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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2021.112.10.029

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Антонова А. А. ОЦЕНКА ПОКАЗАТЕЛЕЙ ФИЗИЧЕСКОГО РАЗВИТИЯ МЛАДШИХ ШКОЛЬНИКОВ АСТРАХАНИ / А. А. Антонова, Г. А. Яманова, Э. Агого и др. // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2021. — № 10 (112) Часть 2. — С. 10—13. — URL: https://research-journal.org/medical/assessment-of-indicators-of-physical-development-of-primary-school-children-in-astrakhan/ (дата обращения: 02.07.2022. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2021.112.10.029
Антонова А. А. ОЦЕНКА ПОКАЗАТЕЛЕЙ ФИЗИЧЕСКОГО РАЗВИТИЯ МЛАДШИХ ШКОЛЬНИКОВ АСТРАХАНИ / А. А. Антонова, Г. А. Яманова, Э. Агого и др. // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2021. — № 10 (112) Часть 2. — С. 10—13. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2021.112.10.029

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ОЦЕНКА ПОКАЗАТЕЛЕЙ ФИЗИЧЕСКОГО РАЗВИТИЯ МЛАДШИХ ШКОЛЬНИКОВ АСТРАХАНИ

ОЦЕНКА ПОКАЗАТЕЛЕЙ ФИЗИЧЕСКОГО РАЗВИТИЯ МЛАДШИХ ШКОЛЬНИКОВ АСТРАХАНИ

Научная статья

Антонова А.А.1, *, Яманова Г.А.2, Агого Э.3, Мижаева Б.У.4, Косарева А.Р.5,
Бахшиев Н.Н.о.6, Денильханов Ш-М.Х.7, Ким В.В.8

1 ORCID: 0000-0003-2581-0408;

2 ORCID: 0000-0003-2362-8979;

4 ORCID: 0000-0002-9576-2969;

5 ORCID: 0000-0003-4273-4195;

6 ORCID: 0000-0002-1297-6081;

7 ORCID: 0000-0001-5510-485Х;

8 ORCID: 0000-0002-7257-8712;

1-8 Астраханский государственный медицинский университет Минздрава России, Астрахань, Россия

* Корреспондирующий автор (fduecn-2010[at]mail.ru)

Аннотация

Исследования проводились в течение 5 лет. Были проведены обследования детей младшего школьного возраста, имеющих основную физическую активность в рамках стандартной программы физического воспитания в школе. Все обследуемые дети по своим анатомо-физиологическим характеристикам соответствовали биологическому возрасту. Средний возраст мальчиков в различные годы составил 7,2±0,6 лет, девочек – 7,3±0,7 лет. Физическое развитие названного контингента учащихся определялось по соматоскопическим, соматометрическим и физиометрическим параметрам. Анализ корреляционной связи между соматоскопическими, соматометрическими и физиометрическими признаками в развитии детей младшего школьного возраста показал, что между подавляющим большинством показателей физического развития детей существует статистически значимая связь (p < 0,05 и выше).

Ключевые слова: физическое развитие; младший школьный возраст; соматоскопические, соматометрические, физиометрические показатели.

ASSESSMENT OF INDICATORS OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN ASTRAKHAN

Research article

Antonova A.A.1, *, Yamanova G.A.2, Agogho E.3, Mozhaeva B.U.4, Kosareva A.R.5,
Bakhshiev N.N.o.6, Denilkhanov Sh-M.Kh.7, Kim V.V.8

1 ORCID: 0000-0003-2581-0408;

2 ORCID: 0000-0003-2362-8979;

4 ORCID: 0000-0002-9576-2969;

5 ORCID: 0000-0003-4273-4195;

6 ORCID: 0000-0002-1297-6081;

7 ORCID: 0000-0001-5510-485Х;

8 ORCID: 0000-0002-7257-8712;

1-8 Astrakhan State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of Russia, Astrakhan, Russia

* Corresponding author (fduecn-2010[at]mail.ru)

Abstract

The research was carried out for 5 years. Surveys were carried out on primary school age children who have basic physical activity as part of a standard school physical education program. All examined children corresponded to their biological age in terms of their anatomical and physiological characteristics. The average age of boys in different years was 7,2 ± 0,6 years, girls – 7,3 ± 0,7 years. The physical development of the named contingent of children was determined by somatoscopic, somatometric and physiometric parameters. Analysis of the correlation between somatoscopic, somatometric and physiometric characteristics in the development of primary school age children showed that there is a statistically significant relationship between the overwhelming majority of indicators of children’s physical development (p <0,05 and higher).

