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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 18+

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2018.69.020

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Стояновская М. Й. ВЛИЯНИЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОГО ПРОЦЕССА ПО ПСИХОТЕРАПИИ НА УРОВЕНЬ ЭМОЦИОНАЛЬНОГО ИНТЕЛЛЕКТА / М. Й. Стояновская, Р. Манчева // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2018. — № 3 (69). — С. 164—167. — URL: https://research-journal.org/psycology/the-influence-of-the-psychotherapy-educational-process-on-the-level-of-emotional-intelligence/ (дата обращения: 18.12.2018. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2018.69.020
Стояновская М. Й. ВЛИЯНИЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОГО ПРОЦЕССА ПО ПСИХОТЕРАПИИ НА УРОВЕНЬ ЭМОЦИОНАЛЬНОГО ИНТЕЛЛЕКТА / М. Й. Стояновская, Р. Манчева // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2018. — № 3 (69). — С. 164—167. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2018.69.020

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ВЛИЯНИЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОГО ПРОЦЕССА ПО ПСИХОТЕРАПИИ НА УРОВЕНЬ ЭМОЦИОНАЛЬНОГО ИНТЕЛЛЕКТА

Стояновская М.Й.1, Манчева Р.2

1ORCID: 0000-0002-2972-3478, Кандидат психологических наук, 2ORCID: 0000-0002-1655-2788, Доктор психологических наук

ВЛИЯНИЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОГО ПРОЦЕССА ПО ПСИХОТЕРАПИИ НА УРОВЕНЬ ЭМОЦИОНАЛЬНОГО ИНТЕЛЛЕКТА

Аннотация

Психотерапия открывает новые перспективы, возможности и помогает с расширением личных горизонтов. Психотерапевт несет полную ответственность во время психотерапевтического процесса, и должен убедиться, что клиент выиграет от этого процесса, и что он также приведет к изменениям, в то же время обеспечивая профессиональную защиту. Психотерапевт должен обладать превосходными навыками общения, высоким эмоциональным интеллектом и высоким уровнем сочувствия.

Во многих исследованиях было подтверждено, что атрибуты психотерапевта являются основным компонентом, который влияет на успех психотерапевтического процесса. Психотерапевт должен обладать определенными личностными качествами, чтобы эффективно реагировать на все требования, которые определяют успех терапевтического процесса. Во время обучения психотерапии когнитивные процессы и преодоление познавательных знаний успешно контролируются посредством экзаменов, написания эссе, отчетов и наблюдения.

Образовательные программы не описывают, может ли психотерапевт строить свои личные характеристики и конкретные навыки. Это исследование пытается ответить на вопрос: влияет ли образовательный процесс психотерапии на эмоциональный интеллект людей, которые учатся психотерапии?

Это исследование показывает, что эмоциональный интеллект меняется во время учебного процесса психотерапии. Результаты показывают, что после одного года частых занятий в образовательной группе психотерапии увеличилась способность регулировать и управлять своими эмоциями. Учебный процесс помогает учащимся повысить их эмоциональную компетентность и понять их эмоциональные процессы, чтобы понять эмоциональные процессы в других. Студенты учатся поддерживать хорошие процессы и корректировать негативные.

Ключевые слова: психотерапия, изучение психотерапии, исследование, эмоциональный интеллект.

Stoajnovska M.Jo.1, Mancheva R.2

1ORCID: 0000-0002-2972-3478, PhD in Psychology, 2ORCID: 0000-0002-1655-2788, PhD in Psychology

THE INFLUENCE OF THE PSYCHOTHERAPY EDUCATIONAL PROCESS ON THE LEVEL OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

Abstract

Psychotherapy represents opening new perspectives, possibilities and it helps with broadening one’s personal horizons. The psychotherapist has full responsibility during the psychotherapeutic process to make sure that the client is going to benefit from it and that it will also lead to changes, at the same time ensuring that they are maintaining their professional boundaries. The psychotherapist should posses’ excellent communication skills, high emotional intelligence and high empathy.

In a lot of studies it has been confirmed that the psychotherapist’s attributes are the main component which affects the success of the psychotherapeutic process. The psychotherapist needs to possess certain personality traits in order to effectively respond to all the requirements which determine the success of the therapeutic process. During psychotherapy education, cognitive processes and surmounting cognitive knowledge are successfully controlled through examinations, writing essays, reports and supervision.

