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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18454/IRJ.2016.51.183

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Пашин А. А. МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ ПОДВИЖНЫХ ИГР С МЕЖПРЕДМЕТНЫМИ СВЯЗЯМИ В ФИЗИЧЕСКОМ ВОСПИТАНИИ МЛАДШИХ ШКОЛЬНИКОВ / А. А. Пашин, В. А. Баландин, С. В. Петрунина и др. // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2016. — № 9 (51) Часть 4. — С. 73—75. — URL: https://research-journal.org/pedagogy/methodical-features-of-using-dynamic-interdisciplinary-games-in-physical-education-of-younger-students/ (дата обращения: 02.06.2020. ). doi: 10.18454/IRJ.2016.51.183
Пашин А. А. МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ ПОДВИЖНЫХ ИГР С МЕЖПРЕДМЕТНЫМИ СВЯЗЯМИ В ФИЗИЧЕСКОМ ВОСПИТАНИИ МЛАДШИХ ШКОЛЬНИКОВ / А. А. Пашин, В. А. Баландин, С. В. Петрунина и др. // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2016. — № 9 (51) Часть 4. — С. 73—75. doi: 10.18454/IRJ.2016.51.183

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МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ ПОДВИЖНЫХ ИГР С МЕЖПРЕДМЕТНЫМИ СВЯЗЯМИ В ФИЗИЧЕСКОМ ВОСПИТАНИИ МЛАДШИХ ШКОЛЬНИКОВ

Пашин А.А.1, Баландин В.А.2, Петрунина С.В.3, Можаров А.И.4

1Доктор педагогических наук, 2,3кандидат педагогических наук, доцент, 4доцент, 1,3,4ПГУ, 2КубГуфк

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ ПОДВИЖНЫХ ИГР С МЕЖПРЕДМЕТНЫМИ СВЯЗЯМИ В ФИЗИЧЕСКОМ ВОСПИТАНИИ МЛАДШИХ ШКОЛЬНИКОВ

Аннотация

Одним из средств развития познавательного интереса и интереса к физической культуре и спорту учащихся младшей школы  являются подвижные игры с межпредметными связями, способствующие интеграции содержания учебного материала уроков физической культуры с содержанием других предметов, каждый из которых в своей области изучает единый, объективно существующий материальный мир. В статье рассматривается процесс возникновения и развития подвижной игры, изложены обоснование и методика использования подвижной игры в физическом воспитании младших школьников. Эти игры могут проводиться как на уроках, так и на перемене, во внеурочное время, на улице и в школе.

Ключевые слова: двигательная активность, физическое воспитание, здоровье, младшие школьники, подвижные игры, межпредметная связь

Pashin A.A.1, Balandin V.A.2, Petrunina S.V.3, Mojarov A.I.4

1 PhD in Pedagogy,  2,3PhD in Pedagogy, assistant  professor, 4assistant professor, 1,3,4Penza State University, 2Kuban State University

METHODICAL FEATURES OF USING DYNAMIC INTERDISCIPLINARY GAMES IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION OF YOUNGER STUDENTS

Abstract

One of the ways to raise interest in physical education and sport among primary school pupils is to incorporate movement activities and games connected to other school subjects. Such interdisciplinarity will help integrate the activities of PE classes to other classes’ activities which will make in easier to explore the real material world as a whole. The article examines the process of outdoor game formation, outlines the grounding and methods of use of outdoor games in physical education of younger students. These games can take place both in the classroom and at recess, after school, in the street and at school.

Keywords: motor activity, physical education, health, younger  schoolchildren, dynamic interdisciplinary games

Interdisciplinary outdoor games are a social initiative activities aimed at achieving two objectives. Achieving the first objective that is voluntarily installed by the members requires active movement actions, fulfilment of which depends on the creativity and initiative of the members. The second objective relates to the solution of problems of informative nature (securing knowledge and understanding general subjects, acquaintance with the outside world).

Implementing interdisciplinary connections of physical training with other educational disciplines, can be an effective means of reinforcing educational material of reading and writing, mathematics, learning about the world around them.

The technique is based on ideas of many-sided development of an individual, health improvement, mental and physical activity interconnection and developing training, as well as the basic principles of education and teaching younger students. These ideas are carried out by raising students’ interest in classes, enhancing their mental activity, giving opportunities for personal expression in each movement game, stimulating a conscious attitude of participating in movement games.

