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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2020.97.7.071 - Доступен после 17.07.2020

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Леванова Е. А. ГРАЖДАНСКАЯ АКТИВНОСТЬ МОЛОДЕЖИ ДОЭЛЕКТОРАЛЬНОГО ВОЗРАСТА В РАКУРСЕ ПРОБЛЕМ СОВРЕМЕННОГО ВОСПИТАНИЯ / Е. А. Леванова, С. Б. Серякова, Т. В. Пушкарева и др. // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2020. — №. — С. . — URL: https://research-journal.org/pedagogy/civic-activity-of-youth-of-pre-electoral-age-in-the-perspective-of-the-problems-of-modern-upbringing/ (дата обращения: 06.08.2020. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2020.97.7.071

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ГРАЖДАНСКАЯ АКТИВНОСТЬ МОЛОДЕЖИ ДОЭЛЕКТОРАЛЬНОГО ВОЗРАСТА В РАКУРСЕ ПРОБЛЕМ СОВРЕМЕННОГО ВОСПИТАНИЯ

ГРАЖДАНСКАЯ АКТИВНОСТЬ МОЛОДЕЖИ ДОЭЛЕКТОРАЛЬНОГО ВОЗРАСТА
В РАКУРСЕ ПРОБЛЕМ СОВРЕМЕННОГО ВОСПИТАНИЯ

Научная статья

Леванова Е.А.1, Серякова С.Б.2, Пушкарева Т.В.3, Звонова Е.В.4, *, Крыжановская Т.В.5

1 ORCID: 0000-0002-8811-0540;

2 ORCID: 0000-0003-4294-2373;

3 ORCID: 0000-0002-6646-6917;

4 ORCID: 0000-0001-9271-8367;

5 ORCID: 0000-0003-1430-485X;

1, 2, 3, 4 Московский педагогический государственный университет (ФГБОУ ВО МПГУ), Москва, Россия;

5 ООО Кьези Фармасьютикалс, Москва, Россия

* Корреспондирующий автор (zevreturn[at] yandex.ru)

Аннотация

Воспитание в статье рассматривается как особый социальный процесс передачи норм морали молодому поколению, а также формирования социально одобряемых форм поведения. Однако социальная среда демонстрирует молодым людям нормы поведения, которые реально существуют и фактически принимаются. В таких условиях каждый человек должен решить, какой выбор он должен сделать. Нравственный выбор проявляется в выбранной форме поведения, в самом поступке. Авторы считают, что гражданская активность является высоким уровнем проявления результатов воспитания. В статье представлены результаты пилотного исследования. В исследовании приняли участие молодые люди доэлекторального возраста, проявляющие гражданскую активность. Результаты исследования показали высокий уровень способности участников к моральному выбору. Результаты проведенного исследования показывают, что существует тенденция повышения уровня гражданской активности среди молодежи. В основе этого явления лежит глубокое противоречие между моральными идеалами, которые целенаправленно формируются в процессе воспитания, и социальной реальностью.

Ключевые слова: воспитание, поведение, поступок, гражданская активность, ценности, политизация.

CIVIC ACTIVITY OF YOUTH OF PRE-ELECTORAL AGE IN THE PERSPECTIVE
OF THE PROBLEMS OF MODERN UPBRINGING

Research article

Levanova E.A.1, Seryakova S.B.2, Pushkareva T.V.3, Zvonova E.V.4, *, Kryzhanovskaya T.V.5

1 ORCID: 0000-0002-8811-0540;

2 ORCID: 0000-0003-4294-2373;

3 ORCID: 0000-0002-6646-6917;

4 ORCID: 0000-0001-9271-8367;

5 ORCID: 0000-0003-1430-485X;

1, 2, 3, 4 Moscow Pedagogical State University (MPGU), Moscow, Russia;

5 Сhiesi Pharmacuitical LLC, Moscow, Russia

* Corresponding author (zevreturn[at] yandex.ru)

Abstract

Upbringing in the article is considered as a special social process of transferring the norms of morality to the younger generation, and the formation of socially approved forms of behavior. However, the social environment demonstrates to young people norms of behavior which really exist and in fact, are accepted. In such circumstances, each person must decide what choice he should make. Moral choice is manifested in the chosen form of behavior, in the act itself. The authors believe that civic activity is a high level of manifestation of the results of upbringing. The article presents the results of a pilot study. The study involved young people under the electoral age showing civic activity. The results of the study showed a high level of the ability to make moral choices among participants. The results of the study show that there is a tendency increase the level of civic activity among young people. The basis of this phenomenon is a deep contradiction between the moral ideals that are purposefully formed in the upbringing process, and social reality.

Keywords: upbringing, behavior, deed, civic activism, values, politicization.

