons and motivations why youngsters are leaving the Arkhangelsk region over the last years so dramatically. The main method of empirical information gathering was questioning. The research was being conducted from October, 2016 till January, 2017. 756 respondents aged from 18 up to 35 have participated in this research. The list of mentioned hereafter reasons of the residents’ departure was the following:

  1. Low salary level;
  2. Poor ecological situation (air, water and soil pollution) in the Arkhangelsk region (f. i. because of close proximity to dangerous objects);
  3. Poor climatic parameters for existence, work and advancement in the Arkhangelsk region;
  4. Expensiveness of the real estate in Arkhangelsk and Arkhangelsk region in general;
  5. Poor working conditions in a business environment;
  6. Low level of free health care for workers and their families;
  7. High cost, inefficiency and inadequacy of fee-for-service medicine, lack of high-skilled professionals in medicine sphere;
  8. Poor regional infrastructure advancement: conditions of road surface, scarcity of nursery schools, secondary schools, hospitals, transport facilities, etc.;
  9. Expensiveness and insufficiency of both school and higher education in this region;
  10. Poor local territory conditions (streets, yards and parks pollution, impoundment pollution and air pollution respectively);
  11. Isolated location of the Arkhangelsk region from the Central federal district and other areas of the country.

According to this investigation, one of the main factors of young population departure is a poor ecological situation in the Arctic Region as a whole. It can be definitely said that the water pollution problem is utterly crucial in the Arkhangelsk region.

One of the main reasons for unsatisfactory condition of impoundments where the water utilization concerns the dumping of raw or insufficiently cleared waste water containing polluting substances pouring from the enterprises and plants of the region. In water tests made by ecological services of the Arkhangelsk region in 2015, 30 entitlements of polluting substances are named in the sewage of plants. The uppermost number of pollution in superficial water objects is brought by the pulp and paper industry enterprises. They are regarded as the most dangerous sources of water pollution in the north of Russia.

In this regard, there are some problems demanding solutions to provide the population of the Arkhangelsk region with high quality drinking water. The proportion of researched tests of drinking water from distribution mains which doesn’t compliant to hygienic standards for sanitary and chemical indicators is 37,3 percent of all tested impoundments. It exceeds the average indicators in other Russian regions in 2,4 times.

The total number of volleyed strong sewage in 2015 is 637 570 000 cubic metres.

From the total number of sewage into superficial water objects has dumped 634 420 000 cubic metres of strong sewage, into fresh reservoirs is 561 580 000 cubic meters, and into the sea is 72 840 cubic metres of sewage.

It is dumped from sewage:

  • polluted waters without any cleaning procedures is 29 400 000 cubic metres;
  • polluted and poor cleared waters is 300 400 000 cubic metres;
  • normally pure water (without any cleaning in a standard way) is 286 690 000 cubic metres;
  • standardly cleared water with built-in cleaning constructions is 17 930 000 cubic metres [6].

The next important problem is waste.

According to statistical reports, during 2015, 81 531 984,474 tons of waste were formed by the plants of the Arkhangelsk region. And only 7,4 percent of total number of these waste are reused by the plants of this region, and completely neutralized only 0,03 percent of all waste. (According to the Report of Ministry of Natural Resources of the Arkhangelsk Region on environment state and protection) [6].

The absence of effective control system of waste, system of collecting, transportation, utilization, neutralization, storage and ground disposal, leads to its accumulation, both in territories of the plants, and in unauthorized waste deposits. It also leads to intensive pollution of soils, superficial reservoirs, underground waters and air pollution.

But, it is time to prevent no consequences of deterioration of an ecological situation, but the reasons of that.

It is necessary to pay attention to the development of ecological education directed to the formation of system of scientific and practical knowledge and abilities at people of all ages and orders. Formation of valuable orientations, behavior and activity providing responsible relation to the environment and health is also very important.

At the same time, the main part of ecological responsibility puts on the enterprise and its management. Therefore, the events in the nature protection sphere should be held directly at the enterprises. On the one hand, these companies act as basic elements of production and on the other hand, they are the main source of ecological danger.

So, production managers must be compulsory familiar with the essential ecological problems. It will help specialists to accept and make ecologically competent administrative decisions and solve encountered problems. They will be based on knowledge of ecological consequences of company’s economic activity. The deficit of ecological proficiency and lack of relevant skills at managers working in this territory is the most important reason of the nature protection legislation violations.

Conclusion

It is impossible to solve all problems immediately and straightway, but it is conceivable to create conditions for comfortable life and challenged work of young people and their families. The next proposals help to attract new highly-skilled professionals into the Arctic region and therefore to progress economic and social life of the nearest cities and the region in total:

– development of Region infrastructure, building of trade, cultural, sports and entertainment centers, construction, renovation and extension of roads; increasing quality of life in the Arkhangelsk region as a whole; building of facilities and plants to minimize harmful substances emissions in the atmosphere;

– increasing of salary and wages, both in state and in private organizations for all employees, even with low experience;

– designing and building of cleaning constructions for sewage on all territory of the region;

– building and fixing of domestic and economic waste processing plants in sufficient quantity;

– construction and installation of distant power complexes far from the places of living which are able to work in any climatic conditions (especially in harsh Arctic conditions);

– reduction of prices for the real estate (there must be special state programs connected with the attractiveness of workplaces in the Far North for young specialists working in the Arctic region and their families supported by the government of the Russian Federation);

– decrease of education fee or its compensation by the future employer or forward company and increase of budget places in higher schools especially those specialties that are connected with the Arctic Region development and required possibility of graduate employability;

– development of comfortable and compelling living conditions and facilities for working people and their families in the Far North;

– expansion of employment benefits and guarantees for workers stipulated by the collective agreement standard of the company, for example voluntary health insurance, sport certificates, healthy workplace ecosystems, supervised and structured constant trainings, extended annual leave, etc.