Keywords: physical development; primary school age; somatoscopic, somatometric, physiometric indicators.

Relevance

An important part of the Hygiene of children and adolescents is the study of the physical development of children and the establishment of its regularities in modern conditions. In recent years, in the organization of children’s life in preschool institutions, there has been a significant increase in the volume of educational work in the field of sensory and mental development. At the same time, there is a certain disproportion between the increase of mental load, which the child receives as a result of a large flow of information and the insufficient physical activity of the children. Sufficient physical activity is a necessary condition for the harmonious development of the child’s body and it affects the formation of the psycho-physiological status of the child [1], [4], [6], [8].

The age of 5-7 years is often called the “period of the first extension” that is when a child can grow by 7-10 cm in a year. Each age stage is characterized by different rates of growth of individual parts of the body. The length of the limbs and the width of the pelvis and shoulders increase rapidly in children of both sexes. At the same time, there are individual differences in these indicators, as well as their differences in boys and girls.

Anthropometric signs are interrelated to varying degrees, and this affects the physical condition of children and their physiometric data.

At the same time, the analysis of literary sources showed that in the recommendations and methods for monitoring the physical development and fitness of children of primary school age, individual personal characteristics are not sufficiently taken into account and a clear algorithm for the structural relationship of indicators of physical development and readiness of a child has not been developed [9], [10].

Purpose of the study: to analyze the indicators of physical development of children of primary school age in the city of Astrakhan.

Research materials and principles

The work had the following objectives: to determine the degree of interrelation between the indicators of the physical development of children and the structure of the hierarchy included in the system of indicators of the physical development of primary school age children. The studies were carried out for 5 years (2015-2020). Surveys were carried out on primary school age children who have basic physical activity as part of a standard school physical education program. All examined children corresponded to their biological age in terms of their anatomical and physiological characteristics. Children were examined three times a year – at the beginning, middle and end of the school year.

The examination of children was carried out in the morning. The average age of boys in different years was 7,2 ± 0,6 years, girls – 7,3 ± 0,7 years.

The physical development of the named contingent of children was determined by somatoscopic, somatometric and physiometric parameters.

Somatoscopic indicators were assessed using the somatoscopy method. The examination began with the assessment of posture. It was determined in a standing position without tension. Particular attention was paid to the curvature of the spine, i.e. the severity of its physiological bends, and above all the lateral curvatures – scoliosis. Depending on which part of the spinal column scoliosis was determined and where the convex part of the arch was directed, curvatures were revealed – right-sided or left-sided scoliosis. Priority was given to this criterion for assessing posture disorders because scoliosis, to a greater extent than its other deviations, negatively affects the normal functioning of the respiratory and circulatory systems.

The arch function was assessed using a plantograph. In doing so, the indicator of V.N. Soloviov – the ratio between the smallest diameter of the arch of the foot (its middle part) and the largest diameter in the front of the foot was expressed as a percentage. For a regular foot, an indicator of up to 49% was defined as normal, if the indicator was 50-59%, it was defined as flattened and if the indicator was more than 60%, the foot was defined as flat.

Somatometric indicators: height, weight, weight-height index (WHI), VC and the ratio of VC to weight (vital indicator) – were assessed according to generally accepted methods. For example, height and weight were determined in laboratory conditions. Height – using a stadiometer (Martin) in a standing position, and weight (on medical scales) – by weighing during testing. Weight-height index was calculated using the formula:

WHI indicator = Body weight (g) / Height (cm)

Vital lung capacity (VC) was determined using a dry portable spirometer. The subject was asked to do the test 3 times and the average was recorded. The vital indicator – the ratio VC / weight – was also calculated using the formula:

Indicator (VC) = VC (ml) / Body weight (kg)

Physiometric indicators were determined by the maximum strength of the right and left hand, dead strength and relative strength. The maximum strength of the right hand, left hand and the backbone respectively was determined using a spring dynamometer. The relative strength was calculated using the formula:

Indicator (relative strength) = Maximum strength (kg) / Body weight (kg)

The research data were processed by the methods of mathematical statistics using the t – criterion in the Statistica software package.

