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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

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Барсова О. И. СОЧЕТАНИЕ ОСНОВНЫХ СТРАТЕГИЙ ОБУЧЕНИЯ АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ ДЛЯ СПЕЦИАЛЬНЫХ ЦЕЛЕЙ СТУДЕНТОВ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИХ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЕЙ / О. И. Барсова, Ю. С. Сизова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2019. — № 1 (20) Часть 4. — С. 40—42. — URL: https://research-journal.org/pedagogy/sochetanie-osnovnyx-strategij-obucheniya-anglijskomu-yazyku-dlya-specialnyx-celej-studentov-ekonomicheskix-specialnostej/ (дата обращения: 25.06.2019. ).
Барсова О. И. СОЧЕТАНИЕ ОСНОВНЫХ СТРАТЕГИЙ ОБУЧЕНИЯ АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ ДЛЯ СПЕЦИАЛЬНЫХ ЦЕЛЕЙ СТУДЕНТОВ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИХ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЕЙ / О. И. Барсова, Ю. С. Сизова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2019. — № 1 (20) Часть 4. — С. 40—42.

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СОЧЕТАНИЕ ОСНОВНЫХ СТРАТЕГИЙ ОБУЧЕНИЯ АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ ДЛЯ СПЕЦИАЛЬНЫХ ЦЕЛЕЙ СТУДЕНТОВ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИХ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЕЙ

Барсова О.И.1, Сизова Ю.С.2

1Старший преподаватель, 2преподаватель  кафедры иностранных языков №1, Российский экономический Университет им. Г.В.Плеханова

СОЧЕТАНИЕ ОСНОВНЫХ СТРАТЕГИЙ  ОБУЧЕНИЯ АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ ДЛЯ СПЕЦИАЛЬНЫХ ЦЕЛЕЙ СТУДЕНТОВ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИХ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЕЙ

Аннотация

Темой данной статьи является раскрытие сути преподавания иностранного языка для специальных целей в Российском экономическом Университете им. Г.В.Плеханова на примере английского языка. Целью статьи является подчеркнуть актуальность применения комбинированного подхода в процессе обучения, т.е. использования различных принципов и методик в четкой структуре программы, направленной на овладение лексикой, терминологией, переводом и языковым общением. Приведенные в данной статье факты доказывают, что обучение иностранному языку для специальных целей сфокусировано как на потребностях студента приобрести профессиональные лингвистические навыки, так и на совершенствование учебного материала.

Ключевые слова: коммуникативная компетенция, грамматическая компетенция, кросс-культурный контекст, лингво-социо-культурный метод, грамматико-переводной метод.

Barsova O.1, Sizova Y.2

1Senior teacher, 2teacher, of the Department of Foreign Languages №1,

Plekhanov Russian University of Economics

COMBINATION OF BASIC LEARNING STRATEGIES IN AN ECONOMICS ESP COURSE

Abstract

This publication focuses on teaching English for specific purposes (ESP) rather than other languages in Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, taking into account today’s dominant position of  English language in the area of teaching foreign languages. The aim of the article – is to stress the relevance of Blended Learning, i.e. using different principles and methodologies in ESP teaching within clearly structured course program that covers upon the aspects of lexicology, terminology, translation and discourse. This paper shows that ESP course is highly students-centered, focused on learner’s professional linguistic needs, as well as teaching materials development.

Keywords: communicative competence; grammatical competence; Cross-cultural context; Linguo-Socio-Cultural method; Grammar-Translation method.

The  ongoing globalization and modern level of development in theoretical pedagogy  pose a cardinal requirement to training of a would-be teacher – namely, to endow such a person with capabilities to see, understand and plan the possibilities of implementing the strategic education development vector at the level of the specific higher education establishment, level of the specific educational subject, at the level of interaction with economics students; to know the didactics methodology, the general methodology of foreign language teaching and, first of  all, the  theoretical and methodological models of education and training.

The main principles of contemporary linguistic education methodology used for teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP) to students of economics, are:

  1. Complex-based approach to education, which presupposes giving students a wide range of possibilities to master the foreign language well, and in well-thought-out combination of both principal educational tutorial programs, and additional developmental ones;
  2. “Language Immersion” as a constant feature of the training, this immersive learning being practiced in widely varying forms ranging from authentic video extracts to complete modeling of the foreign country’s reality during the class hours;
  3. Aspect-and-communicative approach to arranging the class work activity, with accentuating person-to-person communication while working over all linguistic aspects – phonetics, grammar, lexicology;
  4. Removal of the so-called “language gap” by using a wide range of training, methodical and psychological resources and aids;
  5. Cross-cultural context of learning making it possible to compare and correlate the linguistic and overall cultural atmospheres of different countries for a more effective organization of training in class.

Nowadays the requirements posed to knowledge of foreign languages have changed in our society; therefore the tasks of teachers of English in economic higher education establishments have become much more complicated. One can only solve the tasks effectively on the basis of knowing the modern linguistic theory and using the elements of communicative methods of teaching foreign languages.