Список литературы / References

  1. Итоги IV Международного Арктического форума в Архангельске [Электронный ресурс] – URL: http://arctica-ac.ru/newstext/85/ (дата обращения: 07.11.2017).
  2. Арктика: экология и экономика №4 (12), 2013 [Электронный ресурс] – URL: http://arctica-ac.ru/pubtext/12/ (дата обращения: 07.11.2017).
  3. Указ Президента Российской Федерации от 02.05.2014 г. № 296 [Электронный ресурс] – URL: http://kremlin.ru/acts/bank/38377 (дата обращения: 07.11.2017).
  4. Половинкин В.Н. Человеческие ресурсы – главная проблема развития Севера [Электронный ресурс] – URL: http://www.ibrae.ac.ru/docs/4(12)/026_031_ARKTIKA_ 4(12)_12_2013.pdf (дата обращения: 07.11.2017).
  5. Управление Федеральной службы государственной статистики и Архангельской области и Ненецкому автономному округу [Электронный ресурс] – URL: http://arhangelskstat.gks.ru/ (дата обращения: 07.11.2017).
  6. Sinitskaya N. Inclusion of educational ecological programs in the process of managers` training is an effective way of transition to pure production / Evmenova E. // International Journal оf Applied and Fundamental Research – 2013. – № 1 [Электронный ресурс] – URL: www.science-sd.com/452-24474/ (дата обращения: 08.11.2017).
  7. Половинкин В. Н. Русский Север – прошлое, настоящее и будущее / А. Б. Фомичев, Ю. Н. Таратонов // СПб. – Северная верфь, 2012. –212с.
  8. Половинкин В. Н. Русский Север / А. Б. Фомичев // – СПб. – АИР, 2013. – 343с.
  9. Арктика – территория будущего [Электронный ресурс] – URL: http://rusplt.ru/society/arktika-territoriya-buduschego-2949… (дата обращения: 07.11.2017).
  10. Чем занимаются люди в Арктике [Электронный ресурс] – URL: http://будущее-арктики.рф/deyatelnost-cheloveka-v-arktike/ (дата обращения: 07.11.2017).

Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

  1. Itogi IV Mezhdunarodnogo Arkticheskogo foruma v Arkhangel’ske [Results of IV International Arctic Forum in Arkhangelsk] [Electronic resource] – URL: http://arctica-ac.ru/newstext/85/ (accessed date: 07.11.2017). [In Russian]
  2. Arktika: ekologiya i ekonomika [Arctic: Ecology and Economics] No.4 (12), 2013 [Electronic resource] – URL: http: //arctica-ac.ru/pubtext/12/ (accessed date: 07.11.2017). [In Russian]
  3. Ukaz Prezidenta Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 02.05.2014 № 296 [Decree of President of Russian Federation of 02.05.2014 No. 296][Electronic resource] – URL: http://kremlin.ru/acts/bank/38377 (accessed date: 07.11.2017). [In Russian]
  4. Polovinkin V.N. Chelovecheskiye resursy – glavnaya problema razvitiya Severa [Human Resources are Main Problem of Development of North [Electronic resource] – URL: http://www.ibrae.ac.ru/docs/4(12)/026_031_ARKTIKA_ 4 (12) _12_2013.pdf (accessed date: 07.11.2017). [In Russian]
  5. Upravleniye Federal’noy sluzhby gosudarstvennoy statistiki i Arkhangel’skoy oblasti i Nenetskomu avtonomnomu okrugu [Office of Federal Service of State Statistics and Arkhangelsk Region and Nenets Autonomous District] [Electronic resource] – URL: http://arhangelskstat.gks.ru/ (accessed date: 07.11.2017). [In Russian]
  6. Sinitskaya N. Inclusion of educational ecological programs in the process of managers` training is an effective way of transition to pure production / Evmenova E. // International Journal оf Applied and Fundamental Research – 2013. – № 1 [Electronic resource] – URL: www.science-sd.com/452-24474/ (accessed date: 08.11.2017).
  7. Polovinkin V.N. Russkiy Sever – proshloye, nastoyashcheye i budushcheye [Russian North: Past, Present and Future] / A.B. Fomichev, Yu. N. Taratonov // SPb. – Northern shipyard, 2012. – 212p. [In Russian]
  8. Polovinkin V.N. Russkiy Sever [Russian North] / A. Fomichev // – St. Petersburg. – AIR, 2013. – 343 p. [In Russian]
  9. Arktika – territoriya budushchego[Arctic — Territory of Future] [Electronic resource] – URL: http: //rusplt.ru/society/arktika-territoriya-buduschego-2949… (accessed date: 07.11.2017). [In Russian]
  10. Chem zanimayutsya lyudi v arktike [What Do People Do in Arctic Region] [Electronic resource] – URL: http: // the future-.Arctic./deyatelnost-cheloveka-v-arktike/ (accessed date: 07.11.2017). [In Russian]

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