The main idea of the theory of learning activities namely introducing creative thinking through the use of content generalizations (from the general to the special) is used during developing methods of interdisciplinary outdoor games. Firstly, students obtain knowledge of general subjects, and then apply this knowledge to specific games in order to reinforce the knowledge both at physical education classes and during extracurricular activities.

Using outdoor games with didactic orientation in teaching younger students, a teacher should make it clear to the students that doing motor or intellectual tasks, they not only learn to run fast, jump high, accurately throw the ball, but also reinforce the skills of summation, subtraction, spelling rules, classification of objects and phenomena of the world.

 Of all mental processes of younger students there are some that are the most important. They influence the effectiveness of a lesson: perception, memory, attention, will and emotions. Exercise, simulation of movement, outdoor games with didactic orientation help remembering, for example, a poetic text, and vice versa: simultaneous speaking and moving boosts the formation of motor skills. Students’ attention during outdoor games (such as being precise during exercises with the ball) helps strengthen their attention at other classes and better mastering of the curriculum. Positive emotions that arise during exercise and outdoor games provide a solution to problems related to the development of voluntary attention, memory, forming the ability to compare, draw conclusions and generalize. Emotions and feelings not only arise during different activities (for example, outdoor games) but also actively change their results. To be familiar with the selection of exercises and games it is important for a teacher to know not only the physiological characteristics of primary school children, but to be also familiar factors, as well as the structure of pedagogical influence.

Interdisciplinary outdoor games as a pedagogical process should include the following components:

– cognitive (the formation of scientific knowledge about man and the world around him, the means and methods of improving health, basic knowledge of primary school subjects, the development of reflective skills – self-awareness, self-examination, self-esteem);

– valuable and motivational including emotional – sensory component (assistance in choosing personal set of values, awareness of their own interests and needs, the formation of the personal motives of educational and recreational activities, valuable attitude to health, sets of moral values);

– active and practical (mastering various types of sports and recreational activities, improving motor skills, intellectual skills that reinforce the knowledge of general subjects);

– evaluative and diagnostic (physical fitness assessment, health knowledge and skills assessment, the level of primary school curriculum mastering, the level of health behavior, interpersonal relation, attitude to moral values).

In order to solve the problems provided by cognitive and motivational components of the structure of sport and recreational activities with the use of mobile games with didactic orientation it is necessary to include motivational, informational and evaluative and reflective blocks (A.A. Pashin 2011).

Motivational unit generally includes an introduction and the main part of the lesson and is represented in references of interesting facts about the history of the ancient and modern the Olympic Games, biographies of historical figures and great athletes, information about unique abilities of people and animals, human reserve capabilities, record achievements, world development laws, exercise effect human, physical and mental performance etc. These references are not more than 1 – 3 minutes long.

The information block includes information about the principles, means and methods of development of physical qualities and mastery of motor skills, principles and rules of cold training, personal hygiene, nutrition, ethics, interpersonal communication and its implementation in physical and sports activities, basic techniques of self-regulation, the main health-improving systems, basic knowledge of general subjects of primary school.

Informational block is a natural continuation of the motivational and often they are not separated in time. Depending on the content, duration of the information block can take up to 3 minutes, and the content is the theoretical basis or the justification for the previous or subsequent activities. Information is given more often in the main part of the class (except for the theoretical foundations of self-regulation, which are the content of the final part of the class), while relaxing after classes for the development of speed, strength, endurance and other physical qualities, or during breaks of sports or outdoor games, i.e. by the means of “additional” tasks. (Matveev, A.D. Novikov, 1976).

Evaluative and reflexive unit is usually at the end of classes and is used to discuss the importance of a particular physical quality, motor skills, health-improving actions and skills (including personal meaning).

These discussions are important for the formation of self-esteem, which is a specification of attitude to oneself, performing the functions of self-control and personal development, as well as to forming the will to improve, which lie in the long-term motives of educational activity, health creation and ensure the development of a child’s personality (B.G. Ananiev, 1977, Robert Burns, 1986).

Physical education in schools is represented in the form of physical education classes, sports and recreation activities in day mode (gymnastics before class, sport breaks, exercise and outdoor games at recess), extracurricular activities (sports clubs and groups of general physical training), sport events (days of sport and health, sport holidays, hiking, sport competitions). Some forms (physical education class) are more regulated, while others (class work and sports and recreation activities) are not. The significance of them in terms of the formation of comprehensively developed person is determined by a combination of three main factors: the factor of the environment, the factor of educative activities, the assessment factor and understanding of events.