Let’s define the main principle of communicative methods so widely used by the leading language schools all over the world. As becomes obvious from the term the major part of it is using the language as a means of intercourse. Its main aim is to eliminate the language gaps, to help students to get over the difficulties in speaking foreign language and acquire all language skills: oral speech, writing, reading and listening. Grammar is studied in the process of intercourse. Firstly students learn and remember new words, phrases or collocations, and only after that they are closely studied from the point of view of grammar. The lessons, where communicative methods of language teaching are applied, are not boring!  Instead of repeated exercises teachers use other means: role plays, pair work, group presentations, mistake search, comparison and other.

Students have to assimilate English, not considering it to be an alien, it is very important to get used to its pronation and speech melodic.  Let them watch the film without subtitles, even in case they don’t understand all the words. If they read English texts, it is reasonable to train scan reading and get the whole idea, and only then return to the unknown words and phrases.  If they want to acquire reading skills – let them read, writing skills – let them write. If they want to understand English speech –let them listen, if they want to talk – let them.

The success of educational and methodological work in teaching ESP depends on the teacher’s attitude to new educational forms and strategies. As a matter of fact, teacher’s functions are revaluated. Out of the ordinary information supplier he/she is transformed into a manager, consultant and stimulator of the ESP learning process.

Information technology has changed our lives. It impacted process of learning and teaching as well.  And the Blended Learning model of the ESP course presupposes combination of e-learning and traditional approaches with classroom activities, homework etc. Using IT technologies increases the efficiency of the ESP course. It allows making it more interesting for students and more up-to-date. Virtual tools are usually very appealing to students, but they can be ineffective if not planned and carefully selected by teachers, who should be adapted to requirements of new media.

In our rapid life regular changes take place in such disciplines as marketing, consulting, management, financial management, because of their rapid development. And accordingly to these changes, the structure and content of the corresponding training appliances are being transformed. Thus, the ESP course teacher should use all the capacity of IT-technology in full measure in order to reveal changes and innovations in the course structure and take decisions on its modernization.

And, of course, a great amount of international conferences and webinars, devoted to ESP teaching methods allow teachers to be up-to-date.

Taking into account all the above-mentioned tasks, our University teachers use Blended Learning model in an economics ESP course. In this article we would like to stress, that Blended Learning is used in the broad sense. It’s not only the combination of basic learning strategies and fusion of the main principles of contemporary linguistic education methodology, enumerated on page 2 of the present article.  It’s not only using IT technologies.

It’s the fusion of foreign languages teaching methods as well.  These methods are:

–      Communicative,

–      Socio-cultural,

–      Grammar Translation.

We are sure, that professional language learning should be divided into several stages, considered to be the ESP course integral parts. In general, it puts great emphasis on the practical outputs of  language learning. Students have to deal with a number of “sub-languages” in the framework of ESP course, i.e. language of business, humanities etc. So, it is rather challenging to outline a methodology that would apply to all professional activities the learners are involved in.  As a result, the ESP methodology always integrates the language learning and subject learning approaches.

In Plekhanov Russian University of Economics teachers use progressive movement to professional language.

 For the 1-st year students we use English for general purposes (EGP) with ESP elements. Students get used to each other, learn to be team players. At this stage they perceive colloquial and academic English, get acquainted with some economics vocabulary, but it is rather superficial. Mainly they acquire language skills, necessary for their everyday intercourse. During this stage the communicative method of English language teaching is used.

Those teachers, who approve innovative methods of work, use Linguo-socio-cultural method in their work with the 1-st year students of economics. In the context of this method the language structures (grammar, vocabulary etc.) are united with the beside language factors. It is on the junction of world outlook and language itself. The person belongs to the country, which language he thinks in. So, we’ll dare to define, that using  Linguo-socio-cultural method, we develop different manner of thinking. This method is based on the following axiom: “Social-and-cultural structures are the stem of language structures” [1]. People comprehend the world via their thought in a definite cultural sphere or ground, and use language for expression of their emotions, impressions, opinions and perceptions.

The next stage of our University ESP course for students of economics is learning Business English. It is in high demand nowadays.  It’s not only introducing new business terms and learning the vocabulary. It is important to teach students how to use Business English in real business situations.  It means not only training our students on how to develop their foreign business language skills, but also helping them to come to terms with cultural differences and business styles. All the lessons are aimed at giving students realistic Business English practice through role plays of meetings, business negotiations, telephone conversations and other activities. These lessons are focused on general vocabulary and phrases used in the world of business.  Students get acquainted with the formal style structure, master business and professional writing such as letters, memos, proposals, preparing and delivering professional presentations, etc. We consider it very useful for future economists to practice in delivering presentations in English, and in the framework of this course they learn how to do it properly: beginning with the presentation’s structure and ending with asking and answering questions on its topic. Almost all future economists will use Business English to write letters, memos and reports.

Nowadays, one of the ways to implement theoretical knowledge in real professional environment effectively, which can be proved by scientific analysis of practical teaching methods, to solve emerging problems can become the process of finding consensus while working out a solution to a particular professional situation or a situational method, and also using Case Study canvass according to Harvard Business School Standards of Case analysis [3].

