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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

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Флянку И. ОЦЕНКА ФАКТОРОВ ЗДОРОВЬЯ ШКОЛЬНИКОВ / И. Флянку, А. Приешкина, Г. Оглезнев и др. // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2019. — № 1 (20) Часть 4. — С. 59—61. — URL: https://research-journal.org/medical/estimation-of-factors-of-the-health-of-schoolchildren/ (дата обращения: 17.08.2019. ).
Флянку И. ОЦЕНКА ФАКТОРОВ ЗДОРОВЬЯ ШКОЛЬНИКОВ / И. Флянку, А. Приешкина, Г. Оглезнев и др. // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2019. — № 1 (20) Часть 4. — С. 59—61.

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ОЦЕНКА ФАКТОРОВ ЗДОРОВЬЯ ШКОЛЬНИКОВ

Флянку И. 1, Приешкина А. 2, Оглезнев Г. 3, Облапова Р. 4

Кандидат медицинских наук, доцент1, кандидат педагогических наук, доцент2, магистрант4 Сибирский государственный университет физической культуры и спорта, доктор медицинских наук, профессор3, Омская государственная медицинская академия

ОЦЕНКА ФАКТОРОВ ЗДОРОВЬЯ ШКОЛЬНИКОВ

Аннотация

В статье представлен анализ факторов, определяющих здоровье учащихся средних классов. В исследовании применялось анкетирование с целью изучения причин формирования отклонений в здоровье и заболеваний у детей. Выявлено, что основное влияние на здоровье человека оказывает стиль жизни.

Ключевые слова: школьники 12–14 лет, стиль жизни, двигательная активность, факторы здоровья человека.

Flyanku I. 1, Prieshkina A. 2, Ogleznev G. 3, Oblapova R.4

Candidate of medical Sciences, associate Professor1, candidate of pedagogical Sciences, associate Professor2, undergraduate4 The Siberian State University of Physical Training and Sports, doctor of medical Sciences, Professor3, Omsk state medical Academy

ESTIMATION OF FACTORS OF THE HEALTH OF SCHOOLCHILDREN

Abstract

In article the analysis of the factors defining health of pupils of middle classes is presented. In researches questioning for the purpose of studying of the reasons of formation of deviations in health and diseases at children was applied. It is revealed that lifestyle has the main impact on health of the person.

Keywords: school students of 12–14 years, lifestyle, physical activity, factors on human health.

Human daily activity should be directed on strengthening of health, development of physical potential, to achieve physical perfection for the effective implementation of genetic inclinations taking into account personal motivation and social needs.

The strategic aim of the system of education school is the orientation on the values of physical culture, which is activated in a healthy lifestyle. Among the social funds, which should provide a comprehensive physical development, is the main human activities and the physical culture, acting in unity and interconnection.

Today there is a negative dynamics of reducing motion activity among school-age children. As a result, deteriorating health status of children, because the health of 51% depending on lifestyle, 17-20% – from heredity, 20% – from the state of the environment, on 8-9% of the health care system.

Assessment of the health of children and adolescents Russia suggests that during the 20-year period is saved pattern to increase the incidence of uptake by 2-4% per year, increasing prevalence of chronic pathology, reduced the number of healthy children in all age-sex groups. Currently, together with the growing incidence of pupils there is an increase in the number of boys and girls, with deviations in physical development, mainly excess and deficiency of body weight [3].

Complex influence of adverse factors of educational process do not compensated by the positive components of the way of life of students. Physiological-hygienic lifestyle factors (nutrition, sleep mode days, motor activity) are far from ideal. Also notes the negative impact of family relations and family life, to health indicators. It is the family that provides primary educational impact on the consciousness and behavior of a person, instills hygienic installation, concepts, principles and forming a healthy style of life appropriate to the specific conditions of life. Evidence from several studies show that for the vast majority of pupils, parents are the most preferred source of information about how to preserve health. At the same time, many parents, for various reasons do not pay sufficient attention to the healthy lifestyle as his own and the child [2, 5].

To identify family risk factors affecting the image of life and health of children, used a questionnaire «The Study of medical and social causes of health problems and diseases in children [1, 3]. The study involved 159 children 12-14 years old schools of the city of Omsk.

State children’s health, growth and development is laid down in the initial period of ontogenesis under the influence mainly medico-biological factors. In this regard, undertook a study of the factors of perinatal and early childhood through questionnaires parents of schoolchildren.

