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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 18+

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2017.66.089

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Квасова О. Г. РАЗВИТИЕ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНЫХ КОМПЕТЕНЦИЙ В ХОДЕ ПОДГОТОВКИ СПЕЦИАЛИСТОВ ПО ПСИХОЛОГИЧЕСКОЙ ПОМОЩИ / О. Г. Квасова, О. О. Савина // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2018. — № 12 (66) Часть 2. — С. 69—72. — URL: https://research-journal.org/psycology/development-of-professional-competences-in-psychological-care-training/ (дата обращения: 18.12.2018. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2017.66.089
Квасова О. Г. РАЗВИТИЕ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНЫХ КОМПЕТЕНЦИЙ В ХОДЕ ПОДГОТОВКИ СПЕЦИАЛИСТОВ ПО ПСИХОЛОГИЧЕСКОЙ ПОМОЩИ / О. Г. Квасова, О. О. Савина // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2018. — № 12 (66) Часть 2. — С. 69—72. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2017.66.089

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РАЗВИТИЕ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНЫХ КОМПЕТЕНЦИЙ В ХОДЕ ПОДГОТОВКИ СПЕЦИАЛИСТОВ ПО ПСИХОЛОГИЧЕСКОЙ ПОМОЩИ

Квасова О.Г.1, Савина О.О.2

1ORCHID: 0000-0003-0273-6233, кандидат психологических наук, доцент, 2ORCHID: 0000-0002-3326-4841, кандидат психологических наук, доцент,

1,2Московский государственный университет имени М.В.Ломоносова

РАЗВИТИЕ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНЫХ КОМПЕТЕНЦИЙ В ХОДЕ ПОДГОТОВКИ СПЕЦИАЛИСТОВ ПО ПСИХОЛОГИЧЕСКОЙ ПОМОЩИ

Аннотация

Современное общество, бросая вызов экстремизму, терроризму, социальной нестабильности, нуждается в разработке новых технологий психологической помощи и образовательных программ, личностных и профессиональных навыках, компетенциях и новых методах обучения в области психологической практики и психологической подготовки. Представленное исследование проводилось на кафедре психологической помощи и ресоциализации (Экстремальной психологии и психологической помощи) Московского государственного университета имени М.В.Ломоносова во время лонгитюдных  наблюдений за развитием и профессиональным становлением студентов и образовательной практики на протяжении 13 лет. Были опробованы инновационные технологии отслеживания трансформаций и работы личности будущих хелперов, в частности, развития способности к заботе о Другом в процессе профессионального обучения. Студенты, прошедшие профессиональную подготовку в рамках культурно-деятельностной методологии и трансформационной теории личности, показали значительно более высокий уровень так называемой «инструментальной помощи» в практике в отличие от студентов-психологов, ориентированных, в большей мере на заботу в экзистенциальном плане и воображении как на ценности и части жизненного опыта, чем на действенные активные формы профессиональной помощи. Культурно-деятельностная методология открывает новые возможности также в создании эффективных способов проработки травматического опыта как результата личного и индуцированного опыта (в форме вторжения и избегания) специалистами в ходе обучения практике психологической помощи, в том числе профессиональной супервизии, персональной дидактики. 

Ключевые слова. Феномен заботы, психологическая помощь, культурно-деятельностная теория, инструментальная забота, действенные виды помощи.

Kvasova O.G.1, Savina O.O.2

1ORCID: 0000-0003-0273-6233, PhD in psychology, Associate Professor, 2ORCID: 0000-0002-3326-4841, PhD in psychology, Associate Professor,

1,2Moscow State University after M.V.Lomonossov

DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCES IN PSYCHOLOGICAL CARE TRAINING

Abstract

Modern society gives a challenge to cope with extremism, terrorism, social instability that needs developing new psychological helping technologies and educational programs, personal and professional skills and new training techniques  in the field of psychological practice and education. The research was fulfilled at the Extreme Psychology and Psychological Helping Department of Moscow State University during  longitude observations  and educational practice. Innovation techniques of tracking transformations and characteristics of personality work – such as development of care-giving competence in professional training were tested. Students in professional training based on cultural activity theory of personality showed significantly higher level of “instrumental care” as a part of practice, then psychology students oriented on care existentially, more presented in images, values and as a part of life experience than in effectual forms of professional helping. Application of cultural activity theory of personality in professional training also gives the opportunity to elaborate traumatic intrusion and avoidance as a result of induced traumatic experience in the course of didactic personal work with trainees.

Keywords: Care giving phenomenon, helping technologies, professional training, cultural activity theory, instrumental care, effectual forms of helping.

