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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2017.60.128

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Джонназарова Д. Х. ПОЛИТИЧЕСКАЯ СОЦИАЛИЗАЦИЯ ЖЕНЩИН И ЕЁ СОЦИОКУЛЬТУРНЫЕ АСПЕКТЫ / Д. Х. Джонназарова, А. Р. Ибодуллоев // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2017. — № 6 (60) Часть 3. — С. 47—50. — URL: https://research-journal.org/philosophy/political-socialization-of-women-in-social-and-cultural-aspects/ (дата обращения: 20.08.2019. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2017.60.128
Джонназарова Д. Х. ПОЛИТИЧЕСКАЯ СОЦИАЛИЗАЦИЯ ЖЕНЩИН И ЕЁ СОЦИОКУЛЬТУРНЫЕ АСПЕКТЫ / Д. Х. Джонназарова, А. Р. Ибодуллоев // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2017. — № 6 (60) Часть 3. — С. 47—50. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2017.60.128

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ПОЛИТИЧЕСКАЯ СОЦИАЛИЗАЦИЯ ЖЕНЩИН И ЕЁ СОЦИОКУЛЬТУРНЫЕ АСПЕКТЫ

Джонназарова Д.Х.1, Ибодуллоев А.Р.2

1Кандидат философских наук,

2Соискатель кафедры общественных наук,

Институт экономики и торговли (филиал) в г. Худжанде,

Таджикский Государственный Университет Коммерции

ПОЛИТИЧЕСКАЯ СОЦИАЛИЗАЦИЯ ЖЕНЩИН И ЕЁ СОЦИОКУЛЬТУРНЫЕ АСПЕКТЫ

Аннотация

В данной работе автор анализирует проблему социализации женщин в политической системе, аспектов социально значимого аспекта культурных ценностей и отношений, роль личности женщин в социальном аспекте и делает акцент на активное продвижение идеи иерархии государственного аппарата. Авторы дают четкую позицию социализации женщин в политической конъюнктуре. Подробно описываются имидж лидера женщины и ее роль в решении политических целей. Значение фигуры женщины в ситуации глубокого политического кризиса велико и однозначно.

Ключевые слова: социум, политическое движение, культурные связи, процесс социализации, демократия, гражданское общество.

 

Jonnazarova D.H.1, Ibodulloev A.R.2

1Associate Professor

2Postgraduate researcher Department of Social Sciences,

Institute of Trade and Economy  in Khujand,

Tajik State University of Commerce

POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION OF WOMEN IN SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ASPECTS

Abstract

In this article authors analyse the problem of socialization of women in political system, aspects of cultural values and relations, and the role of women in social aspects.  They have several views about position of women in policy. The authors give a clear position on the socialization of women in the political conjuncture. The image of the leader of a woman and her role in solving political goals are described in detail. The significance of the figure of a woman in the situation of a deep political crisis is great and unambiguous.

Keywords: society, political movements, cultural relations, the process of socialization, democracy, civil society.

 

Introduction

The political system of society must be implemented by the wise policy of the leader of the country or state. The main role plays a woman. Women do not inferior to a man by nature and characteristics. The woman has leadership skills. Political socialization of women is one of the urgent issues of the day in the scientific community. The process of socialization of a person proceeds from the composition, to which specific society occurs the human socialization of women after the 1920s.

Due to the women’s struggling since the XVIII century, the struggle for women’s rights takes sharper lines. The twentieth century, the situation of women in Europe was worse than in the Soviet Union. Women worked in such heavy industrial spheres as engineering, mines, health, education and etc.

Today, the status of women in society has been multiplied. Besides that the woman is responsible for children and household chores. They must work and find their place in society. Women who work after a certain activity must deal with household chores in the evening. No one canceled the burden of liability. In the 18th century when the family was engaged in weaving, most of the work was done by women, except for work they calculated and kept accounts. If a woman can lead a household, she can lead a larger state, such as a whole state. The women are able take care of the family, to dress, feed, allocate resources for the winter, and also prepare for change. Men by nature are miners. We know enough names of women that changed history: Jeanne d’Arc, Margaret Thatcher, Mother Teresa, Catherine the Great, and others.