When studying the risk factors period of pregnancy and childbirth a woman’s age at birth was 20-29 years of 84,9% of women of up 19 years – a 3,7%, 30 years and more – 11,4%. The age of the father: 20-29 years – 76,9%, 30 years and more of 23,1%. Thus, every fourth father was outside optimal reproductive period with a significant predominance of older age.

This pregnancy was the first in 72,5% of cases, second – 15,6%, the third and more – 11,9%. Childbirth were the first of 80.5% of the women, the second – 13,7%, the third – in 5,8%. A hereditary disease of the relatives on the mother had 12,2% of cases, of a father – in 14,0%. Before pregnancy were sick of chronic diseases 15,4% of mothers and 5,8% of fathers.

In numerous works of domestic and foreign authors emphasize the influence of the contact of the parents with harmful production factors (chemical substances, noise, vibration, radiation, electromagnetic fields) on the health of children, in this regard, is wary of the severity of specified influence of parents of schoolchildren, Omsk [4]. According to the survey, contact with harmful production factors before pregnancy noted 3,0% of women. In most cases, the contact lasted one year of 71,7% of women, in 24,9% – up to one year, in 3,4% of cases – four years and more. Among the fathers of contact with harmful production factors before birth were 3,8% and it lasted up to one year of 44,8% of respondents.

Along with the production intoxication, a significant negative value had before pregnancy smoked 9,4% of mothers and 50,9% of fathers used alcoholic drinks 11,5% of mothers and 43,1% of fathers, in the period of pregnancy, 19,2% of women taking their medication.

When studying the most important characteristics of lifestyle during pregnancy identified the following violations: the mode of the day comply fully with only 42,3% of women, partly – by 49,1%, kept at 8,6%; power mode comply with 86,9% of mothers; regularly gymnastics 14,0% of women, periodically – 46,8%, not did 39,2 percent. Noted the severity of increased psychological tension: experienced the stress associated with the illness or death of close, conflicts in the family, divorce, conflicts in the production of 29,0% of pregnant women.

Impact of multiple risk factors have led to increased frequency deviations during pregnancy and childbirth. Toxicosis of the first half of pregnancy noted 52,9% of women, infectious diseases – 2%, somatic diseases doctor-diagnosed, to 3,7%. Toxicosis in the second half of pregnancy noted 18,8% of women, infectious diseases – 0,8%, somatic diseases doctor-diagnosed, to 3,5%.

In the end, 13,7% of women gave birth suffered from complications. Among the violations of childbirth 76,3% were premature birth, 23,7% – for late delivery. Among the outcomes of the genera noted in 83,2% of cases of birth full-term child, 5,0% – premature child, 6,3% – is overdue child, 3,5% – the birth of a child with a birth trauma, 2,0% – other outcome.

At birth, the baby’s weight was: 2500 – 4000 grams in 86,0% of cases, more than 4000 grams in 14%, the Growth of the baby at birth was 50 cm 28,1% of cases, more than 50 cm in 71,9%. When studying the socio-hygienic living conditions and education of pupils in the family found that the apartment was in 74,4% of families raising students, a room in a communal apartment – in 2,2%, a room in a hostel – 6,4%, private house – 17,0%.

Living space per family member came up to 12 square metres in 60,9% of cases, 5-12 square meters – by 36,9%, less than 5 square meters by 2,2%. The number of children in families with one child accounted for 31,3 per cent, with two children and 54,2%, with three children – 8,2%, four and more children brought up 6,3% of families. Full families accounted for 87,5 percent, but the mother was the parent of 8,3% of the cases, the father of 4,2%.

Income per family member is higher than the subsistence minimum was observed in 64,6% of the cases correspond to the subsistence minimum – 33,3%, lower than the subsistence minimum – 2,1%. A happy family atmosphere was 91,7% of cases, the conflict of 4,2%, the presence of the disabled and seriously ill registered in 4,1% of the families. Father’s education: higher – 52,1%, secondary, specialized secondary, secondary special or 47,9%. Mother’s education: higher – 63,8%, secondary, specialized secondary, secondary special – 34,0%, incomplete secondary – 2,2%.

Strictly on time feeds on 11,8% of students, arbitrarily on the time – 88,2%. Daily eating cold food 6% of schoolchildren, and several times a week – 42%, very rarely – 52%. The majority of students (54,9%) eat 4 times a day, 39,3% – 3 times a day and 5,8% – 5 times a day. Eat Breakfast or lunch in the school canteen 68,6% of children, 15,7% of the Breakfast from home and 15,7% of children do not eat at school. Child in my free from school time in the afternoon at 10,7% of cases, at home with his parents – in 41,6%, one before the arrival of parents – in 47,7%.

