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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2018.72.6.038

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Овчарова Р. В. ПСИХОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ СТРУКТУРА РОДИТЕЛЬСКОЙ ТОЛЕРАНТНОСТИ / Р. В. Овчарова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2018. — № 6 (72) Часть 2. — С. 80—85. — URL: https://research-journal.org/psycology/psychological-structure-of-parental-tolerance/ (дата обращения: 18.12.2018. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2018.72.6.038
Овчарова Р. В. ПСИХОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ СТРУКТУРА РОДИТЕЛЬСКОЙ ТОЛЕРАНТНОСТИ / Р. В. Овчарова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2018. — № 6 (72) Часть 2. — С. 80—85. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2018.72.6.038

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ПСИХОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ СТРУКТУРА РОДИТЕЛЬСКОЙ ТОЛЕРАНТНОСТИ

ПСИХОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ СТРУКТУРА РОДИТЕЛЬСКОЙ ТОЛЕРАНТНОСТИ

(перевод оригинальной публикации с русского языка)

Научная статья

Овчарова Р.В.*

ORCID: 0000-0001-9822-6232,

Курганский  государственный университет, Курган, Россия

* Корреспондирующий автор (oraissa[at]mail.ru)

Аннотация

В статье рассматривается неразработанный в психологической науке вид толерантности (родительской), от уровня которой зависит воспитательный потенциал семьи. На основе авторской концепции сознательного родительства разработана модель родительской толерантности. Апробирован психодиагностический комплекс для изучения структуры родительской толерантности. Модель родительской толерантности как интегрального единства трех компонентов (когнитивного, эмоционального и поведенческого) эмпирически проверена. С помощью корреляционного исследования осуществлен структурно-содержательный анализ толерантности. Системообразующим в структуре родительской толерантности является эмоциональный компонент и его элементы – позитивные родительские чувства к ребенку на основе его безусловного принятия и родительская любовь; в когнитивном  компоненте – осознанность отношения родителя к ребенку и родительской ответственности; в поведенческом компоненте – коммуникативная толерантность и демократический стиль семейного воспитания.

Ключевые слова: толерантность, родительская толерантность (интолерантность), диагностика родительской толерантности.

PSYCHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF PARENTAL TOLERANCE

(translation of the original publication in Russian)

Research article

Ovcharova R.V.*

ORCID: 0000-0001-9822-6232,

Kurgan State University, Kurgan, Russia

* Corresponding author (oraissa[at]mail.ru)

Abstract

The study deals with a type of parental tolerance that has not been scrutinized in depth by psychology; yet, it is the type of tolerance that determines educational capacity of the family. Based on the author’s concept of the  concept of conscious parenthood developed a model of parental tolerance. Psychodiagnostic complex was tested to study the structure of parent tolerance. The model of parental tolerance as an integral unity of three components (cognitive, emotional and behavioral) is empirically tested. Structural and content analysis of tolerance was carried out with the help of correlation research. The system-forming component in the structure of parental tolerance is the emotional component and its elements – positive parental feelings towards the child on the basis of its unconditional acceptance and parental love; in the cognitive component – awareness of the parent’s attitude to the child and parental responsibility; in behavioral component – communicative tolerance and democratic style of family education.

Keywords: tolerance, parental tolerance (intolerance), diagnostics of parental tolerance.

Introduction

On the process of social interactions in the contemporary world both at the level of state-to-state, the identity of the group and at the level of personality-personality influences the degree of tolerance of people. All conflict social interaction associated with underdevelopment of the values and personality traits that breeds cynicism, aggression, cruelty and violence in society.  Conflict parent-child interaction is also caused by the intolerance of parents to their children.

However, despite the increased interest of psychologists in the problem of tolerance in General, it is necessary to note the weak study of parental tolerance. The available data on its individual manifestations do not provide a holistic picture of the phenomenon.

The aim of this study is to develop a model of psychological structure of parental tolerance and methods of its diagnosis based on a systematic approach.