Results and discussion

The variation of indicators of physical development and statistical data of primary school students (Table 1) shows that the most informative feature of the sample is the coefficient of variation, which in 11 studied variables ranges from 3,95 to 47,65%. The scope of the data obtained in the study also carries quite precise information about the statistical indicators. In some features, these indicators reach large values and characterize significant discrepancies in the values of the phenomenon under study. For this reason, VC has a range of 1000 ml (from 1040 to 2040) and it is also significant in the ratio VC / weight, where it was 43,65 (see table. 1).

Analysis of the correlation between somatoscopic, somatometric and physiometric characteristics in the development of primary school children showed that there is a statistically significant relationship between the overwhelming majority of indicators of children’s physical development (p <0,05 and higher). Moreover, it should be noted that out of 10 indicators that characterize the somatometric and physiological parameters of the development of children, only three have an interrelation level of p <0,05 and the remaining 13, an interrelation level of p <0,01 and higher.

The highest and closest correlation coefficients were found in the indices of somatometric indicators: weight and WHI. Each of them is represented by five reliable connections with other features. Growth indices and VC – by four reliable connections, and VC / weight – by three reliable links (p <0,05).

 

Table 1 – Statistical indicators of the physical development of 1st class schoolchildren

Stat. indicators Height Weigh WHI VC VC/Weight Dyn. Right hand Dyn. Left hand Dead lift dead lift./weight Foot Posture
X 126,00 26,4 203,60 1487,65 59,70 11,76 11,56 35,10 1,44 1,9 1,77
D 4,89 4,15 28,10 250,52 8,68 2,35 2,37 6,47 0,28 0,78 0,69
M 0,76 0,62 4,35 38,89 1,23 0,46 0,36 0,98 0,04 0,15 0,10
Min 113,5 18,30 166,58 1040,00 35,15 8,00 6,00 15,02 0,75 1,02 1,01
Max 136,00 42,40 332,85 2040,00 77,77 18,02 16,03 46,90 1,97 3,01 3,01
R 23,6 21,2 156,28 1000 43,65 10,01 10,01 32,00 1,23 2,01 2,01
CV 3,95 16,15 13,86 16,50 14,73 20,37 19,79 17,78 18,88 47,65 38,27

Note: n = 45

 

Physiometric indicators in the structure of physical development of primary school age children are much weaker. Here, a significant correlation was found in the strength / weight indicator. It is reliably associated with four indicators – weight, WHI, dynamometry of the left hand and deadlift. The dynamometry index of the left hand in the structure of the studied indicators reliably correlates three times, and the indicators of the dynamometry of the right hand and back strength – twice.

Distant and close interfunctional connections of indicators of somatometric indicators in the structure of physical development of children testify to their leading role in the life support, integrity and harmony of physical development of children. Physiometric indicators of physical development of children are presented at a lower order in the structure of the relationship and occupy a subordinate intermediate position. Somatoscopic indicators are at the level of the 3rd order in the system of those of the physical development of children of this age.

Functional dependencies of this type make it possible to assess the value of each indicator in the physical development of children, as well as to use individual intermediate characteristics as a criterion for the physical development of a child.

Thus, the carried-out correlation analysis and analysis of the structure of interrelationships of physical development of children of primary school age made it possible to identify the most significant (leading) indicators characteristic of this age group.

Conclusions

  1. As a result of the studies carried out using correlation analysis in the structure of life-supporting indicators of physical development of primary school age children, the degree of interconnection and “subordination” of somatometric, physiometric and somatoscopic signs was determined.
  2. In the analysis of the structure of interdependence in the aspect of inter-feature relation of primary school age children, the indicators are the leading characteristic for a given age level of natural development of somatometric indicators of a child: height, weight, WHI, VC, VC / weight and subordination of physiometric indicators: dynamometry of the left and right hand, back strength , relative strength, i.e. those signs that are acquired and developed in the course of the natural conditions of the child’s life.
  3. The data obtained during the work broadens the understanding of the course of the integrality of the organization of the physical development of a person, starting from the primary school age, testifying to the unity of the functional capabilities and harmony of the all-round development of the child.
  4. The use of the proposed methods for assessing the state of health of students makes it possible to form databases of the morphological and functional state of schoolchildren, to use the data obtained to compile teaching aids and methodological complexes in the development of correctional and rehabilitation measures.
Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

Список литературы / References

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Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

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