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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

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Петрунина С. В. ОСНОВНЫЕ НАПРАВЛЕНИЯ ДВИГАТЕЛЬНОЙ РЕАБИЛИТАЦИИ В ВОДНОЙ СРЕДЕ С ЛЮДЬМИ, ИМЕЮЩИМИ ПСИХИЧЕСКИЕ РАССТРОЙСТВА / С. В. Петрунина, С. М. Хабарова, Е. А. Позднышева и др. // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2020. — №. — С. . — URL: https://research-journal.org/pedagogy/main-directions-of-motor-rehabilitation-in-the-aquatic-environment-with-people-who-have-mental-disabilities/ (дата обращения: 19.02.2020. ).

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ОСНОВНЫЕ НАПРАВЛЕНИЯ ДВИГАТЕЛЬНОЙ РЕАБИЛИТАЦИИ В ВОДНОЙ СРЕДЕ С ЛЮДЬМИ, ИМЕЮЩИМИ ПСИХИЧЕСКИЕ РАССТРОЙСТВА

Петрунина С.В.1, Хабарова С.М.2, Позднышева Е.А.3, БоковГ.В.4

1, 2, Кандидат педагогических наук, доцент, 3,4доцент, Пензенский государственный университет, Россия

ОСНОВНЫЕ НАПРАВЛЕНИЯ  ДВИГАТЕЛЬНОЙ  РЕАБИЛИТАЦИИ В ВОДНОЙ СРЕДЕ С ЛЮДЬМИ, ИМЕЮЩИМИ ПСИХИЧЕСКИЕ РАССТРОЙСТВА

Аннотация

В статье представлены различные методические приемы в области адаптивной двигательной реабилитации средствами водной среды.

Ключевые слова: церебральный паралич, водная среда, двигательная коррекция, индивидуальные упражнения, методические приемы.

Petrunina S.V.1, Khabarova S.M.2, Pozdnisheva E.A.3, Bokov G.V.4

1,2, PhD assistant  professor, 3 assistant of professor Penza State University, Russia

MAIN DIRECTIONS OF MOTOR REHABILITATION IN THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT WITH PEOPLE WHO HAVE MENTAL DISABILITIES

Abstract

The article presents a variety of instructional methods in the field of adaptive motor rehabilitation by means the aquatic environment

Keywords: cerebral palsy, the aquatic environment, motion correction, individual exercises, teaching methods.

Of all violations of human health mental retardation is the most common . There are more than 300 million people with mental retardation. According to the main department of rehabilitation services and special education of the Russian Defense Ministry 500,000,000 total number of students with developmental disabilities 60 % are children with mental retardation. Specialists studying this category of people , not define mental retardation as a disease, but a state of mental underdevelopment characterized by diverse features in the clinical picture , and the complex manifestation of physical, mental , intellectual, and emotional qualities.

The term “mental retardation” refers to persistent, severely impaired cognitive activity due to diffuse organic lesions of the central nervous system.

Mental retardation is not a homogeneous state, it has many manifestations caused by congenital or acquired causes, including education and unfavorable conditions, which may enhance the defect.

Etiological factors of mental retardation are divided into endogenous (genetic) and exogenous (by environmental). Around 1,500 of nervous and mental diseases, including mental retardation, associated with adverse genetic mutations and 300 – with chromosomal mutations. Genetic factors can independently and in a complex interaction with the environment.

Exogenous factors include primarily intrauterine infection. The most dangerous in this regard rubella virus. Anomalies in physical and mental development, often combined with congenital anomalies of vision and hearing, are observed in 25% of children whose mothers suffered rubella in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Almost as dangerous mumps virus (mumps).

In accordance with the international classification of diseases, mental retardation has four degrees of decline of intelligence: mild, moderate, severe and profound. (Shapkova L.V., 2005)

In determining physical fitness and motor skills, in preparation for the program, the development of appropriate recommendations, appropriate teaching and assessment must take into account the characteristics of persons with mental retardation. Even Vygotsky believed that if physical training aimed at correcting deficiencies motor babies, it has a positive effect on his mental development and the formation of cognitive activity.

Despite the significant shortcomings of the prior psychomotor development of mentally retarded children, they have some potential for further development.