Methods

With the help of theoretical modeling, data operationalization and correlation analysis the model of psychological structure of parent tolerance and complex of methods of its diagnostics were developed and empirically tested. Operationalization of conceptual elements incorporated in the structure of parental tolerance made it possible to propose a complex of validated techniques for looking into it. R.V. Ovcharova and M.E. Yermikhina’s «Conscious Parenthood» questionnaire was suitable for studying the cognitive component, while E.A Padurina’s «Positive Parental  Feelings» questionnaire and E.V. Milyukova’s questionnaire [11] on parental love and sympathy turned out to be good for investigating the emotional component, R.V. Ovcharova’s MRDE questionnaire [10] and V.V. Boiko’s methods for diagnostics of general communicative tolerance were appropriate for examining the behavioral component [3], [14].

The «Conscious Parenthood» questionnaire applies a systemic approach towards evaluating the self as a parent, parents’ set and expectations, attitudes, feelings, stances, responsibilities, family education style.

The questionnaire on parental love and sympathy enables to expose parents’ prevailing feeling for the child (sympathy or love); it helps to define the components and typology of parental love.

The «Positive Parental Feelings» questionnaire describing positive feelings towards the self as a parent, towards parenthood, for the child, for the spouse as a parent.

The MRDЕ (Method for Rapid Diagnostics of style of family education) is a major technique designed to study specific features of parents’ personality, their attitude to the child and the environment in a family. The questionnaire consists of two parts: introspective diagnostics of typical family states (tensions, family anxiety, a sense of guilt in the family) and introspective diagnostics of parental attitude (rejection of the child, lack of cooperation, parents’ authoritative hypersocialization), as well as the personal characteristics of parents, provoking their tolerance.

Method of diagnostics of General communicative tolerance allows you to diagnose tolerant and intolerant of the installation, which is manifested in the communication process. According to the author of the method, communicative tolerance is conditioned by experience, personal characteristics, moral principles and, in turn, largely determines other types of communicative tolerance

Discussion

The issue of tolerance is interdisciplinary in science and is amply represented in philosophy, ethics, sociology, physiology, medicine, and psychology. Various types of tolerance have been examined such as: political, social, ethnic, religious, moral, pedagogical. The nature of tolerance, its determinants and functions have been identified and analyzed. Analysis has been made to examine subjects and objects of tolerance, its manifestations, domains, levels and results of development [2]. Tolerance is defined by various authors as commonly accepted behavior and rejection of imposing one’s viewpoint on that of others [18], as acceptance of «game rules» [20], as a way of respecting the viewpoint of the others [13], as a specific quality of interaction [9], as a specific relationship [4], as reduction of sensitivity of the object [7], as psychological resistance, as a system of positive attitudes, as a combination of personal characteristics, as a system of personal and group values [15], as a character trait [12], as a personal property [8], as a component of a mature personality’s attitude to life [1]. There is a lack of a single criterion basis in the definition of «tolerance», when the private, individual can not be traced to the General, the vision of which is possible only on the basis of a systematic approach.

Three groups of issues have been determined in psychology of tolerance: psychology of a tolerant personality; psychology of tolerance in social groups and psychology of tolerant interaction [2]. However, psychologists are paying special attention to communicative tolerance, which could be considered as one of the typical features of parental tolerance. They define it as follows as a psychological and social feature of a personality with a dominant conscious focus on indulgent, nonconfrontational communicative behavior [3], [9], [15]. This interpretation takes into account only the cognitive aspect. Nevertheless, having the right beliefs, a person does not always follow them in real communication and adequately experiences the consequences of their behavior.

The term «parental tolerance» is not applied in psychological research, although close concepts do appear: non-violent communication, assertive behavior, reflexive behavior, reflecting functioning of the parents, parents’ facilitation behavior, empathy, parental care, altruism and other. A systematic understanding of the phenomenon in contrast to the partial would mean that tolerance is present in consciousness, feelings and behavior of the parent.

The main disadvantages in psychological studies of tolerance are the lack of a systematic approach, the concentration on the socio-psychological aspects, the exclusion from the list of priorities of parental tolerance, which begins the formation of all its species in childhood under the influence of the immediate environment – the family.