Introduction

The presented research is aimed at care-giving phenomenon in relationship with training  technologies for students  in the field of psychological helping aimed at developing personal and professional skills  oriented on  personal growth, maturity,  stability, intuition, listening capacity, personal position, humanistic values, multi-cultural integrity. Special attention in training competences for helping professionals (health workers, psychologists, social workers, etc.) besides technology, discourse methods, traditional focus on, personal growth, empathy   etc. should be given to care capacity for the other, including creation and restoration of the client’s care of the Self and the Other [3], [4]. Necessity for urgent development of scientific methods of identification and development of helping  capacities, specially ability to care in helping professionals is also the purpose of investigation.

Care is universal factor emanating from the very laws of human survival and evolution of the mankind [2], from the very first steps of a person caring for himself. Traditionally psychology examines the concept of care in connection with the study and description of interpersonal interactions in matters of child-rearing not extending it to a wider range of phenomena [1],  [6]. Only nowadays the conception of care-giving is taking shape of fundamental principle of the psyche [3], [4], [5].

Material and methods

1) The projective test created on the basis of the achievement motivation test (H. Heckhausen, modified by M.Sh. Magomed-Eminov in 1987) and Thematic Apperception Test  to  identify the features of care capacity towards another person and its transformation in the course of professional training; 2) Original Effective Helping Features Test developed on the basis of client-centered approach [4] – were validated 2015-2017 on students in MSU (N= 130), 3) Horowitz IOES (Impact of Event Scale modified by Magomed-Eminov, 1990); 4) longitude observations on Psychology students during psychology practice, supervision, extracurricular program, in-depth interview, analysis of memories of traumatic events [3], were used as research methods.

Results and discussion

The subjects of presented study 1- were 46 men and 94 women. As a result there were constructed four groups- senior and junior psychologists and non-psychologists, non-psychologists included group of medics. Differences in instrumental activity, involvement of imagination, ego-involvement in situation of care have been identified between the junior and senior psychologists.

Table 1 – t-Student Groups results

15-02-2018 17-28-11

Примечание: ** р<0.01  * р<0.05

 

These data appeared to be consonant with the test data which showed in senior students  significantly higher figures of capacity to let other people change, be separated, responsible and to give active support to their strive to grow (N=67). There were demonstrated significant difference in features of care manifestations between groups of psychology students and non-psychology students: so medical students involved in practice from the beginning of their professional training demonstrated significantly higher scores of instrumental care as a part of practice, activity during helping training then psychology students oriented on care existentially, more in imagination and as a terminal value, as a part of life experience.

Psychology students involved in professional training on the ground of cultural-activity methodology at the Extreme Psychology and Psychological Helping Department in MSU from 2004 showed significantly higher level of effectual forms of care manifestation than the senior students at psychology department MSU (n=213). The educational programs for students of the department were developed as the integrity of theory mastering, elaboration of new techniques, involvement in social practice (as volunteers helping, re-socialization and readjustment after wars, terrorist attacks, social catastrophes, disasters, loss, crisis etc. since [14] including debriefing, analyzing traumatic counter transference, monitoring personal trauma and personal growth – reviewing and developing  international experience of professional training [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13]. Training also showed low percentage of desadaptation and evidence of post traumatic growth  on clients and on students involved in social nets of support and effectual care.

Elaboration of traumatic experience in future specialists – psychologists-helpers. The training of specialists in the field of psychological care included, in addition to teaching lectures and seminars, group forms of work, volunteer practice and personal didactics, supervision – including working through individual traumatic experiences and vicarious traumatic experience got from research interviews and training counseling sessions with people in stress and trauma. A study was conducted to identify the connection between extreme \ traumatic experience and the specificity of the qualitative meaning of experience-the correlation of intrusion-avoidance tendencies as a result of induced traumatic experience. Here is an example of a study conducted to control the work with personal experience of trauma in students.

Subjects recalled non-everyday events, arranged them according to the degree of significance from the most to the least important impact on their lives. The three first in the rating (the most significant) events were descriptions with a given temporal and content structure. The study involved 40 students, 8 men and 32 women, aged 19 to 24 years. Frequency analysis of descriptions of traumatic events in life of respondents were classified into three main groups according to the type of traumatic experience: 1) death of a loved one; 2) changing interpersonal relationships as a result of parting with a loved one; 3) catastrophic events. The first two groups of traumatic events could be combined into one class – “loss”, but, in our opinion, it is advisable to present them in the form of independent groups, since the severity of loss is different and affects different modes of human existence. Thus, the death of a loved one was attributed to the existential mode of existence, and separating to the social mode. The results of TTEST show that in subjects with a traumatic event, the “separation” in comparison with the subjects from the “accident” group is significantly higher than the incidence (p = 0.01), avoidance (p = 0.05) and the general severity of traumatic tendencies (p = 0.05). we consider that such results are due to the fact that most of the subjects in a sample were young people for whom the sphere of interpersonal relations is of particular value. After 3, 7 and 14 days after the study, individual work was carried out with students to identify and arrest a possible secondary trauma, acute reactions to the study.