Each theoretical study begins with the definition of the author’s position on the explanation of key concepts that help to identify the subject of a specific problem. First of all, we need to define within the framework of this article. As follows from the title of the article, the key concepts in this article are “socialization”, “political socialization” and “socio-cultural aspect”. It is possible to emphasize the prism of these categories also the identification of the specifics of the process of political socialization of women in a transforming Tajik society in conjunction with some issues of building a civil society in the Republic of Tajikistan.

The term “socialization” is multi-valued, and this explanation does not coincide with many authors. The history of the term in different sources appears in different variations. In the conventional version, socialization (from Latin socialis – social), assimilation by a human individual of a certain system of knowledge, norms and values that allow him to function as a full member of society; includes both a purposeful impact on the person (upbringing), as well as natural, spontaneous processes that affect his formation. [1, P. 97]

Political socialization is one of the sides of the overall socialization of the individual. The notion of “political socialization” was introduced into socio-political science in the late 50’s of 20th century by American political scientist G.Heymann. His opinion is that, the term “political socialization”, defines how a multi-level process of assimilating a person’s values and norms leading to the formation of his qualities and properties that allow him to adapt to a specific political system and fulfill political roles and functions. [2, P.33]

Synthesis of scientific conjuncture determines that the stage of the process of political socialization is realized by two main stages.

The first stage consists of transferring to the new generations the existing patterns of political consciousness and political culture, i.e. in the transfer of political behavior of the older generation to the younger generation. An information sphere is also attached to it so that the women’s public consciousness can inform, analyze and identify the technology of the mass media at the proper level.

The second stage of political socialization is associated with the acquisition by the individual of new, previously unknown political knowledge, with the assimilation of a new political experience. This action occurs in the process of the individual’s participation in the political life of the country, as well as under the auspices of other factors.

To our mind, the most significant is that interaction of a person with political power, through traditions, cultural ties, historical experience, which is connected with past events or phenomena; with the help of legal norms, institutions, values of the present and the past, actively influences the ways of implementing political power, and through goals, political organizations influence the future political events of the country. [3, P. 54]

The process of assimilation of qualitatively new political values is especially relevant in the conditions of the transformation of society, because the changes taking place here are accompanied, not only by the transformation of old political relations, but also by the establishment of qualitatively new advantages and “rules of the game” that significantly change the role and place of a person in the system of political relations. New political realities, giving people the freedom to choose, at the same time, require from him a high level of political consciousness, political and general culture, civil responsibility, humanism and patriotism. Strictly speaking, a person who has freed himself from the “clutches” of political uniformity, begins to learn to live and adapt again in the conditions of political pluralism, i.e, passes the school of adaptation to new social and political conditions. The regulation of relations of social and political life is transformed in the Tajik society exclusively positively. In Tajikistan, this problem was especially actualized with regard to the participation of women in the social and political life of the country.

The President of the Republic of Tajikistan, in his letters and scientific works, constantly emphasizes specifically the cultural and historical peculiarities of the status of women in Tajik society. Contrarily attaching and assessing their place and role in the political life of society, he mentioned: “The society that cares about the mother-woman provides its future. A state that does not care about a woman does not have a future. The most important condition for solving gender problems in the society is active dialogue and social partnership of state structures, public associations and non-governmental organizations, as they are the link between the state and civil society. ” [4, P. 34]

The study of the status and role of women in public administration has not yet been properly scientifically developed. In the scientific and research sociological and political literature, the study of a social group of women in the political life of society, the economic environment, cultural, legal, state power begins to develop rapidly. It should be emphasized that there are several ways to develop social groups of women, which deal with some aspects of the role of women in society. These include the works of T.R. Abdushukurova and T.N. Bozrikova [5, P. 12], G. Bobosadykova [6, P. 21]. M.K.Gafarova [7, P. 78], L. Dodhudoeva [8, P. 11], R. Zoirova [9, P. 7], A. Kuvatova, Sh. Khakimov, Sh. Shoismatulloev, Z. Isaeva , A. Kasymova and several other scientists.

