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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2021.106.4.086

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Сулейменов Р. Х. ИНТЕРФЕРЕНЦИЯ В ОБУЧЕНИИ ИНОСТРАННОМУ ЯЗЫКУ И СПОСОБЫ ЕЁ ПРЕОДОЛЕНИЯ / Р. Х. Сулейменов // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2021. — № 4 (106) Часть 3. — С. 119—121. — URL: https://research-journal.org/pedagogy/interference-in-teaching-foreign-language-and-ways-of-its-overcoming/ (дата обращения: 15.05.2021. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2021.106.4.086
Сулейменов Р. Х. ИНТЕРФЕРЕНЦИЯ В ОБУЧЕНИИ ИНОСТРАННОМУ ЯЗЫКУ И СПОСОБЫ ЕЁ ПРЕОДОЛЕНИЯ / Р. Х. Сулейменов // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2021. — № 4 (106) Часть 3. — С. 119—121. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2021.106.4.086

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ИНТЕРФЕРЕНЦИЯ В ОБУЧЕНИИ ИНОСТРАННОМУ ЯЗЫКУ И СПОСОБЫ ЕЁ ПРЕОДОЛЕНИЯ

ИНТЕРФЕРЕНЦИЯ В ОБУЧЕНИИ ИНОСТРАННОМУ ЯЗЫКУ И СПОСОБЫ ЕЁ ПРЕОДОЛЕНИЯ

Научная статья

Сулейменов Р.Х.*

Павлодарский Педагогический Университет, Павлодар, Казахстан

* Корреспондирующий автор (rashid6466[at]mail.ru)

Аннотация

В статье рассматриваются проблемы интерференции русского языка в процесс изучения английского языка. Склонность к интерференции усиливается при взаимодействии нескольких языков и приводит к усложнению процесса общения. Практика преподавания английского языка как иностранного в Казахстане свидетельствует о необходимости четкой методической организации процесса изучения иностранного языка, исходя из особенностей всех языков, изучаемых студентами: родного (казахский), русского, иностранного (английский). Для качественного обучения студентов иностранному языку необходимо учитывать все возможные языковые трудности на основе сравнительного анализа в условиях многоязычия с целью преодоления помех.

Ключевые слова: интерференция, лексика, «ложные» друзья переводчика, иностранный язык, родной язык.

INTERFERENCE IN TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND WAYS OF ITS OVERCOMING

Research article

Suleimenov R.K.*

Pavlodar State Pedagogical University, Pavlodar, Kazakhstan

* Corresponding author (rashid6466[at]mail.ru)

Abstract

The article deals with the problems of the Russian language interference in the process of the English language learning. The tendency to interference is enhanced by interaction several languages and leads to a complication of the communication process. Practice teaching English as a foreign language in Kazakhstan indicates the need for a clear methodological organization the process of learning a foreign language, based on the characteristics all languages studied by students: native (Kazakh), Russian, foreign language (English). For quality student learning a foreign language must take into account all possible linguistic difficulties based on comparative analysis in conditions multilingualism in order to overcome interference.

Keywords: interference, vocabulary, “false” interpreter’s friends, foreign language, native language.

Modern graduators cannot successfully work and develop without knowledge of a foreign language in a higher educational institution. Scientific, technical, cultural progress contributes to attracting representatives of different peoples to international life peace, which, in turn, requires society to find ways that would helped to achieve mutual understanding between representatives of different peoples. The best way out of this situation is to learn several languages, which could satisfy social needs as an individual a person, and the whole society. Under these conditions, it is especially relevant became the problem of multilingualism, that is, possession of one’s own language and other most common languages. A foreign language is becoming the tool that allows you to successfully adapt to the labor market and educational services, in Russia, Kazakhstan and abroad. It is the fact that we classify the foreign language as a compulsory subject, which makes it possible to learn the achievements of world culture, science, engineering and technology and allocates a sufficient amount of study time, including class time, to this subject. Teaching students a foreign language during the entire period of study – in school – 4 years in undergraduate and two years in master’s programs – foreign language teachers identified a sufficient number of problems. One of them is interference.