Introduction

In the framework of a widespread discussion, the issues of upbringing begin and flow in the form of companies that usually arise post factum. At the time of an acute social conflict that exposes the problems of moral development, questions of upbringing either appear as already resolved, ready-made recipes, or as eternal insoluble difficulties of an existential nature. This state of affairs is determined by the complexity of the phenomenon of “upbringing”, its content, essence, many components, wide social connections and multifaceted mutual influence.

Since the concept of “morality” acts as the basis of upbringing (the criterion of “correctness” of upbringing is actually related to moral issues), the theoretical development of upbringing problems is based on philosophical teachings, the development of which is currently on the rise [10].

One of the global difficulties of education is that morality, as a specific one, based on sociocultural attitudes over the biological regulation of relations in society, does not have a single, universal meaning. The internal content of each phenomenon is formed as a result of the interaction of very many components, which explains the multiplicity of meanings of the same object (a phenomenon in its verbal mediation) for representatives of different generations, social strata, nationalities, faiths and other characteristics.

The second global difficulty in assessing the effectiveness of the upbringing process is that the result of education itself arises as a style of behavior, an act, the result of a person’s conscious choice. An act can be far away from a direct impact of upbringing [7].

Methodology

Over the past fifty years, the development of the theory and practice of upbringing has been with varying success. The scope of diametrically opposed methodological positions represents a distance of cosmic size: from the desire to create conditions for complete freedom of choice of the educated person, while the final conclusion is always that “there are no right or wrong answers” [11], to a return to the historical (totalitarian, religious and other) upbringing systems that ignore, in principle, the possibility of choice.

The educated subject is the center of the educational system. This position of the subject determines the basic characteristics of the entire educational system from global, system-forming (upbringing goals) to structural (impact methods) and criterion-assessment (behavior characteristics). Thus, the main question of psychology, what content we put in the concept of “man as an object of education”, becomes fundamental, in the construction of the education system as a whole.

The theory of stages of moral development, developed by psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, which was adopted as the basis for substantiating the stages of moral education, had a huge impact on the development of the theoretical foundations of education. The principle of phased development of the psyche suggests that the level of cognitive development determines the ability to understand and evaluate the situations in which the subject finds himself, which determines the formation of not only characteristics of people specific to each stage, but also the ability to choose behavior strategies and solve moral dilemmas [5].

A classic position in upbringing is the idea that upbringing creates the conditions for the formation of personal characteristics of the educated, the formation of a holistic character. Based on philosophical judgments originating from Aristotle, theorists and educational practices develop and implement a popular model in which socially approved characteristics (honesty, courage, honesty, generosity, tolerance) are taught to students from kindergarten to high school through modeling special learning situations. Socially acceptable behavior is supported by society through special programs that encourage good behavior (for example, choosing and honoring a “schoolboy of the month”) [11].

The creation of conditions aimed at the formation of socially approved characteristics by introducing into the consciousness a socially approved model of behavior is aimed at providing enough knowledge that the advantages and disadvantages manifested in the selected forms of behavior have social consequences. The subject must act virtuously and discourage all manifestations of evil and vice in all forms of daily life. The presence of a socially approved image (with varying degrees of detail) is a prerequisite for the implementation of the upbringing process, but this aspect has at least two complex points.

First, even Aristotle recognized that knowledge of virtues, the idea of a holistic model of “good” behavior, is not an unconditional condition for socially approved behavior in a real life situation. Doing the “right things” at the right time is not easy. Knowledge of “instructions for correct behavior” is not enough for correct behavior. The result of upbringing in its basic characteristics is not identical to the result of training, for example, in mathematics or history, where the ultimate goal is to obtain knowledge.

Secondly, any process of upbringing is carried out in specific social conditions. Pupils, receiving ideas and knowledge about the forms of approved behavior, in real life may encounter other forms of behavior that are really recognized. An honest, courageous, respecting human dignity, striving for justice and freedom person can be punished and prosecuted by law, although good qualities are recognized by society as good.

The upbringing system, like any social system, is born and functions in the corresponding social structure (the social organization of society, which makes up a single whole), both generated by it and supporting structure. The social structure is created by people, reflecting the internal institutionalized relations of members of society living in a group (in the family, class, community, etc.), and, fixing the hierarchical organization of society, determines the statuses, rules and principles governing behavior. Inside the social structure, existing inter-connected, nascent and developing according to their generic laws, social systems are formed that capture the characteristics of social relations typical for a given society between individuals, groups and institutions.

When studying modern upbringing systems, it is impossible not to take into account and not to study the enormous role of the information environment. The modern world generates huge flows of information that are necessary for the functioning of society.