However, the transformation of Tajik society has determined qualitatively new tasks of theoretical comprehension and concretization of the most important aspects of the activity of socialization and adaptation of women to new political realities. In the framework of this article, the authors set themselves the task of analyzing this problem from the perspective of adapting women to new political conditions.

Consequently, the achievement of gender equality is an important part of the development strategy that is designed to give the opportunity and the right to all citizens – women and men – to avoid poverty and improve the quality of life. Nowadays in all spheres of society, taking into account the private sector, 1 million women and girls work, which is 45%. In the health sector, 55,000 people work, of which 44,000 are women, and 52,000 women are employed in the sphere of education.

The number of women using bank loans has increased. If in 2006 their number was 55 thousand women, and they received a loan in the amount of 168 million, then in 2011 these figures were respectively 103 and 521 million. This process is facilitated by the allocation of presidential grants. So, only for 5 months of 2012 bank loans were used by more than 21 thousand women, and also about 20 thousand other women passed short courses, which for the development of the country’s economy is very important.

At the same time, if in the economic sphere the consciousness of women is noticeably rebuilt, then in the political sphere, the political socialization of women in Tajik society is slow. It is important to understand that the reasons here are not that women do not want to participate in the political life of society, but that under the new conditions of society they have not been ready to actively involve them in political processes. Moreover, the Tajik social and political life of the late 20th and early 21st centuries was far from “a woman’s face” in the sense that, according to her priorities, she was not friendly to women, and women themselves were practically excluded from the process of making important political decisions. In Tajikistan, this issue was aggravated even in the civil war that was taking place and the most difficult processes of achieving harmony and peace, as well as the revival of the socioeconomic life of the country.

The Republic of Tajikistan became one of the first states that, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, in the process of democratization of society raised the problem of raising the status of women in society to the level of one of the most important elements of state policy. Women, in today’s Tajikistan, play an increasingly important, irreplaceable role in the national and domestic economy. A woman today is no longer a reserve workforce, she has declared and manifested herself in such a difficult field as the contribution of her forces to economic growth, development and the benefits of this.

An analysis of the state policy in the implementation of gender equality programs revealed that “despite some improvement in the indicators, the participation of women in the political life of Tajik society remains insufficient.” In this connection, it should be noted that there are a number of deterrent facts of promoting gender equality, development of the country as a whole. The important factor is the impact of traditional stereotypes, ingrained in the life of society and having a negative impact on the possibilities of the gender. There are tendencies of women’s self-discrimination, as shown by the results of the “Jahon” Public Association, under the project “The Way from a Leading Woman to a Woman-Deputy” with the support of the European Commission, the main reasons for women’s low political activity are:

– 35% of respondents – in society there are “double standards” for women: at the level of legislative acts and in the realities of social practice.

– 30% of women surveyed believe that there is a shortage of time for social and political affairs, a quarter of women note that there are patriarchal stereotypes in the distribution of gender roles in the society, which are common in the media and among parliamentarians and members of the government.

– 10% on the unwillingness of political parties to promote women to power;

– 42% “mentality of the people” “uncertainty in victory”;

– 34%, lack of finance;

– 22% imperfect legislation;

– 30% of respondents noted family obstacles (reluctance of family members), which reduces confidence in victory.

From year to year, the number of registered NGOs in Tajikistan is growing. If in 1991 the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Tajikistan registered only 53 public associations, in 2002 869 NGOs were already registered. In addition to this, 197 local NGOs were registered in the Sughd region, in Khatlon – 133; Mountain Badakhshan-52; thus, over 2364 public associations were registered in Tajikistan. Out of this number, 27.5% are women’s organizations.

Thus, the study of the political socialization of women in the context of building a civil society raises two interrelated tasks. First, Tajikistan has entered a new stage of its development – the stage of democratization, the emergence of new socio-political relations with sovereign states and the qualitative transformation of all spheres of society in the country. The solution of these problems is possible only with the activation of the human factor, especially the increasing role of women in the new political life of society. Secondly, profound changes in the political life of society require corresponding changes in views, since without a change in political views, political consciousness, without changes in psychology and thinking, we cannot solve the tasks of increasing women’s political activity and create a literate, developed civilized democratic society.