Language interference has attracted the attention of scientists for many years [2], [4], [5], [11]. These problems are the subject of dissertations of many scientists. The importance of studying language interference is increasing due to the practical demand for this knowledge in the realities of the modern development of world science, culture, engineering and technology.

First of all, we turn to the definition of the phenomenon of “interference” given in the Linguistic Encyclopedic Dictionary. “Interference (from the Latin“ inter ”- between each other, mutually and“ ferio ”- touching, strike) – the interaction of language systems in the conditions of bilingualism, which develops either when contacts are in languages, or when an individual learns a foreign language; expressed in a deviation from the norm and system of the second language under the influence of the
native … “[7].

It is suggested that the language produced by foreign learners is so unavoidably influenced, and even distorted, by the mother tongue of the learner that it should rather be termed an ‘Interlanguage’, since it will always be a blend of the foreign language and the mother tongue.”

Classical linguistic literature identifies various types of interference:

  1. phonetic;
  2. semantic;
  3. lexical;
  4. grammar;
  5. spelling;
  6. stylistic;
  7. linguistic and regional studies;
  8. sociolcultural

In the framework of this article, we did not set the task to consider all of the above types, so we will dwell only on some, as well as on ways to overcome them. Examples of phonetic interference can be found in English classes very often. First of all, they include the shift of emphasis in some foreign words under the influence of the mother tongue: industry, botany, influence, development, etc.

Secondly, as N. Fedorova mentions “There is a short and long vowel in the English language, which has a meaningful function, and leads to a communicative failure” : for example, incorrect replacement of a long vowel with a short ([i:] vs. [i] – seek – sick, ([a:] vs. [ ] dark – duck), semantically significant distinction between dental-labial and labial ([v] vs. [w]), sizzling and interdental ([s] vs. [ө/ð]) [10, P. 9-11].

Interpeter’s “false” friends are a pair of words in two languages, similar in spelling and / or pronunciation, often with a common origin, but differing in meaning

 

Table 1 – Interpeter’s “false” friends

“False” friend False translation Right translation
actual

accurate

complexion

focus

criminal

original

technique

figure,

mayor

Актуальный

аккуратный

комплекция

фокус

криминал

оригинальный

техника

фигура

майор

фактический

точный

цвет лица

внимание

преступник

первоначальный

метод

рисунок, цифра, число

мэр

 

Of course, there are international words such as “globalization”, “communication”, “information”, “management”, “test”, which are translated by association. That is why, as a way to overcome semantic interference, we see learning words – “interpreter’s false friends”, attracting students’ attention to them, as well as teaching students how to use the dictionary correctly.

Another type of interference is grammatical interference. For example, the prepositions of the Russian language have an interfering effect on the use of prepositions of the English language; the high meaning of the Russian preposition “в” in English is represented by variously thematic prepositions of time, space, movement (at, on, in; to, in; into, etc.). Of particular difficulty is teaching the correct use of articles in English, in particular definite (the) and indefinite (a, an), since this grammatical category is absent in Russian

In addition, a typical mistake of Russian students is confusion in the word order of the English sentence. Students forget that in the affirmative English sentence must be subject, and in the affirmative sentence it always faces the predicate. If the words order in Russian is free “«Я вчера играл с друзьями», «С друзьями играл я вчера», «Играл с друзьями вчера я»”, then in English the word order is strictly fixed, and each member of the sentence has its own specific place: “I walked with my friends yesterday” – the subject always faces the predicate, and in impersonal sentences you can’t just use a verb or an adjective, like in Russian language «Солнечно», «Тепло». The presence of an impersonal subject and predicate is necessary – “It‟ s sunny ”,“ It ‟s warm”, etc. It was the fixed word order in English and German that gave rise to the Sepir-Whorf theory of linguistic relativity.

Even in the simplest phrases like “I am a student” and “I am 18 years old”, students make mistakes, because in Russian we almost always miss the link-verb “быть, являться”: I am a student. I am 18 years old. I’m from Krasnoyarsk. In English, the verb “to be” is present necessarily.