Mazitova in his work presented a methodology shared swimming training of primary school age students with mental retardation, and normally developing children in additional sports education. According to the author, the technique has shown a positive impact on shipboard training and emotional state students. Myazitova makes a comparative analysis of the relationship of the social environment to the inclusion of children in the Far East and Siberia.

Permjakov investigated the effect of swimming on the rehabilitation of primary school children with mental retardation. The author has developed and tested a method of rehabilitation in the aquatic environment. In addition to his program of correctional school class seventh type conducted additional swimming lessons twice a week, 60 minutes. Swimming lessons included exercises on land, lasting 15-20 minutes, and exercises in water, lasting 40-45 minutes. Exercises on land included: running, jumping, exercises with rubber bumpers, as well as jumping, slopes, bridges and other exercises that help to enhance the child’s motor activity and the development of its physical qualities. Water exercises included three parts: introduction , main and final . In the introductory part to warm up with the inclusion of memorizing words , phrases , custom proplyvaniya segments ( 5-7 meters alternating ways swimming) . The main part of the exercises increased motor activity , exercises for the development of water sports exercises on the study methods of navigation , as well as contributing to the development of strength, endurance , speed , agility , flexibility – swimming of long stretches , tumbling , jumping , exercises with a large range of motion and etc. In the final part of the game was offered, which helped to reduce the psycho-emotional and physical stress, as well as increasing positive attitude. The study notes that the use of swimming as a means of correction effects in working with children with mental retardation, can improve their physical fitness, mental sphere parameters (memory, thinking, perception, personality traits of the child).

Bulgakov believes that when learning to swim this category of people is necessary, first of all, consider emotional state of learners, as it affects the efficiency of the whole class. Mastering the water in those with lower IQ can run the entire school year.

Should be used in the classroom and audio narration, as words, phrases, concepts improve and normalize psychological activity involved, improve the process of perception and speech understanding, enrich vocabulary. Involved often lose interest in doing the exercises, so you need to use the game method, and to assess and record the level of proficiency in dealing with exercises for the development of water.

All teaching methods are applied comprehensively. Sports swimming training methods and individual motor actions is done using the integrity of separate teaching method. When the game teaching method used already mastered motor actions.

Must evaluate any, even the smallest shifts involved in motor readiness in performing certain exercises.

Petrunina S.V. (2003) suggests the use of motor rehabilitation of people with mental disabilities in the aquatic environment following exercises.

Talitkya O.V. (2007) proposes to use an adaptive sailing program for severely mentally retarded adolescents aged 15-17 years. As the author notes, adaptive swimming classes for adolescents with severe mental retardation should be carried out three times a week (2 lessons on water and 1 lesson in the hall dry swimming) for 45 min.

  1. Adaptive sailing program designed for adolescents with severe mental retardation Talitkya O.V. (2007) includes the following sections:
  2. General developmental, and special simulation exercises on land;
  3. Exercises aimed at overcoming rabies and development of water;
  4. Breathing exercises on land and in water;
  5. Exercises to explore ways of swimming sports equipment;
  6. Fun games in the water.

According to the author, the allocation of these sections allowed to effectively influence the physical development, functional status, quality of movement and psychomotor seriously mentally retarded adolescents aged 15-17 years. The results showed that crawl on the chest is the most difficult to master data contingent, as greater demands for coordination, harmonization of movement and breathing, as well as to the possibilities involved in the respiratory system.

References

  1. Petrunina S.V., Khabarova S.M., Kiryuhina I.A. Investigation of biomechanical factors of walking of disabled and healthy people //2nd International Scientific Conference “European Applied Sciences: modern approaches in scientific researches”: Volume 2. Papers of 1st International Scientific Conference (Volume 1). February 18-19, 2013, Stuttgart, Germany. P. 120-121.
  2. Petrunina S.V., Khabarova S.M., Kiryuhina The basic technology of psycho-social adaptation of disabled people through individual swimming exercises // Europäische Fachhochschule, European Applied Sciences, #2 – 2013., ORT Publishing. Stuttgart, Germany, Р.99-100
  3. Petrunina S.V., Khabarova S.M., Kiryuhina I.A. The basic technology of psychosocial adaptation of disabled people through individual swimming exercises: monograph / 1st edition. – Vienna: “East West” Association for Advances Studies and Higher Education GmbH, 2014.

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