One of the most important issues in the study of upbringing is the question of successful, effective and mutually developing assistance of the participants in the upbringing process – the inmate and the educator. The main criterion for the productivity of upbringings is the well-being of the educated.

Results

The main criterion for the result of upbringing, we consider human behavior. Behavior reflects attitudes, motivation and value orientations, which is an area of upbringing impact. The highest degree of manifestation of human morality is considered to be an act. Participation in the political life of their country, acts of civic activity of young people under the electoral age attract the attention of educators, sociologists, political scientists and psychologists [3], [4]. Our study is dedicated to this topic. It was held during April-Desember 2019.

An empirical study was conducted among young people who had not reached the electoral age, the age period of 14-18 years, and who had not yet participated in the elections. The study participants took an active part in civic activity, they felt sympathy for various political parties and movements. In total, 97 respondents took part in the study, the group was formed by the principle of sampling managed by respondents (respondent-driven sample – RDS) [2].

A questionnaire was developed to help determine the main sources of information for modern youth, the degree of confidence of young people in the selected sources of information, their political and social views, as well as the level of interaction with parents. As a result, the main trends of political preferences and views of the study participants, their idea of the current situation in the country and the life of society, etc. were identified.

To determine the formation of the value orientations of the modern teenager, we selected an adapted and modified version of the traditional test of M. Rokich – B. Kruglov’s Method “Determining the formation of value orientations”.

We divided the study participants into two age categories [6]:

  • 14 – 16 years old – adolescents (account for 31,96% of all subjects);
  • 17-18 years old – young men (account for 68,04% of all subjects).

An analysis of the results showed that in 43% of young men the opportunity to make moral choices as mechanisms of differentiation is fully formed, in 36,4% they are at the final stage of formation, and they are actively forming in 20,6%. In 12,9% of adolescents, the differentiation mechanisms are fully operational, 58,06% have overcome the initial stages of development and 29,04% are in a state of active formation.

Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the mechanism of differentiation as an indicator of the ability to make a value choice among the participants in the study as a whole is well developed. The group responses showed the same trends, so we combined all the answers for the conclusions.

A study of terminal values showed that the most significant values for young people are:

  • Good and faithful friends (4,55)
  • Independence, as independence in judgments and assessments; Freedom, as independence in actions and actions – two values that have taken an equal position (4,27)
  • Health (4,23)
  • Cognition, for example, the expansion of their education, horizons, intellectual development (4,18)
  • The least significant values were:
  • Equality – fraternity and equal opportunity for all (3,23)
  • Public recognition – respect of others, staff, friends (3,68)

Love (spiritual and physical intimacy with a loved one), a happy family life and creativity (the possibility of creative activity) are three values that have taken an equal position among outsiders (3,73).

A study of instrumental values has shown that the most significant values for young people are:

  • Honesty – truthfulness, sincerity (4,64)
  • Sense of duty, ability to keep a word (4,55)
  • Rationalism – the ability to think soundly and logically, to make informed decisions (4,32)
  • Sensitivity and care (4,27)
  • Courage in upholding your gaze, opinions, cheerfulness and sense of humor; breadth of views, as the ability to understand someone else’s point of view; respect other tastes, habits – 3 values that showed an equal result among significant ones (4,18)

The least significant values were:

  • High demands, high claims (2,91)
  • Intolerance to deficiencies in oneself and others (2,95)
  • Execution, discipline (3,50)

An analysis of our questionnaire produced the following results:

The main source of information for modern youth is the Internet – the choice of 93,8% of the subjects. Only a few derive information from television and print media. It is noteworthy that for 100% of Muscovites the main source of information is the Internet, while for other regions of Russia this indicator is 90,48%, the rest falls on television and print media. None of the subjects chose radio, or any other, their answer.

Teenagers and young people spend the most time on the VKontakte (VK) social network – 86,6% of the respondents. For young Muscovites, VK is a 100% indicator, in the regions young people also note such social networks as Twitter and Instagram. 4,12% of all respondents do not use social networks and live in the regions.

59,79% of respondents had a desire to verify information that interested young people from the media, 25,77% expressed a desire to verify information only if they received it from a source that they did not trust sufficiently. 12,37% do not verify the information received.

62,89% of the respondents trust the information received from the Internet most of all, 9,29% trust television, 6,2% don’t trust the media, but do trust what others say. 13,4% of respondents do not completely trust any of the information sources listed above, and only 3% indicated the church as a source of reliable information for them (the “other” option).

The information received from the media caused, in some cases, a rush to action among 46,39% of respondents, whereas 53,61% of the respondents did not observe such a rush.

63,92% of respondents do not believe that the standards demonstrated by the media are, for them, a criterion for assessing the level and success of their lives, while 36,08% assess the level and success of their lives based on exactly what the media show them.