Thus, the relevance of our research is determined by the need to study parental tolerance on the basis of a systematic approach. The study is devoted to the development of a model of psychological structure of parental tolerance as an integral system and its empirical verification. It was suggested that parental tolerance is an integral system of three interrelated and interdependent, which has a specific content.

Results

As a result, it turned out that the central objective was to create a theoretical notion of parental tolerance. Theoretically and methodologically it was based on R.V. Ovcharova’s conception of conscious parenthood. Pursuant to this conception parenthood, being an integrated constituent of the personality, includes: value-related preferences of spouses (family values), parents’ sets and expectations, parents’ attitudes, parental feelings, parents’ stands, parental responsibility, style of education in the family [11].

Each of the components of parenthood contains emotional, cognitive and behavioral components. Each of the components of parenting may appear tolerant and intolerant tendencies. Therefore, parental tolerance can be seen in the dichotomy of tolerance – intolerance [16]. On the tolerant attitudes of parents indicate partnerships that develop the activity of the child. Indicators parent intolerance, super-authority and dependency relationships, avoidance of contact with the child or excessive invasion of the child’s world; the desire to accelerate the development of the child, etc. Since parental tolerance is one of the manifestations of parenthood, it is legitimate to consider its psychological structure, based on the structure of parenthood as a whole.

Our approach also relates to G. L. Bardier’s on the structure of General tolerance based on the interaction of three components: emotional, cognitive and behavioral [2]. From our point of view, the structure of all types of tolerance is identical to the specifics of the content.

As a result, in the model proposed on this theoretical basis, parental tolerance is considered as an integral formation of the parent’s personality. It manifests itself at three interrelated levels: cognitive, emotional and behavioural and determines the subjective development of the child’s personality and psychological well-being.

Hence, in the proposed model, which is grounded on this theory, parental tolerance is an integral constituent of a parent’s personality. It has three levels: cognitive (the child as a value); emotional (positive acceptance of the child); behavioral (tolerant style of upbringing); these aspects entail the development of the child’s personality and his psychological well-being. Tolerance is based on the principles of humanism, trust, cooperation and partnership.

The subjects of parental tolerance are both parents (father and mother), which interact with each other on the level of parenting as a supra-individual whole, thereby providing an overall strategy for the education of the child in accordance with parental roles, preventing them from perversions. The object of parental tolerance is a child with inherent individual-typological and psychological characteristics. Parental tolerance serves as primary socialization, education, communication and facilitation of the child’s personality development.

In accordance with the conception of social and pedagogical neglect of children, which we have elaborated earlier, parental tolerance leads to the child’s personality development as a subject, his or her socio-psychological adjustment while parental intolerance results in the child’s personality development as an object, his or her socio-psychological neglect, environmental maladjustment [10] (fig.).

20-06-2018 15-33-3020-06-2018 15-34-04

Fig. 1 – Parental tolerance model as a factor in the development of the child’s personality as the subject and methods of its diagnostics

Thus, the development of this model, describing the psychological structure of parental tolerance, led to the determination of its content, features and manifestations, as well as adequate diagnostic methods.

Confirmation of the reliability of the theoretical model of parental tolerance in structural terms (as an integral system) was a high level of correlation between its individual components (cognitive, emotional, behavioral), and between the individual elements within these components. Out of the total number of possible connections, 1.5% of reliable connections at p≤0.001 have an emotional component, 39 (0.6%) – a cognitive component, 15 (0.2%) – a behavioral component. On this basis, the emotional component can be considered a backbone in the structure of parental tolerance.

The Research article also reveals the content aspects of parental tolerance within each component and the backbone elements in them. Such elements in the cognitive component are awareness of the parent’s attitude to the child and awareness of parental responsibility (55% of reliable connections). In the emotional component, the main ones are positive parental feelings towards the child on the basis of its unconditional acceptance and parental love (50% reliable connections). The behavioral component contains such a dominant parameter as communicative tolerance, which is expressed in the ability of parents to hide their negative feelings towards the child and the lack of desire to adapt it to themselves. The democratic style of family education is accompanied by a promoting family environment (50% of reliable links).