One of the main grammatical difficulties is, of course, the table of tenses of the English verb. In Russian, as you know, there are three tenses (present, past and future) and it can be very difficult for a student to understand why Present Perfect Tense belongs to the line of present and not past tenses, while in Russian the sentences “Я уже купил, я еще не купил ”- past. Or how to explain the time of Past Perfect Tense – the so-called “pre-past”? From our point of view, it is important to explain the concept of “result” to students. If it is important to you now, then the completed action will relate to the present. If in the past, then to the past. The implementation of the technique for overcoming interference in conditions of multilingualism requires the development of principles adequate to the successful implementation of this process in the theory and practice of teaching. The most significant principles include the following:

– the principle of reliance on the native language;

– the principle of the communicative orientation of training;

– the principle of conscientiousness;

– the principle of clarity;

-the principle of consistency in the presentation of grammatical material;

– the principle of the complexity of mastering the types of speech activity;

– the principle of the phased formation of grammatical skills and the development of speech skills;

– the principle of the adequacy of the use of grammatical means;

– the principle of taking into account grammatical difficulties in the process of interaction between the languages used and studied [12].

Sociocultural interference is generated by the culture itself, which this language reflects. This is due to differences in mentalities, value systems, ethical standards, etc. Interference appears when at least one of the participants in communication perceives similar realities, phenomena, norms of behavior in another culture through the prism of the acquired models of understanding of the world, for example, students, often answer “please” in response to the phrase “thank you” or begin to talk about problems in life in response to the phrase “How are you?”, the standard answer for which is “I fine m fine thanks ”, Or they say“ Good ”to the phrase“ How do you do? ”, Which is actually a greeting to a stranger and is most often accompanied by the answer“ How do you do? ”(Nice to meet you).

The reduction of language interference in the study of a foreign language seems to us, of course, a difficult and complex task, but the use of authentic training materials, audio courses, newspapers, magazines, Internet materials, as well as the proper organization of work on the features of the language being studied, leads to its significant reduction.

Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

Список литературы / References

  1. Акуленко В. В. Англо-русский и русско-английский словарь «ложных друзей переводчика» / В. В. Акуленко. М.: «Сов. Энциклопедия», 1969.С. 384.
  2. Дешериева Ю.Ю. Проблемы интерференции и языкового дефицита: Диссертация кандидата филологических наук / Ю.Ю. Дешериева. М., 1976.
  3. Интернациональные слова и «ложные друзья» переводчика. [Электронный ресурс]. – URL: http://sch-yuri.ru/transltn/false.htm (дата обращения: 13.02.2021)
  4. Калинина Е.Н. Проблемы интерференции и языкового дефицита (на материале русской речи носителей английского языка): Автореферат диссертации канд. филологических наук / Е.Н. Калинина. М., 1976.
  5. Карлинский А.Е. Основы теории взаимодействия языков и проблема интерференции: Автореферат диссертации доктора филологических наук / А.Е. Карлинский. Киев, 1980
  6. Карлинский А.Е. Типология языковой интерференции / А.Е. Карлинский // Зарубежное языкознание и литература. Алма-Ата, 1972. вып. 2. С. 9 – 16.
  7. Лингвистический энциклопедический словарь. [Электронный ресурс]. – URL: http://slovar.cc/rus/lingvist/1465836.html (дата обращения: 13.02.2021)
  8. Самуйлова Н.И. Фонетическая интерференция и обучение произношению / Н.И. Самуйлова // Психолингвистика и обучение иностранцев русскому языку. М., 1972.
  9. Сепир Э. Язык. / Э. Сепир // Избранные труды по языкознанию и культурологии. М., 2002.
  10. Федорова Н.П. Преодоление лингвокультурной интерференции в процессе обучения иностранному языку студентов неязыковых вузов (на материале английского языка). Автореферат диссертации на соискание ученой степени кандидата педагогических наук / Н.П. Федорова. Нижний Новгород – 2010.
  11. Фомиченко Л.Г. Когнитивные основы просодической интерференции: Автореферат диссертации доктора филологических наук / Л.Г. Фомиченко. М., 1998
  12. Гасанова Р. Г. Методика преодоления интерференции в условиях многоязычия / Р. Г. Гасанова. – 2012

Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

  1. Akulenko V. V. Anglo-russkij i russko-anglijskij slovar’ «lozhnyh druzej perevodchika» [English-Russian and Russian-English dictionary of “false friends of the translator] / V. V. Akulenko. M .: “Sov. Encyclopedia”, 1969.p. 384 [in Russian]
  2. Desherieva Ju.Ju. Problemy interferencii i jazykovogo deficita: Dissertacija kandidata filologicheskih nauk [Problems of interference and language deficit: Dissertation of the candidate of philological sciences] / Ju.Ju. Desherieva. M., 1976. [in Russian]
  3. Internacional’nye slova i «lozhnye druz’ja» perevodchika [International words and “false friends” of the translator]. [Electronic resource]. URL: http://sch-yuri.ru/transltn/false.htm (accessed: 13.02.2021) [in Russian]
  4. Kalinina E.N. Problemy interferencii i jazykovogo deficita (na materiale russkoj rechi nositelej anglijskogo jazyka): Avtoreferat dissertacii kand. filologicheskih nauk. [The problems of interference and language deficit (based on the Russian speech of native English speakers): Abstract of the dissertation of Cand. philological sciences] / E.N. Kalinina. M., 1976. [in Russian]
  5. Karlinskij A.E. Osnovy teorii vzaimodejstvija jazykov i problema interferencii: Avtoreferat dissertacii doktora filologicheskih nauk. [Fundamentals of the theory of interaction of languages and the problem of interference: Author’s abstract of the dissertation of Doctor of Philology] / A.E. Karlinskij. Kiev, 1980 [in Russian]
  6. Karlinskij A.E. Tipologija jazykovoj interferencii [Typology of linguistic interference] / A.E. Karlinskij // Zarubezhnoe jazykoznanie i literatura [Foreign linguistics and literature]. Alma-Ata, 1972. 2 p. 9 – 16. [in Russian]
  7. Lingvisticheskij jenciklopedicheskij slovar’. [Typology of linguistic interference // Foreign linguistics and literature] [Electronic resource]. URL: http://slovar.cc/rus/lingvist/1465836.html (accessed: 13.02.2021) [in Russian]
  8. Samujlova N.I. Foneticheskaja interferencija i obuchenie proiznosheniju [Phonetic interference and teaching pronunciation] / N.I. Samujlova // Psiholingvistika i obuchenie inostrancev russkomu jazyku [Psycholinguistics and teaching foreigners to the Russian language] M., 1972. [in Russian]
  9. Sepir Je. Jazyk. / Izbrannye trudy po jazykoznaniju i kul’turologii. [Selected works on linguistics and cultural studies]. Je.Sepir . M., 2002. [in Russian]
  10. Fedorova N.P. Preodolenie lingvokul’turnoj interferencii v processe obuchenija inostrannomu jazyku studentov nejazykovyh vuzov (na materiale anglijskogo jazyka). Avtoreferat dissertacii na soiskanie uchenoj stepeni kandidata pedagogicheskih nauk. Special’nost’ 13.00.02 – Teorija i metodika obuchenija i vospitanija (inostrannye jazyki; uroven’ vysshego professional’nogo obrazovanija) [Overcoming linguocultural interference in the process of teaching a foreign language to students of non-linguistic universities (based on the material of the English language). Abstract of the dissertation for the degree of candidate of pedagogical sciences] / N.P. Fedorova. Nizhnij Novgorod – 2010. [in Russian]
  11. Fomichenko L.G. Kognitivnye osnovy prosodicheskoj interferencii: Avtoreferat dissertacii doktora filologicheskih nauk. [Cognitive foundations of prosodic interference: Author’s abstract of the dissertation of the doctor of philological sciences] / L.G. Fomichenko. M., 1998 [in Russian]
  12. Gasanova R. G. Metodika preodolenija interferencii v uslovijah mnogojazychija [A method for overcoming interference in a multilingual environment] / R. G. Gasanova.- 2012 [in Russian]

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