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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18454/IRJ.2016.49.074

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Андриянова Е. А. СОВРЕМЕННЫЕ ОСНОВАНИЯ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЙ СОЦИАЛИЗАЦИИ СТУДЕНТОВ ВУЗА / Е. А. Андриянова, Д. В. Чернышков, М. Н. Кузнецова и др. // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2016. — № 7 (49) Часть 1. — С. 84—86. — URL: https://research-journal.org/social/contemporary-foundations-of-professional-socialization-of-the-college-students/ (дата обращения: 19.04.2021. ). doi: 10.18454/IRJ.2016.49.074
Андриянова Е. А. СОВРЕМЕННЫЕ ОСНОВАНИЯ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЙ СОЦИАЛИЗАЦИИ СТУДЕНТОВ ВУЗА / Е. А. Андриянова, Д. В. Чернышков, М. Н. Кузнецова и др. // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2016. — № 7 (49) Часть 1. — С. 84—86. doi: 10.18454/IRJ.2016.49.074

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СОВРЕМЕННЫЕ ОСНОВАНИЯ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЙ СОЦИАЛИЗАЦИИ СТУДЕНТОВ ВУЗА

Андриянова Е.А.1, Чернышков Д.В.2, Кузнецова М.Н.3, Горшенина В.И.4

1Доктор социологических наук, профессор, 2 Аспирант, 3Кандидат философских наук, доцент, 4Кандидат исторических наук, доцент, Саратовский государственный медицинский университет им. В.И. Разумовского

СОВРЕМЕННЫЕ ОСНОВАНИЯ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЙ СОЦИАЛИЗАЦИИ СТУДЕНТОВ ВУЗА 

Аннотация

В статье представлен анализ результатов ряда отечественных исследований, посвященных проблемам профессиональной социализации студентов высших учебных заведений и детерминант, влияющих на этот процесс. Подчерчиваются различия в детерминации профессиональной социализации на ситуационном и диспозиционном уровнях, а также определяющих ее внешних и внутренних факторов. Профессиональная социализация как полидетерминированное явление изучается с использованием таких категорий как профессиональное самосознание, Я-концепция, социальная активность, социальное мышление, ценностное ориентирование в профессии и представления о будущей профессии.

Ключевые слова: профессиональная социализация, детерминанты профессиональной социализации, студенты вузов.

 Andriyanova E.A.1, Chernyshkov D.V.2, Kuznetsova M.N.3, Gorshenina V.I.4

1PhD in Sociology, Professor, 2Postgraduate student, 3PhD in Philosophy, Associate Professor,4PhD in History, Associate Professor, Saratov State Medical University  n.a. V.I. Razumovsky

CONTEMPORARY FOUNDATIONS OF PROFESSIONAL SOCIALIZATION OF THE COLLEGE STUDENTS

Abstract

The article presents the analysis of the results of several domestic studies devoted to the problem of professional socialization of students of higher educational institutions and the determinants affecting this process. The differences in determination of professional socialization on the situational and dispositional levels are emphasized, as well as external and internal factors defining it. Professional socialization as a polydeterminated phenomenon has been studied using such categories as professional identity, self-concept, social activity, social thinking, value orientation in profession and idea of a future profession.

Keywords: professional socialization, determinants of professional socialization, students of higher educational institutions.

Professional socialization is a polydeterminated phenomenon and can be studied by means of a variety of interdisciplinary approaches. One of the most productive and well elaborated is the systematic approach within sociological and socio-psychological researches [1, 2, 3].

Analysis of the academic literature allows to distinguish two basic levels of professional socialization determination: external (situational) and internal (dispositional). External level includes economic situation in a country, average quality of life, profession’s prestige and others. Internal level of determination is defined by personal characteristics, which are the center of a professional socialization process.

It is noteworthy that more than half of the surveyed young people preferred high salary instead of a stable work in their specialty,  according to the results of A.V. Sotnikova’s study (2011) [4]. Earlier, another study demonstrated that 39,6% of respondents had been included in the work not related to their specialty (2005). These results were interpreted as the problem of the professional realization of domestic youth [4].