The organization of value-orientation of the space reflects the impact factor of the social environment on the many-sided development of the individual.

Another important educative factor is the activity that a person organizes himself. The activity aimed at the formation of a fully developed personality and values and the development of a healthy lifestyle should be based on the principles of humanistic pedagogy and psychology.

Among these principles are:

– recognition of promoting spiritual and physical development of man, understanding the meaning of life, personal freedom, unique individuality, creativity as the primary task of education;

– recognition of a student’s personality as the highest social value;

– making students the subject of creative activity on the basis of the motives of self-improvement, awareness of the importance of one’s actions rather than the object of pedagogical influence;

– formation of the motives of many-sided development of a personality;

– creating conditions for the development of abilities that make human personality –  moral choice culture, reflexive mechanisms of behavior, self-determination and self-expression;

– individualization of educational process on the basis of preparation and accounting information on the health status, level of physical fitness, individual psychological characteristics of students (V.V.Serikov, 1994 N. Alekseev, 1996; I. Yakimanskaya, 1996; S.A. Amonashvili, 1998; E.V. Bondarevskaya, 1999).

Implementation of these principles means implementation of the humanistic approach that requires a reorientation to a more complete account of individual, functional and psychological characteristics of students, compliance with their physical activity rhythms of age development and the laws of the transformation of the physical capacity of a person, as well as the choice of form, means and methods of training, co-operating health promotion, physical and spiritual development. (V.I. Stolyarov. 1990, 1998, 2007; V.K.Balsevich, 1990, 2006; V. Yermakov, 1996; L.I. Lubysheva, 2006; A.P. Matveev, 1997; B.C. Jakimovich, 2002).

This approach takes into account not only the age norms of development, temperament and character, but also basic personal qualities of students. Teaching process is built in accordance with their interests and needs and activities are focused not only on the mastery of knowledge and skills, but also on the formation of human values, while considerable attention is paid to the third educative factor: the development of the ability of self-awareness of their internal states and emotional reactions, physical and mental characteristics, the ratio of self-esteem with the real level of development, with the conceptions of others etc.

Carrying outdoor games with interdisciplinary connections provides the organization of educational process on the basis of personality – oriented approach.

Theoretical and technological bases of use of personality – oriented approach in the process of training and education are set out in a number of works of Russian scientists (I. S. Yakimanskaya, 1994, 1996; O. S. Gazman, 1995).

The concept of personality – oriented approach is based on the principles of self-actualization, individuality and subjectivity, calling for providing conditions of encouraging the development and expression of intellectual, communicative, artistic and physical qualities of individual pupils; principles of choice, creativity and success, trust and support, involving choosing objectives, forms, content, means of action, trust and support, the development of internal motivation to achieve personally and socially relevant purposes.

Using methods of pedagogical dialogue support, diagnostic and play methods, creating choice and success situations of and conditions for reflection allows to ensure a more effective process of improving the child’s personality, development of his subjectivity and individuality.

Organization and carrying out games with interdisciplinary connections requires compliance with the general principles of physical education: comprehensive many-sided personality development; physical education with labour and defense practice, health-improving orientation and basic didactic principles: consciousness and activity, use of visual aids, systematic character, accessibility and individualization, gradual increase of requirements.

The leading role in conducting outdoor games with interdisciplinary connections should be given to physical education teachers and educators. Educational efficiency of games is determined by its content as well as methodological techniques and methods of game organization used by a teacher.

References

  1. Alekseev N.A. training focused on the personality: theory and practice/ N.A. Alekseev – Tymen: IRS Publishing House, 1996, -216 p.
  2. Balsevich V.K. Sports vector of physical education in Russian school/ V.K. Balsevich – M. SRC” Theory and practice of physical education and sports”. 2006. -112 p.
  3. Pashin A.A. Usage of interdisciplinary connections/ A.A. Pashin, A.I. Mojarov // Physical education at school – 1989, № 12, p. 14-17
  4. Pashin A.A. The formation of the axiological attitude to the health and physical education of school: Monograph – Penza, PSPU, 2011.- 228 p.
  5. Pashin A.A. Relay –races and games with interdisciplinary connections / A.A. Pashin, A.I. Mojarov, I.V. Vlasov // Physical education at school – 2006, № 7, p. 66-71
  6. Rubinstein S.L Fundamentals of generals psychology .In 2 p. /S.L. Rubinstein. – M. Pedagogics. -1989 -488 p

 

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