The analysis of intercorrelations in the cognitive component gave the following picture. With the conscious attitude of parents to the child, parents do not seek to adjust the child to themselves (r=0,361), do not use themselves as a role model (r=0,767), do not seek to adjust the child to themselves (r=0,361), to alter it without taking into account individual features (R=0,348). They do not experience physical and psychological discomfort (r=0,564), do not show categorical or conservatism in interaction with the child (r=0,483), are able to smooth out the unpleasant feelings (r=0,576). Awareness of parental responsibility has a negative relationship with such manifestations of communicative intolerance as rigidity and conservatism in the estimates of the child (r=-0,371), the inability to hide or smooth over negative feelings towards him (r=-0,388), the desire to make it a comfortable (r=-0,382), inability to adapt to the character, habits and wishes of the other (r=-0,363).

In the emotional component, positive parental feelings towards the child on the basis of unconditional acceptance have a positive correlation with awareness of parental feelings (r=0,358) and cooperation in interaction with the child (r=0,397). All manifestations of communicative intolerance is an inverse relationship: the reference (r=-0,460), the desire to fit the child (r=-0,408), rigidity and conservatism in the estimates of the child (r=-0,403), physical and psychological discomfort in communication (r=-0,400), the desire to change, re (r=-0,385). With the expression of parental love and sympathy, parents are aware of parental feelings (r=0.361) and the style of family education (r=0.396). They are prone to symbiosis (r=0,365) and cooperation (r=0,360) with the child, tolerant to physical and psychological discomfort created by the child (r=0,381).

The behavioral component is expressed in communicative tolerance of parents, tolerant (democratic, promoting) style of family education. The analysis of correlations of this component revealed the following. When expressed in an effort to fit the child for themselves, to make it “convenient” parents often reject their child, such as he is (r=0,362) and see it as a little loser (r=0,454). Such «education» is accompanied by neuropsychological stress (r=0,499), General family anxiety (r=0,528) and guilt in parents (r=0,454). Parents who do not know how to hide or smooth out unpleasant feelings in a collision with the negative qualities of the child, forgive him / her mistakes, embarrassment, unintentionally caused troubles to adapt to his / her character, habits and desires or trying to remake the child are accompanied by similar experiences (r=0,430; 0,392; 0,382; 0,352; 0,550; 0,528; 0,458).

Thus, it was proved the assumption of parental tolerance as an integral system with a specific content.

Conclusion

Tolerance as a three-component integral formation of the parent’s personality, in which the emotional component is the backbone, is confirmed on the basis of a systematic approach by means of correlation analysis. The main elements are identified in each component. As a result, it is proved that the basis of parental tolerance are positive parental feelings towards the child, its unconditional acceptance, parental love and sympathy (emotional component). It is defined by awareness of the attitude to the child and parental responsibility (cognitive component) and is manifested in the communicative tolerance and democratic style of family education (behavioral component).

Tolerant parents are aware of their responsibility for the upbringing of the child, attitude to him. At the same time, they experience positive parental feelings, show unconditional love and sympathy to children. In behavior parents show communicative tolerance, that is build family education on the principles of humanism, cooperation and facilitation.

The complex of psycho-diagnostic methods that adequate to the structure of parental tolerance, includes five major methodologies: R.V. Ovcharova and M.E. Yermikhina’s questionnaire «Conscious Parenthood», E.V. Milyukova’s questionnaire on parental love and sympathy, E.A Padurina’s questionnaire «Positive Parental Feelings», R.V. Ovcharova’s questionnaire MRDE (Method for Rapid Diagnostics of style of family education), V.V. Boiko’s questionnaire «Communicative Tolerance». The proposed methodical complex can be applied to empirically test models of parental tolerance as well as to practically deal with individual families.

Further research may concern the dynamics of parental tolerance, the nature of manifestations in relation to children of different ages and sex, the impact on the development of the child’s personality, etc.

Благодарности

Автор хотел бы поблагодарить журнал «Психологическая наука и образование» за публикацию оригинальной статьи на русском языке.

Acknowledgement

Hereby the author would like to thank the journal «Psychological science and education» for the publication of the original Research article in Russian.

Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

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