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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

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Данилова С. В. РАЗВИТИЕ ТОЛЕРАНТНОСТИ СТУДЕНТОВ ВУЗА В ПРОЦЕССЕ ОБУЧЕНИЯ / С. В. Данилова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2021. — № 12 (19) Часть 3. — С. 13—14. — URL: https://research-journal.org/pedagogy/tolerance-development-of-university-students-in-the-learning-process/ (дата обращения: 20.04.2021. ).
Данилова С. В. РАЗВИТИЕ ТОЛЕРАНТНОСТИ СТУДЕНТОВ ВУЗА В ПРОЦЕССЕ ОБУЧЕНИЯ / С. В. Данилова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2021. — № 12 (19) Часть 3. — С. 13—14.

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РАЗВИТИЕ ТОЛЕРАНТНОСТИ СТУДЕНТОВ ВУЗА В ПРОЦЕССЕ ОБУЧЕНИЯ

Данилова С.В.

Кандидат педагогических наук, доцент, Омский государственный университет им.Ф.М.Достоевского

РАЗВИТИЕ ТОЛЕРАНТНОСТИ СТУДЕНТОВ ВУЗА В ПРОЦЕССЕ ОБУЧЕНИЯ

Аннотация

В системе высшего образования при подготовке специалиста особую роль играет развитие базовых способностей к пониманию другого человека, принятию общечеловеческих ценностей, готовности к диалогу. В статье рассматриваются методологические и теоретические основания развития толерантности студентов вуза, раскрывается понятие толерантности, ее критерии, выводятся ключевые подходы к решению проблемы и поясняется необходимость рассмотрения вопроса.

Ключевые слова:  явление толерантности, социально-психологическая адаптация, методологические основы толерантности.

Danilova S.V.

PhD in education, associate professor, Omsk State University in the name of F.M.Dostoevsky

TOLERANCE DEVELOPMENT OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN THE  LEARNING PROCESS

Abstract

In the system of higher education while training an expert  a special role is given to the development of basic abilities to understand the other person, acceptance of universal values, a willingness to dialogue. The paper discusses the methodological and theoretical foundations of tolerance of university students. It concentrates on the concept of tolerance, its criteria, the leading approaches arisen from the essential characteristics of tolerance and the need to study the problem.

Keywords:  phenomenon of tolerance, socio-psychological adaptation, methodological basis of tolerance.

The education system is designed to prepare the individual to function effectively in society, developing strategies that could help combine the tasks of self-realization with the needs of society and the state. Therefore, education in the first place, should contribute to social interaction and learning to prepare for a constructive professional dialogue. Moreover, in light of the concept of modernization of Russian education and global strategy in education one can see the changes in the objectives of professional training, i.e. the professional development of students now requires new competencies.

At present, the international and domestic instruments of tolerance focus on training and education while developing and implementing a package of measures in terms of tolerance development [2]. However, in the pedagogical literature there is still a lack of specific mechanisms of tolerance development.

Analysis of the theoretical literature on tolerance shows that the pedagogical aspect is far below the philosophical consideration of the problem, psychological, sociological, political science sections. We must recognize that still insufficient attention is paid to the problems of education and teaching tolerance at all levels of education and educational activities, including the daily teaching practice. Some attempts in this direction, as a rule, are reduced to the proclamation of various organizational and management activities simplifying the complex problem of development of tolerance to a set of random events. Moreover, most of the existing educational research focuses on inter-ethnic tolerance. While there is a lack of depth of the problem in interpersonal relationships of teachers and students within the student group in higher education, as well as the methods and techniques of developing tolerance in the classroom.

The phenomenon of tolerance is complex and can be viewed from different perspectives: philosophical, cultural, sociological, ethnological, political, as well as psychological and educational. The concept of tolerance has been evolved over many centuries, and this process is in progress now, accumulating diversified values  it tends to correspond to reality. Currently, there are so many interpretations of the concept, including psychology and philosophical literature. Tolerance has no clear definition and is understood in different scientific disciplines in different ways: as an active form of relationship to the world, as an adaptive function of the body, as a moral restraint, emotional stability, etc. Thus, tolerance can be seen in at least three aspects: first, the mastery of a particular philosophy of tolerance as a value, and second, as a culture of tolerance, and thirdly, as a ratio to reflect reality embodied in the real behavior. The author’s understanding is based on the above mentioned complementary aspects. A multidimensional approach to the phenomenon of tolerance is initiated by the complexity of the phenomenon as an integrative, multi-component and multi-faceted problem.

Thus, based on the study of literature and existing approaches to understanding the essence of tolerance, the following definition is given:  tolerance is the quality of a person, which is a component of the humanistic orientation of the individual and is determined by its value attitude towards others. It is set on a certain type of relationship, which is manifested in personal acts of man. Tolerance is based on empathy and understanding, which leads to the clarification of the objectives of the interaction of the opposite side, as well as motivations and attitudes. Disagreement with the arguments, perspectives, ways of partner’s behavior does not lead to conflict, and provides the existence of his opinion as a given, as an objectively existing reality, while maintaining inner peace, self-respect and freedom. Tolerance does not provide for leniency, indulgence, concession, does not imply the rejection of criticism, and is manifested in the active search for common ground and choice. For the future specialist tolerance is seen as an efficiency or expertise in his or her social and professional activities.

The presence of communicative and behavioral components in the structure of tolerance reveals opportunities for the development of tolerance through training in special ways of understanding and expressing the understanding of the other person. The development of the external modes of expression of tolerance is a powerful tool that triggers some deep personal transformation of the participants of the process. The development of ways of tolerant interaction eventually leads to the assignment of personal tolerance.