They do not believe that our country is more democratic than many others, just over half of the respondents – 52,58%. However, 31% of all respondents consider Russia to be a fairly democratic country and 16,42% of the respondents find it difficult to answer.

43,3% of young people in our country have not seen positive changes and improvements in living conditions in recent years, 27,83% say that their standard of living is getting better and 28,87% find it difficult to answer.

67% of young people feel the rights and free will of citizens in our country are being oppressed. Only 11,34% do not observe such trends, and 21,66% find it difficult to choose an answer.

A sufficiently large percentage of respondents, 73,2%, see the possibility of real social progress, only subject to a radical change in political course; 11,34% do not see the need for radical changes, and 15,46% found it difficult to answer.

The quality of education and medical services in recent years has become better according to 11,34% of respondents, the same number of respondents found it difficult to answer and 77,32% do not believe that there are improvements in these areas.

The state should exist for the benefit of the individual, and not vice versa: 15,4% of respondents believe this to be true. 50,5% of those who answered are of the opposite opinion and 34,1% found it difficult to answer.

Only 26,8% believe that it is necessary to vote to defend their position, 61,85% do not agree with this and 11,35% of respondents find it difficult to make a choice.

The majority, 68%, do not believe that the opposition and dissidents can be considered traitors to their country, 4% agree with this statement and 28% could not answer.

Only 11,34% are ready to support their country, even by going against their beliefs. 76,28% of those polled are not ready to do this, while 12,38% are at a loss to make a choice.

52,57% believe that their participation in the elections will not change the situation in the country, 36,08% believe otherwise, and 12,37% find it difficult to make a choice.

56,7% noted that the current distribution of wealth in society as unfair, 28,86% did not consider it unfair, whereas 16,5% could not make a choice.

Those who agree and disagree with the following statement were divided into two opposite camps (42,26% and 42,26%): “In our country, the most capable people can very well reach the heights of social status in society”.

15,48% were going to refuse to vote in the future.

The majority of respondents completely disagree with the statement that the greatest threats to the country come from outside – 64,95% disagree, 21,65% found it difficult to answer, and only 13,4% agree with this statement.

48,45% of respondents believe that they have political views and 51,55% do not.

Conclusion

A qualitative analysis of the empirical data allows us to draw general conclusions:

Diagnosis of the degree of formation of the mechanism of differentiation, the ability to make a valuable choice, showed that young people in the age category from 14 to 18 years old have a sufficiently high level of development, which allows us to determine the degree of personal maturity as corresponding to age and social development criteria.

The presence of good and faithful friends, freedom and independence is the most significant value for young people, which seems logical, given the age-related need for active interaction with peers, their support. Health value is not in the top positions of values that are significant for young people. Education and intellectual development are significant and priority areas.

The leaders among instrumental values are: honesty – truthfulness, sincerity, sense of duty, ability to keep one’s word, rationalism – the ability to think soundly and logically, make thoughtful decisions, sensitivity and caring, courage in upholding one’s look, cheerfulness and sense of humor, breadth of views – the ability to understand someone else’s point of view, respect other tastes, habits.

The values not distinguished by young people as significant: high demands and high claims, intolerance to shortcomings in themselves and others, diligence, discipline.

The study confirmed that the main and most trusted source of information for modern youth is the Internet.

The result of the survey shows that young people’s ideas about the situation in the country today are contrary to concepts such as a democratic and social state. Between 60% and 70% of the young people surveyed feel oppressed in their rights and freedoms, including the right of free expression of will on the part of the state. They indicate an unfair and abnormal distribution of wealth in society, are not satisfied with the level of medical care and education. They do not see trends to improve the situation in our country and they believe that real social progress is possible only in the event of a cardinal change in political course. 30% consider Russia to be a more democratic country than many others and 50% say that the most capable people may well reach the heights of our social status in our country.

Most study participants do not believe that it is necessary to go to the polls in order to defend their position. 25,77% of the participants in the study note revolution as the best way to achieve the desired changes, 13,4% uprising, 4,1% external management and 30% find it difficult to answer. Almost half of the respondents, 46,4%, choose non-democratic methods of changing their political course as the most effective.

By analyzing the answers to open questions, we can conclude that, according to young people, the main problems of our society and the state are: corruption, problems of medicine, a low level of education and the economy.

Based on the results of our pilot study, we can assume that there is a tendency towards protesting the politicization of young people of pre-election age. The basis of this phenomenon is a deep contradiction between the moral ideals that are purposefully formed in the upbringing process, and social reality. 

Финансирование

Отчетное исследование выполнено при финансовой поддержке Российского фонда фундаментальных исследований (РФФИ) в рамках научного проекта № 19-013-00822.

Funding

The reported study was funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR), project number 19-013-00822.

Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

 

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