Exceeding the maximum duration of assignments, according to the Sanitary rules and regulations 2.4.2.1178-02 («Hygienic requirements to the terms of teaching in secondary schools») – 12,5% of the students. Less than two hours spent on the preparation of homework, 50,0% of schoolchildren. In 29,2% of children homework does not exceed hygienic standards.

The main elements of the camps in their spare time are characterized by the prevalence of passive forms over active: viewing video and television – 93,5% of the children read books to 84,6%, computer games and 28,0%, walking on the street – 66,1%, outdoor games – 47,5%, the disco – 8,5%. Not meet hygienic recommendations stay outdoors (including travel to and from school) at 55,4% of the students. Every day watching television or listening to the computer, spend more than three hours a day 41,0% of children less than two hours – 59,0%. The duration of sleep on weekdays below hygienic recommendations registered 53,2% of the students. Upbringing of healthy behaviour in children is largely influenced by personal example of his parents. In this connection, of interest is a low level of physical culture. In sports (sports clubs) both parents 5,7% of families, only the father – 8,5%, but the mother is 7,2%, are not engaged in 78,6%. Doing morning exercises both parents of 5,0% of the families, the father alone – 7,6%, only a mother – by 8,2%, not make – 79,1%.

Regularly held tempering procedures at home only 13,3% of the families. Departure of the family in the countryside green zone (active rest and work) occurs regularly and 45,2% of cases, 1-2 times a month in 35,3%, less than once a month – 8,5%, do not go quite 11,0% of the families. Summer vacation 6,3% of pupils spend in the countryside, 85,4% of part-time outside the city, part of the city, while 8.3% only in the city. When studying physical activity of pupils established that regularly attend physical education classes in school 81,3% of the children, irregularly – 16,6%, released on health grounds of 2,1%. Among engage in exercises in the school of 89,9% of children in the basic group 6,2%, and in the preparatory, 3,9% – in special. Engaged in physical culture and sports outside school regularly 53,3% of students, irregularly – 14,8%, are not engaged – 31,9%. Train in the sports sections within 1 year, 10,4% of the pupils, to 2 years of 8,4%, more than 2 years – 37,5%, not training – 43,7%.

Outdoor games are conducted daily by 23.0% of children, 3-4 times a week – by 16.6%, 1-2 times per week to 60.4%. Do morning exercises at home regularly with parents 4.2% of schoolchildren, some – by 20.3%, not make – 75,5%.

Physical activity of children as sufficient noted 44,0% of parents. Assess the condition of the overall physical condition of the child as an excellent total 11,0% of parents, good – 55,0%, satisfactory – 24,1%, weak – 9,0%. According to the parents, daily demand in the movement of the child on the 10-point scale is implemented at 7,2% of schoolchildren from 1 to 4 points, from 5 to 7 points – 53,0% of children from 8 to 10 points – 40,4%. Child health as good appreciated 66.0% of parents, satisfactory – 32,0%, poor – 2,0%.

Asked about the presence of chronic diseases diagnosed by a doctor, 73,9% of the parents answered in the affirmative, negative 26,1%. Other diseases or symptoms, according to the parents, are observed with 82,9% of children. Another important factor is the medical activity of the parents in case of diseases of children. Usually when the baby is ill parents go to the doctor of the polyclinic in 76,5% of cases, turn to a friend, a doctor, 15,8 percent, treat children themselves – 7,7%.

Recommendations of medical workers made 64,7% of the families, partly in 35,3%. According to the received data we can conclude that behavioural habits of children are shaped by personal example of his parents. Modern schoolchildren have an adverse effect medico-biological factors. Many parents do not comply with the principles of a healthy lifestyle before and during pregnancy, had contact with harmful production factors. Impact of multiple risk factors have led to high frequency deviations during pregnancy and childbirth.

Social-hygienic living conditions and education of schoolchildren in many families are characterized as adverse. Violations are found in the diet and diet, does not meet the hygienic recommendations stay outdoors, physical fitness and recreation of the child in his spare time. The occurrence of failures in the education of healthy behaviour in children occurs under the influence of inadequate personal example of the adults.

References

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  3. Novikova I.I. Socio-hygienic and ecological aspects of the conservation of population health of children and adolescents / I.I. Novikova, G.A Ogleznev, V.A. Lyapin // The Health of the population and environment. – 2005. – № 6. – P. 4.
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