In the period of independence, women’s initiatives are always supported and serious measures are taken to implement them.

Today, women make up the majority of workers in education, health and other social sectors, of the total number of civil servants, women make up 23%.

It is necessary to attract more women and girls to work in the institutions of the banking system, communication, employment and other service sectors in the future.

It is advisable to set quotas and benefits at various levels to support women and girls, and this step is one of the ways to ensure the equality of women and men. State support for the uniformity of direct relations with women is making considerable efforts thereby directly affecting the role of women in administration.

Social bills that are adopted in Parliament directly or indirectly can concern women and their influence in public discourse.

Список литературы / References

  1. Волков, ЮГ. Социология молодежи [текст]: – Ростов: Феникс, 2001. – 576с. С 97.
  2. Даниленко, В. И. Современный политологический словарь, [текст]/ М.: NOT A BENE, 2000. – 1024с.
  3. Рахмонов Э.Ш. Роль женщины в обществе. – Д., «Шарки Озод», 1997 г., 54 с;
  4. Рахмонов Э.Ш. Долгий путь к миру. Душанбе, 1998; c.34
  5. Рахмонов Э.Ш. Роль женщины в обществе. – Д., «Шарки Озод», 1997 г., c.12.
  6. Бобосадыкова Г. Защита прав женщин и Конституции Республики Таджикистан // Конституционное развитие Таджикистана и США, – Д„ 1996; с.21
  7. Гафарова М.К. Духовный облик женщин Советского Востока. -Д., 1987; Гафарова М.К. Женщины горной республики. – Д., «Дониш», 1986, с.78
  8. Додихудоева Л. Культурно-исторические особенности статуса мужчин и женщин в таджикском обществе: Таджикистан на пути к тендерному равенству. -Д., 2003, с.11
  9. Зоиров Р. – Тендерная экспертиза Конституции Республики Таджикистан.// Женские и тендерные исследования в Таджикистане. Д.. 2000, с.7

Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

  1. Volkov, Yu.G. Sotsiologiya molodiyozhi [Sociology of youth] [text]: – Rostov: Phoenix, 2001. – 576 p. P 97. [In Russian]
  2. Danilenko, V.I. Sovremmienniy politologicheskiy slovar [Modern politological dictionary], [text] / M: NOT A BENE, 2000. – 1024p. [In Russian]
  3. Rakhmonov E.Sh. Rol’ zhenshchiny v obshchestve [Women’s role in society]. – D., “Sharki Ozod”, 1997, 54 p; [In Russian]
  4. Rakhmonov E.Sh. Dolgiy put’ k miru [A long way to peace]. Dushanbe, 1998; P.34 [In Russian]
  5. Rakhmonov E.Sh. Rol’ zhenshchiny v obshchestve [Women’s role in society.] – D., “Sharki Ozod”, 1997, p.12. [In Russian]
  6. Bobosadykova G. Zashchita prav zhenshchin i Konstitutsii Respubliki Tadzhikistan [Protection of women’s rights and the Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan] // Konstitustionnoye razvitiye Tadzhikistana i SSHA [Constitutional development of Tajikistan and the USA], – D “1996; P.21 [In Russian]
  7. Gafarova M.K. Dukhovniy oblik zhenshchin Sovetskogo Vostoka [Spiritual appearance of women of the Soviet East.] – D., 1987; Gafarova M.K. Women of the mountain republic. – D., “Donish”, 1986, p.78 [In Russian]
  8. Dodikhudoeva L. Kulturno-istoricheskiye osobennosti statusa muzhchin i zhenshchin v tadzhitskom obshchestve: Tadzhikistan na puti k gendernomu ravenstvu [Cultural and historical features of men and women status in Tajik society: Tajikistan on the way to gender equality]. – D., 2003, p.11
  9. Zoirov R. – Gendernaya ekspertiza Konstitutsii Respubliki Tadzhikistan [Gender expertise of the Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan.] // Zhenskiye i genderniye issledovaniya v Tadzhikistane [Women and gender studies in Tajikistan]. D. 2000, p.7 [In Russian]

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