Educational programs don’t describe how and whether it is possible for the psychotherapist to build their personal characteristics and specific skills. This research tries to answer the question: Does the psychotherapy educational process affects the emotional intelligence of people who are studying in psychotherapy?

This study shows that the emotional intelligence changes during the psychotherapy educational process. The results show that after one year of frequent attendance in the psychotherapy educational group, the ability to regulate and manage their emotions increased. The learning process helps the students to increase their emotional competence and understand their emotional processes in order to understand the emotional processes within others. The students learn how to support the good processes and correct the negative ones.

Keywords: psychotherapy, studying psychotherapy, research, emotional intelligence.

 Theoretical framework

Psychotherapy is the term used to describe the process of treating psychiatric disorders and mental problems by using verbal and psychological techniques.

This process leads the client towards discovering new answers to the situations and challenges life throws at them. It leads them to discovering new horizons and experience to expose themselves to risks. In the process, the psychotherapist helps the client to tackle specific or general problems which characterize the psychological illness or to deal with the sources of stress [6]. It is the psychotherapist’s responsibility during the psychotherapeutic process, which will take place for the benefit of the client and will lead to changes in the client, to make sure that they are maintaining their professional boundaries [5]. The therapist is the catalyst in the therapeutic relationship. They should be the ones who experience as little change as possible when the therapy process ends. The psychotherapist has the ability to leave their world behind before entering the psychotherapy room and enter a world which is completely devoted to the psychotherapeutic process and to the client, at the same time transforming themselves into a sensitive “instrument” which registers the thoughts, emotions, impulses, movements, gesticulations, breathing and the way in which the client functions.

They enter the “cosmos” that the client opens in front of them. They regulate the intensity of their voice, analyze what they say, predict their activity, determine and direct the course of the psychotherapeutic process. They consciously know which method to use while working with the client, depending on the therapeutic modality which is verified by the type of therapy.

One of the most researched areas in psychotherapy is the psychotherapist’s efficiency and their influence on the success of the psychotherapeutic process. These studies place the psychotherapist as the most important factor that influences the efficiency and success of psychotherapy. They show that it is essential for the psychotherapist to possess certain personality characteristics and to have specific skills in order to create the basis on which they can apply the psychotherapeutic techniques and methods. The psychotherapist should be able to create a therapeutic alliance, to be able to achieve an open, clear and direct communication with the clients, colleagues and other professionals they encounter during their work. The psychotherapist should also be able to experience the client’s inner experiences which allow them to see the world through the client’s eyes. They should be able to master their emotional world and successfully deal with the client’s emotions. They also need to recognize and know how to manage their client’s emotions. The psychotherapist is able to recognize the strong unpleasant emotions and is able to stop them from overwhelming them. They are emotionally stable and able to “keep the heavy emotions” which the client brings during the psychotherapeutic process. In order to achieve all of this, the psychotherapist should have certain personal characteristics. They should be open towards new experiences, they should be honest, curious, spontaneous, be ready to be constantly self-observing, to be serene with their opportunities and achievements. They should believe in themselves, to be able to organize, to believe in people, to have self-discipline, to actively care for other people’s well-being. They should feel comfortable during their social interactions and have a lot more personality traits with which they will create the basis of the therapeutic process in which they are going to use theoretical knowledge and apply the methods and techniques of the specific modalities.

While exploring the efficiency of psychotherapists, raises the question as to how a psychotherapist can acquire these particular skills and qualities[4]. Are psychotherapist born with specific traits and do people with these traits become psychotherapists? Is there something that affects the development of these personality traits? These questions indicate that there is a need to thoroughly research the development of the therapist and not just their cognitive abilities. The purpose of this research is to answer the question: Does the psychotherapy educational process affect the development of these personality traits and the mastering of specific skills?

The psychotherapy training as well as its implementation, regardless of which psychotherapeutic modality is being discussed consequently emphasizes the intellectual sphere [3].

During the psychotherapy educational process these cognitive processes and overcoming the cognitive knowledge is successfully controlled through examinations, writing essays, reports and supervision. Part of the personal characteristics can be seen during these methods. However, these personal characteristics are not considered as something of crucial importance, but instead they are treated as something fortuitous.

The educational programs of the acknowledged psychotherapeutic modalities in Macedonia correspond to the established program of the European Association for Psychotherapy for the minimum number of hours in theory, personal psychotherapy, practical/ clinical work and supervision. In none of these educational programs nor in any others has been described or established how the personal characteristics and specific skills are developed in the psychotherapist. They are crucial when it comes to whether or not someone is going to become a good therapist, but so far there hasn’t been a way in which these things can be followed and directed, how the development process of these qualities and skills can improve. Therefore, it is really important to research on all the aspects of acquiring, developing and building up these characteristics of the therapist in every possible direction [1]. This research attempts to give an answer to the question: Does the psychotherapy educational process influences the level of emotional intelligence in those who are getting educated in psychotherapy?