Conclusion

The developed forms of professional training and supported personality cultural-activity work as a part of it – help to bring up effective care-giving skills and  transform  this capacity from pure idealistic notion to operational, effectual forms of helping,  ffective professional and life styles.  Application of cultural activity theory of personality in professional training also gives the opportunity to elaborate traumatic intrusion and avoidance as a result of induced traumatic experience in the course of  debriefing sessions, didactic personal and  group work with trainees.

That in its turn opens the chance for developing new training techniques in the field of helping – in particular personal and professional competence and  development (Including personal growth, maturity,  stability, intuition, listening capacity, personal position, humanistic values, multi-cultural integrity) at the  Psychological Helping and Resocialization Department of Moscow State University where the research and longitude observations  and educational practice was held.

Список литературы / References

  1. Выготский Л.С. Исторический смысл психологического кризиса / Л.С. Выготский // Полн. собр. соч. в 6-ти томах. Т.6. – М.: Педагогика, 1986. – 436 с.
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  3. Магомед-Эминов М.Ш. Трансформация личности / М.Ш. Магомед- Эминов. – М.: Психоаналитическая Ассоциация, 1998. – 496 с.
  4. Магомед-Эминов М.Ш. Позитивная психология человека. От психологии субъекта к психологии бытия / М.Ш. Магомед-Эминов // Позитивная психология человека. От психологии субъекта к психологии бытия. В двух томах. Т.1. – М.: ПАРФ, 2007. – 536 с.
  5. Магомед-Эминов М.Ш. Психика как работа / М.Ш. Магомед-Эминов // Вестник МГУ. Сер. 14. Психология. – – № 4. – С. 92–108.
  6. Eliot E.S., Mackie D.M. Social Psychology (third edition) / E.S. Eliot, D.M.Mackie // Social Psychology:Third Edition by Eliot  Smith and Diane MMackie. – New York: Psychology Press. –2007.
  7. Falender C., Shafranske E.P. Competence in competency-based supervision practice: Construct and application / C. Falender E.P. Shafranske // Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. – – Vol. 38. – P.232–240. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.38.3.232
  8. Forrest L., Elman N. S. & Shen Miller D. S. Psychology trainees with competence problems: From individual to ecological conceptualizations / L.Forrest, N. S.Elman, D. S. Shen Miller //  Training and Education in Professional Psychology. –   – Vol.2.  – P.183–192. doi:10.1037/1931-3918.2.4.183
  9. Fouad N.A., Grus C.L., Hatcher R.L., Kaslow N.J., Hutchings P.S., Madson M.B., Crossman R.E. Crossman Competency benchmarks: A model for understanding and measuring competence in professional psychology across training levels / N.A.Fouad, C.L. Grus, R.L.Hatcher, N.J.Kaslow, P.S.Hutchings, M.B.Madson, R.E. // Training And Education In Professional Psychology. – – Vol.3 (4, Suppl). – P.5–26. Doi:10.1037/a0015832
  10. Green R. A., Morrissey S. A. and Conlon E. G. The values and self-efficacy beliefs of postgraduate psychology students / R. A.Green, S. A. Morrissey, E. G. Conlon // Aust. J. Psychol. – –Vol.69. – № 2 – P.112–120.
  11. Hatcher R.L., Fouad N.A., Grus C.L., Campbell L.F., McCutcheon S.R. & Leahy K.L. Competency benchmarks: Practical steps toward a culture of competence / R.L.Hatcher, N.A.Fouad, C.L. Grus, L.F.Campbell, S.R. McCutcheon, K.L. Leahy // Training and Education in Professional Psychology. – – Vol. 7(2). – P. 84–91. doi: 10.1037/a0029401
  12. Lobb A. Technologies of the Other: Renewing ‘empathy’ between Foucault and psychoanalysis / A. Lobb  // Foucault Studies. – – № 20. –P. 218–235
  13. Neimeyer G. J., Taylor J. M. and Rozensky R. H. The diminishing durability of knowledge in professional psychology: A Delphi poll of specialties and proficiencies / G. J.Neimeyer, J. M. Taylor, R. H. Rozensky // Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. – – Vol.43. – P.364–371. doi:10.1037/a0028698
  14. Magomed-Eminov, M., Kvasova, O., Savina, O. Work with personality competence in professional study of helping psychology / M. Magomed-Eminov, O. Kvasova, O. Savina // Materials of the 3-d  International research and practice conference, Westwood, October 16th, 2013 / publishing office Accent Graphics communications –Westwood – Canada. –2013. Vol. 1. –P.438–443

Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

  1. Vygotsky L.S. Istoricheskiy smyisl psihologicheskogo krizisa [The Historical Meaning of the Crisis in Psychology] / S.Vygotsky // Poln.sobr.soch. v 6-ti tomah. Т.6. [Collected works in 6 v. –V. 1.] M.: Pedagogika, 1982. – 436 p.[in Russian]
  2. Kropotkin P.A. Vzaimopomosch kak faktor evolyutsii [Mutual aid as factor of evolution] / P.A.Kropotkin. – M.: Samoobrazovanie. –2011. – 256 p. [in Russian]
  3. Magomed-Eminov M.Sh. Transformatsiya lichnosti [Transformation of personality] / M.Sh. Magomed- Eminov. –M.: Psikhoanaliticheskaya Assotsiatsiya [Psychoanalytic Association], 1998. –496 p. [in Russian]
  4. Magomed-Eminov M.Sh. Pozitivnaya psikhologiya cheloveka. Ot psikhologii sub”yekta k psikhologii bytiya. V 2 t. T.1. [Positive human psychology. On the subject of psychology to the psychology of being. In 2 vol. Vol.1] / M.Sh. Magomed- Eminov – M .: PARF. – –536 p. [in Russian]
  5. Magomed-Eminov M.Sh. Psihika kak rabota [The psyche as a work] / M.Sh. Magomed- Eminov // Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Serija. 14. Psihologiya [Bulletin of the Moscow university. Series 14. Psychology]. –2011. – 4. –P. 92-108. [in Russian]
  6. Eliot E.S., Mackie D.M. Social Psychology (third edition) / E.S. Eliot, D.M.Mackie // Social Psychology:Third Edition by Eliot R. Smith and Diane M. Mackie. – New York: Psychology Press. –
  7. Falender C., Shafranske E.P. Competence in competency-based supervision practice: Construct and application / C. Falender E.P. Shafranske // Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. – – Vol. 38. – P.232–240. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.38.3.232
  8. Forrest L., Elman N. S. & Shen Miller D. S. Psychology trainees with competence problems: From individual to ecological conceptualizations / L.Forrest, N. S.Elman, D. S. Shen Miller //  Training and Education in Professional Psychology. –   – Vol.2.  – P.183–192. doi:10.1037/1931-3918.2.4.183
  9. Fouad N.A., Grus C.L., Hatcher R.L., Kaslow N.J., Hutchings P.S., Madson M.B., Crossman R.E. Crossman Competency benchmarks: A model for understanding and measuring competence in professional psychology across training levels / N.A.Fouad, C.L. Grus, R.L.Hatcher, N.J.Kaslow, P.S.Hutchings, M.B.Madson, R.E. // Training And Education In Professional Psychology. – – Vol.3 (4, Suppl). – P.5–26. Doi:10.1037/a0015832
  10. Green R. A., Morrissey S. A. and Conlon E. G. The values and self-efficacy beliefs of postgraduate psychology students / R. A.Green, S. A. Morrissey, E. G. Conlon // Aust. J. Psychol. – –Vol.69. – № 2 – P.112–120.
  11. Hatcher R.L., Fouad N.A., Grus C.L., Campbell L.F., McCutcheon S.R. & Leahy K.L. Competency benchmarks: Practical steps toward a culture of competence / R.L.Hatcher, N.A.Fouad, C.L. Grus, L.F.Campbell, S.R. McCutcheon, K.L. Leahy // Training and Education in Professional Psychology. – – Vol. 7(2). – P. 84–91. doi: 10.1037/a0029401
  12. Lobb A. Technologies of the Other: Renewing ‘empathy’ between Foucault and psychoanalysis / A. Lobb // Foucault Studies. – – № 20. –P. 218–235
  13. Neimeyer G. J., Taylor J. M. and Rozensky R. H. The diminishing durability of knowledge in professional psychology: A Delphi poll of specialties and proficiencies / G. J.Neimeyer, J. M. Taylor, R. H. Rozensky // Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. – – Vol.43. – P.364–371. doi:10.1037/a0028698
  14. Magomed-Eminov, M., Kvasova, O., Savina, O. Work with personality competence in professional study of helping psychology / M. Magomed-Eminov, O. Kvasova, O. Savina // Materials of the 3-d  International research and practice conference, Westwood, October 16th, 2013 / publishing office Accent Graphics communications –Westwood – Canada. –2013. Vol. 1. –P.438–443

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