Based on the intrinsic characteristics, structure and function of positive tolerance, you can define the following criteria: behavioral, communicative, mental. Behavioral and communicative criteria meet the activity basis of tolerance (emotional stability, openness, goodwill, cooperation, communication competence, the ability to dialogic communication, etc.), mental reflects a system of values of personality (empathy, reflection, autonomy, humanity etc.). Behavioral – reflects a measure of acceptance of a person and patience in situations when he or she does not meet the requirements and expectations; characterizes tolerant behavior. Since the behavior has no conscious underpinning of personal moral goals (i.e., reactive), it can have adaptive nature of moral norms, social norms in general. Communicative requires communicative competence (verbal and nonverbal), which is implemented in line with the accepted norms and rules. This criterion incorporates not only the verbal and non-verbal side of communication, but the behavioral side. Communicative aspect is easy to diagnose and develop or affect. Its realization is the most accessible and educationally feasible way of development of tolerance. Mental or psychic  characterizes the underlying processes of personality, activity in decision making, the capacity for reflection, introspection, reflects a system of values of personality, manifests itself in an adequate choice of ways to work in a particular situation.

The need to study the phenomenon of tolerance of  university students is due to the psycho-pedagogical features of the period. Entered an important phase of his life, a first or a second –year student of the university often experiences various difficulties concerned with the change of social roles, increased responsibility and independence. New relationship and interaction with fellow students sometimes cause problems.  This process is called a socio-psychological adaptation. The essence of this process is in the obtaining of dynamic equilibrium, harmony in value orientations, attitudes, requirements and expectations during the joint activities, as well as in various problem situations that arise in interpersonal relationships between the adapting individual  and  the new social environment. Generalized social portrait of the modern student and statistics show that, they find themselves in a new team having difficulties in establishing interpersonal relationships. At the same time, the major needs in the student age are the needs for communication, whereas the implementation influences the success of socialization (A.Maslow, G.Allport  etc.). Now to the basic abilities (needs) of a person as the result of the formation and development include: the ability to feel sympathy, hear and understand the other person [1]. Because of certain contradictions, there is a need for appealing to such methods of learning that develop tolerance in interpersonal relations of students.

Essential characteristics of tolerance, arisen from philosophy, ethics, and psychology play a methodological role in the development of tolerance and can provide the leading approaches. Focusing on the values in the educational process, the axiological approach (E.V.Bondarevskaya, B.S.Gershunsky, V.A.Slastenin, G.I.Chizhakova etc.) determine the content of education, tools, forms and methods of work. Axiological approach determines the orientation of the individual’s activity on the understanding, recognition, updating and creating values of tolerance. Personal-activity approach (L.S.Vygotsky, I.A.Zimnyaya, A.N.Leontiev, A.K.Markova, S.L. Rubinstein, etc.) specifies the use of tolerant interaction strategies, accounting and balancing the interests of the subjects of activity, requires the organization of the practical activities in a social context that creates a positive emotional-motivational background.
The presented approaches are implemented on the basis of the principles of the modern system of higher education which connected with the development of tolerance. The idea of humanization of education, including professional (A.S.Zapesotsky, V.P. Zinchenko, Yu.V.Senko, V.V.Serikov) is of fundamental importance, which demands a radical renovation of the atmosphere, style of relationship “teacher-student “.

Focusing on the position put forward by Yu.V.Senko, we believe that the humanization of education is associated primarily with the procedural aspect of training, ways of organizing learning activities of students, the creation of qualitatively new forms of academic communication, changing the position of the student in the learning activities, and with developing and coordinating students’ individual routes of education [3]. Only in this case, the student will develop a special (human) form of man’s relationship to the world, to himself, to its own activities.

In the light of the above two approaches, the crucial principle behind the development of the values of tolerance is that of dialogue. Dialogue is seen as a specific form of social interaction based on equality and freedom of the parties involved, aimed at clarifying, rapprochement and mutual enrichment of items. In terms of pedagogy, dialogue is a way of understanding and transforming reality, educational technology, the goal, the result and the content of education, teaching and communicative environments that provide reflection and self-realization [4]. Dialogue has a social nature, it realizes the fundamental human need for communication, interaction, collaboration, co-creation. In the structure of dialogic interaction, as in the structure of tolerance, emotional and cognitive components are prevailing, which can be characterized by a high level of empathy, lack of stereotyping in the perception of others through the flexibility of thinking, the ability to see and  adequately assess your personality. Consequently, the level of tolerance of a student depends on the level of development of dialogical skills. This idea is the key to the development of tolerance of students. Dialogic interaction can therefore be considered as a methodological basis of tolerance.

Based on the axiological, synergistic and personal-activity approach as the principal methodological grounds, it was assumed that the set of conditions necessary for the development of tolerance of students must include specific methods and techniques used in training activities, and consistent with the principles of the above approaches.

References

  1. Lobok A.M. Basic education: what is there except common words? / / First of September. – 2005. – January 11. – № 1. – p.2. (Лобок А.М. Общее образование: что, кроме общих слов?//Первое сентября.– – №1. – С.2)
  2. Mchedlov M.P. Tolerance / Ed. by M.P.Mchedlov. – M.: The Republic, 2004. (Толерантность/ Общ. ред. М.П.Мчедлова.- М.: Республика, 2004.- 416 с)
  3. Senko Y.V. Humanitarian basis of teacher education: Lectures: M.: Publishing Center “Academy”, 2000. (Сенько Ю.В. Гуманитарные основы педагогического образования: Курс лекций: Учеб. пособие для студ. высш. пед. учеб. заведений.-М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2000.- 240 с.)
  4. Serikov V.V. Learner-centred education / / Pedagogy. – 1994. -№ 5. – pp.16 -21. (Сериков В.В. Личностно – ориентированное образование // Педагогика. – 1994. №5. – С.16 -21.)

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