Hypothesis

We assume that one year of constant visits of an educational psychotherapy group increases the ability to recognize, understand, express, regulate and control emotions.

Overall sample

It consists of 124 students who are the fixed participants in the conducted experiment. During the course of one year, after re-conducting the survey, 11 participants no longer took part in it, because of significant changes in their personal lives: marriage, childbirth or they simply were not available for conducting a retest.

Research procedure

The psychological-research went through three stages: socio-demographic data for the examiners was collected in the first stage and they had to fill a questionnaire in order to measure the level of their emotional intelligence (from August to September 2016). The second stage included psychotherapy education for the respondents which lasted one year (from September 2016 to June 2017). In the third stage data was collected about the changes in their private life and they were given the same questionnaire to measure the level of their emotional intelligence (from June to July 2017). Each of the respondents was involved in the experiment after voluntarily signing the agreement. The research was conducted in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia.

Survey sheet

For the purpose of this research a questionnaire was created to collect socio-demographic data for the respondents. The questionnaire for emotional competence ESCQ-45 by Mayer and Salovey was used. In 2000 Takšić composed a short version of the ESCQ-451.

Obtained data processing methods

The obtained data is processed with the SPSS-20 statistical package. The following statistical procedures have been carried out: average arithmetic, standard deviation, highest and lowest result. T-test is used since it is proved that it has an established distribution.

Sample description

Out of the 113 respondents, 29 are male and 84 are female. They were between the ages of 20 to 37 years. The average age of the women is 28,5 and for the men 29 years.

All respondents have higher education. Out of the total number of respondents 31,9% ie 36 respondents are getting educated in Psychodrama psychotherapy, 50 respondents or 44,2% in Gestalt Psychology, 21,2% or 24 respondents in Family/Systemic therapy, while 3 respondents ie 2,7% in Transactional Analysis. Work status of the psychotherapy students: out of 113 respondents 39 or 34,5% were unemployed, 75 respondents or 65,5% were employed. Marital status: 32 respondents or 28,3% were married, while 81 respondents or 71,1% were unmarried.

In the study the ESCQ-45, which contains 45 claims distributed in three sub scales for self-assessment of the possibilities: a) perception and comprehension of the emotions, b) expressing and naming the emotions c) regulating the emotions. The first two sub scales, perceiving and expressing the emotions show the emotional skills, while regulating the emotions measures the complex possibilities and is significantly related to self-understanding, self-esteem and perception of one’s own competence.

These are the statistics obtained during the first test

 

Table 1 – Statistical indicators of emotional competence – first test

Emotional

Competence

N Min Max M Std.D. Skewness Kurtosis
Stat. Stat. Stat. Stat. Stat. Stat. Std.Er Stat. Std.Er.
UPEEC 113 43 70 57,81 6,924 0,160 0,227 0,653 0,451
ENEEC 113 41 75 60,42 8,334 0,014 0,227 0,418 0,451
RMEEC 113 49 74 61,43 5,840 0,328 0,227 0,217 0,451

Note: UPEEC – Understanding and perceiving the emotions as a part of emotional competence, ENEEC – Expressing and naming the emotions as a part of emotional competence, RMEEC – Regulating and managing the emotions as a part of emotional competence.

 

The statistical results for the possible deviation of the results are within the normal range of the statistical error, which determines the adequacy of the procedure and the obtained results from the survey.

Statistical indicators of the questionnaire for testing emotional competency in re-testing

A year later, this questionnaire for emotional competence was once again given to the respondents in order to determine whether or not after one year of frequent attendance, the psychotherapy education affected their level of emotional competence.

 

Table 2 – Statistical indicators of emotional competence – retest

Emotional

Competence

N Min Max M Std. Dev. Skewness Kurtosis
Stat. Stat Stat. Stat. Stat. Stat. Std.Err Stat. Std.Err
UPEEC RT 113 45 73 59,33 6,547 0,029 0,227 0,683 0,451
ENEEC RT 113 49 79 63,30 7,528 0,330 0,227 0,712 0,451
RMEEC RT 113 49 75 61,73 5,968 0,317 0,227 0,202 0,451

Note: UPEEC – Understanding and perceiving the emotions as a part of emotional competence, ENEEC – Expressing and naming the emotions as a part of emotional competence, RMEEC – Regulating and managing the emotions as a part of emotional competence.