The essence of Case Study analysis is in using certain training situations, descriptions of particular circumstances in the working process of a company, a group of employees or individual executives, that focus students on identifying the problem and seeking the options for its solution followed by the group analysis at classes in the  process of study. Quite precisely the gist of such method can be illustrated by the quotation of Russian academician A. Aganbegyan: “In order to learn to drive a car one does not need to attend lectures on the engine’s apparatus and attachments for many hours, what one really needs is guided practice” [1].

The undisputable advantage of this method, which distinguishes it from traditional teaching techniques, is that it eliminates rupture amid theory and practice; the emphasis in studying process is made not on rote learning but on the process of its generation.  In the process of mutual interaction students as well as the teacher, increase the intellectual and communicative capacity.

Some specific professional preparation for the teacher and the students of Economics is needed to successfully integrate Case Study method. They need to be equipped with certain intellectual, creative, communicative skills: be able to analyze texts, identify the gist, summarize and make conclusion, prove one’s point of view, and besides be capable of annotating and reviewing a text and making a synopsis and a presentation in English.

Practical experience demonstrates that Case Study method can be organically integrated in teaching ESP to students of Economics and be well combined with many other teaching methods and techniques, being a good supplement to the basic course, but not a substitute to it.

By the description of the above mentioned methods we have proved, that there is a shift to critical thinking and constructivism in ESP course. But, of course, students’ communicative competence formation is not the only educational point. And speaking about the Blended Learning method, we shouldn’t forget about constant improving grammar aspects of English language knowledge (i.e. developing grammatical competence) [5].

Choosing a method of teaching or learning English as a foreign language mainly depends on the goals of a student. The Grammar Translation approach to language learning is the oldest method that might not be as effective as others in helping a student to achieve English fluency. While it still has a place in some lessons, most ESP teachers do not rely solely on the Grammar-Translation method when teaching, though it might be considered as an effective tool equipping the students of the final years of their degree course with the necessary skills to translate financial statements.

The Grammar Translation approach is a traditional method and has both advocates and antagonists, but we consider it to be an integral part of ESP course. It is also known as the classical method, because it was developed specially to teach classical language. This method is focused on interpretation of words and phrases; learning the structure of a foreign language; grammatical rules’ study; reading, writing and translating a foreign language.

Though this method has a very limited scope of objectives, it is a kind of an individual learning style for some students. They need to relate lexis and structures of foreign language into their equivalents in their native language.      Translation makes the students develop their reading comprehension ability. Before they translate the text they read it carefully, trying to make sense of its features like sentence structures, context and register.

Though a lot of teachers consider the Grammar Translation method to be unnatural, it has advantages that can’t be neglected. The phraseology of the foreign language is explained quickly. Translation is the easiest way to define meanings of words and phrases.  It is not so time consuming as other methods. A lot of time wasted if the meanings of lexical items are explained through definitions and illustrations in the second language. Undoubtedly this method is relevant for financial vocabulary items’ learning. Teacher’s efforts are saved and sometimes it is vital. Communication between the teacher and the student doesn’t cause linguistic problems. Even inexperienced teachers can use this method.

Integrating Debate method is one of the ways to provide communicative competence for the students specializing in economics. It is essential for the process of teaching ESP. I can be a great contribution   to development of logical and critical mind of students with future specialization in economics. It also improves skills of ideas’ structuring, communication, rhetoric, empathy and tolerance; promotes raising self-esteem, ability to work as a team remaining focused at the crux of the problem and helps to master the manners of public speaking.  Provided that debates include different activities, they improve listening and comprehension, reading and keeping written record skills.

The subjects for debates that are discussed at the English seminars by the students of the 4-th and 5-th year of Financial Faculty in economic universities can be: “Inflation”, “Investments”, “Auditing”, “Economic Crisis”, “World Stock Exchanges”, “Raising Capital” etc. The debates are preceded by study of the following themes: “Economic Problems”, “Global Economic Crisis” and other correlated topics that assist in the progress of the ultimate area of debates. Within the subject matter not only theoretical aspects are studied, but also precedents are examined.

On the assumption of the goals, that are set for teaching ESP in Universities of Economics, we believe, that the process of learning and developing oral speech skills must be part and parcel of what the above described methods should serve. That proves the relevance of the Blended Learning model in an Economics ESP course.

Литература

  1. Kornetov G, “Pedagogical Paradigms of Educational Basic Models”, URAO, Moscow, pp.5-124, 2009.
  2. Milrud R, “English Teaching Methodology”, 2 nd in edition, pp 57-109, Drofa, Moscow, 2007.
  3. Busina Y, Midova V, “ Collection of materials for activization of work with Business situations and oral speech development in the discipline “English for Specific Purposes”, FGBOU VPO “REU im. G.V.Plekhanova”, Moscow, p.32, 2012.
  4. Allison J, Emmerson P, “The Business “ Intermediate , Macmillan Education, Oxford, pp 28-29, 2007.
  5. Polyakova O, “English for Specific Purposes: Theory and Practice”, NVI-Tesaurus, Moscow, 2003.

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