There is a viewpoint concerning changing of social representations of Russia’s demand for highly educated people. It was confirmed by E.S. Studenikina’s research (2007). So, 35% of Russians believe that there are too many specialists with higher education, in 2001 only 27% of the respondents were sure in this. Furthermore, the author notes negative connotations with regard to quality and prestige of contemporary higher education. [5] Thus, the researcher explains such situation: high motivation to work and orientation to its productivity can likely lead to a decline in living standards, rather than to an increase. At the same time realization of self-models that are not related to work is much more effective for social promotion. This is the most often reason for young people to sacrifice their professional potential and to avoid professional socialization in the sphere chosen when entering the college.

Some Russian researchers analyze internal determination through the prism of different categories, such as professional consciousness (S.A. Podosinnikov, 2003), self-concept (Yu.E. Shipov, 2006), social activity (T.G. Emelyanova, 2006), social thinking (N.A. Maslyuk, 2006), value orientation in profession (I.G. Kolosova, 2006), educational and professional motivation (K.O. Medzhidova, 2007), economic consciousness (I.M. Osipenko, 2005) and ideas about future profession (L.B. Schneider, 2001).

As we mentioned before, the process of professional socialization is accompanied by a professional identity and, therefore, by self-development, which plays an important role.

There is a viewpoint that professional consciousness model can be considered as relationship of structural and functional components. Cognitive, emotional, motivational and operational components are regarded as structural components. Structural components are realized by means of functional ones – self-knowledge, self-understanding, self-actualization and self-realization [7].

Active personal position of a student in the process of professionalization is emphasized by social activity, which, as T.G. Emelyanova marks as a separate psychological phenomenon [8].

A number of authors showed that the leading position in all mentioned values was «health» value for the students of all periods of training. It was revealed that the degree of professional socialization and its structure as a process affected specificity of value orientations [9, 10, 11, 12, 13].

Terminal values affect understanding of the future, as well as ability for professional self-improvement. Instrumental values influence awareness of needs and opportunities for professional activity, ability of professional self-improvement; professionally significant values – ability of professional self-improvement, and understanding needs and opportunities for professional activity.

I.M. Osipenko considered such dynamic aspect of professionalization as development of economic consciousness, which was understood through relationships, attitudes, evaluations, social representations, individual opinion on various phenomena of an economic nature. On the basis of empirical data the scientist confirmed that the most dynamic economic indices of a student consciousness (during training period) are: subjective economic status, level of significance of economic characteristics in interpersonal relations, economic needs and personal aspirations [14].

One more important indicator for the pursuit of professional growth was marked out – satisfaction in professional self-development, as well as readiness for professional self-development. These are connected with the nature of a specialty choice (professional activity), they may be free or situational based. Some of sociological studies obtained statistically significant indices of contingency among these data.

The studies of relationship between educational and professional motivation and personal development of students in higher educational institutions described that students’ interests and values vary significantly. High level of motivation corresponds to a high level of expression of the students’ development values in educational and professional terms.

Several authors highlighted the link between students’ motivation level and career orientations. For example, students with low motivation level are more likely to be oriented to realize their entrepreneurial potential and achievement of job stability. Students who have middle level of educational and professional motivation demonstrated orientation towards competence in professional activity, management of their lifestyles. High motivation level corresponds to professional competence orientation [15,16,17].

The analysis of the literature demonstrates that the problem of professional socialization of students of higher educational institutes has been still actual, but has lots to study further. Thus the process of professional socialization is widely developed in domestic social studies, it needs to solve practical problems. Besides, motivational component is one of the most important in the process of professional socialization; its importance is recognized by the supporters of all approaches to the research of this phenomenon. Motivation is directly related to the success of professional socialization, and it’s has not only a one-sided impact. In the situation when the professional socialization is impossible for some reasons it can penetrate a depressed mental state characterized by a poor health state and low activity of a student, which from the other hand can become chronic and can affect some properties of a person. Regardless of studying the process of professional socialization in terms of value orientations either from the standpoint of competence-based approach or by means of the professional consciousness model, characteristics and motivation strength play a great role.

Литература

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