 

Statistical significance of the researched variable and proof of the hypothetical assumptions – Data from the hypothetical study – Emotional competence

 

Table 3 – Statistical indicators for the test and retest of emotional competence

Mean N Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
Pair 1 UPEEC 60,42 113 8,334 0,784
UPEEC retest 63,30 113 7,528 0,708
Pair 2 ENEEC 57,81 113 6,924 0,651
ENEEC retest 59,33 113 6,547 0,616
Pair 3 RMEEC 61,43 113 5,840 0,549
RMEEC retest 61,73 113 5,968 0,561

Note: UPEEC – Understanding and perceiving the emotions as a part of emotional competence, ENEEC – Expressing and naming the emotions as a part of emotional competence, RMEEC – Regulating and managing the emotions as a part of emotional competence.

 

For the psychotherapist it is of the utmost importance to have a higher level of emotional intelligence and to have the ability to quickly spot, evaluate and express emotions. The results of psychotherapy depend on whether the therapist has the ability to spot and generate the feelings which are going to affect their thinking and their ability to comprehend emotions and gain knowledge about emotions; the ability to regulate the emotions and guide the emotional and intellectual development.

This study shows that the emotional intelligence changes during the psychotherapy educational process. 1) The biggest change is in the scale of perception and comprehension of emotions. It shows that during the educational process students quickly learn how to recognize and understand emotions within themselves and others. 2) There are also changes in the results of the test and retest in the sub scale which measures the ability to express and name the emotions. The psychotherapy students manage to cognitively process emotions, to recognize them and name them. 3) In the third sub scale of the emotional competency test, there are also changes in the results from the test and retest. The results show that after one year of frequent attendance in the psychotherapy educational group, the ability to regulate and manage their emotions increased.

 

Table 4 – Data from the T-test of emotional competence

Paired Differences t df Sig.
Mean Std.Dev Std. Error Mean 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower Upper
Pair 1 UPEEC-UPEEC RT (2,885) 2,702 0,254 (3,389) (2,381) (11,351) 112 0,000
Pair 2 ENEEC-ENEEC RT (1,522) 1,196 0,113 (1,745) (1,299) (13,529) 112 0,000
Pair 3 RMEEC-RMEEC RT 0,292 0,923 0,087 (0,464) (0,120) (3,364) 112 0,001

Note: UPEEC – Understanding and perceiving the emotions as a part of emotional competence, ENEEC – Expressing and naming the emotions as a part of emotional competence, RMEEC – Regulating and managing the emotions as a part of emotional competence.

 

The results from the conducted T-test of the obtained results from the questionnaire of emotional competence show:

  1. The statistical procedure for comparing the results showed that there are statistically significant differences between the test and retest of emotional competence results on the sub scale of understanding the emotions.
  2. The statistical procedure for comparing the results determined that the test and retest show statistically significant difference in relation to the expression of emotions sub scale.
  3. The third sub scale shows that the regulation of emotions has a statistically significant difference in the results of the first testing and retesting of the respondents after one year in the educational process.

Conclusion

After one year, the psychotherapy educational process led to an increase in the level of emotional intelligence among students who are getting educated in psychotherapy. This information leads to the next step which is to determine the factors that influence the increase of the emotional competence during the educational psychotherapy process.

During the training the psychotherapy students learn how to better understand their own emotions as well as other people’s emotions, how to better recognize emotions, they learn how to properly name the emotions, how to express the emotions in a better way as well as to skillfully manage the emotions. This practice is not written in any book, nor is it pointed out in any educational process even though, it obviously occurs during the educational process.

The personal process and learning through their own experiences during the training allows the students to become familiar with their inner processes which occur in response to external events. This paints a picture of how the cells in the body function in response to the external stimuli or the inner psychological life. Getting to know yourselves leads to self-acceptance which allows the students to become therapists who can communicate with their clients and also understand them on a profoundly emotional level. During their psychological training they learn how not to get lost when they enter the emotional world of the other person. By knowing themselves they get to distinguish their personal matters from their client’s matters. They learn how to be the catalyst in the client’s process that initiates, supports and improves the process, but at the same time manages to leave the process with the least change as possible. The learning process helps the students to increase their emotional competence and understand their emotional processes in order to understand the emotional processes within others. The students learn how to support the good processes and correct the negative ones.

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