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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2020.101.11.071 - Доступен после 17.11.2020

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Гурьева З. И. ПРАГМАЛИНГВИСТИЧЕСКИЙ АСПЕКТ БИЗНЕС-КОММУНИКАЦИИ / З. И. Гурьева, Е. В. Петрушова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2020. — №. — С. . — URL: https://research-journal.org/languages/pragmalinguistic-aspect-of-business-communication/ (дата обращения: 30.11.2020. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2020.101.11.071

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ПРАГМАЛИНГВИСТИЧЕСКИЙ АСПЕКТ БИЗНЕС-КОММУНИКАЦИИ

ПРАГМАЛИНГВИСТИЧЕСКИЙ АСПЕКТ БИЗНЕС-КОММУНИКАЦИИ

Научная статья

Гурьева З.И.1, *, Петрушова Е.В.2

1, 2 Кубанский государственный университет, Краснодар, Россия

* Корреспондирующий автор (ziguryeva[at]mail.ru)

Аннотация

В статье предпринимается попытка рассмотреть некоторые теоретические проблемы текстуальной деятельности как важного регулятора социального взаимодействия в процессе международной бизнес-коммуникации. Эффективность обмена текстовой информацией – необходимое условие успешного взаимодействия представителей различных культур в процессе бизнес-коммуникации. Однако одну и ту же информацию можно передать различными способами: в устной или письменной форме; в виде монологической речи или диалогического взаимодействия; непосредственно, глядя собеседнику (аудитории) в лицо, или опосредованно – по телефону, факсу, телексу, электронной почте. Способ осуществления речи значительно влияет на отбор и аранжировку языковых средств в процессе текстовой деятельности. В статье приводятся примеры целей и методов передачи информации посредством бизнес-текстов.

Ключевые слова: бизнес-коммуникация, бизнес-текст, текстовая деятельность, эффективность, социальное взаимодействие, культура.

PRAGMALINGUISTIC ASPECT OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

Research article

Guryeva Z.I.1, *, Petrushova E.V.2

1, 2 Kuban State University, Krasnodar, Russia

* Corresponding author (ziguryeva[at]mail.ru)

Abstract

The paper makes an attempt of discussing some theoretical problems of textual activity as an important regulator of social interaction in the field of international business communication. The efficiency of information exchange is an important prerequisite of successful interaction of representatives of different cultures in the process of business communication. However, the information can be transferred by different means: orally or in the written form; by monologue or dialogue speech; directly – face to face – or indirectly – by telephone, fax, telex, e-mail. The method of information transfer influences the choice and arrangement of language means in the process of textual activity. Some examples of goals and methods of communicating information by business texts are given.

Keywords: Business communication, business text, textual activity, efficiency, social interaction, culture.

Business communication is one of the most popular types of social interaction and plays a very important part in human society. In this paper we are making an attempt of discussing some theoretical problems of textual activity as an important regulator of social interaction in the field of business communication. The latter penetrates practically all the spheres of human activity.

Frank Dance found 96 definitions of the notion “communication” [1], but we think that the definition, given in Collins Dictionary of Business, is the simplest: “Communication is the exchange of information in an organization” [2]. Some examples of information and methods of communicating in business might be:

– Setting goals and objectives.

Organizations rely on communication among employees at all levels to decide on and implement their goals. Most organizations have a variety of formal and informal objectives to accomplish. These goals are established by thinking and talking about them and then committing them to paper. But regardless of what the particular goal may be, the fact that someone has thought about it and communicated it enables everyone to work toward a common purpose.

– Making and implementing decisions.

In an effort to achieve their goals, people in business must make and implement many decisions. They must collect facts and evaluate alternatives, and they do so by reading, asking questions, talking things over with one another, and just plain thinking. Often their deliberations depend on reports that are prepared by others and that analyze the pros and cons of various actions. Then once a decision has been made, it has to be implemented, and this requires more communication. Businesspeople have to explain what needs to be done and gain the support of people affected by the decision.

– Measuring results.

Keeping track of results requires the transmission of information from lower-level employees to management. As the decisions are translated into action, management needs to determine whether the desired outcome is being reached. Statistics on such factors as costs, sales, market share, productivity, employee turnover, and inventory levels are compiled. In larger companies, the data may be put together using a computerized management information system that prepares reports automatically. In smaller companies, management may obtain the required information through face-to-face contact with lower-level employees or in the form of hand-prepared memos or reports.

– Hiring and developing staff.

Organizations attract, train, motivate, and evaluate their employees by communicating with them. If a company wants to hire someone, it must first advertise the opening, screen resumes, interview applicants, and eventually make a job offer. Then the new person must be introduced to the organization, instructed in the responsibilities of the position, and motivated to perform. As time goes on, the new employee must be given feedback on her or his performance, which involves more communication.

– Dealing with customers.

All of an organization’s interactions with customers involve communication in one form or another. Both written and oral communication are essential to a company’s interactions with customers. Even the price tags on products are a form of communication. Sales letters and brochures, advertisements, personal sales calls, telephone solicitations, and formal proposals are all used to stimulate the customer’s interest. Communication also plays a part in such customer-related functions as credit checking, billing, and handling complaints and questions.

– Negotiating with suppliers and financiers.

Organizations rely on communication to obtain needed supplies at best prices and to attract investment capital. To obtain necessary supplies and services, companies develop written specifications that outline their requirements. They place orders for materials and bargain to get the best price. To arrange financing, they negotiate with lenders and fill out loan applications, or they sell stock to the public, which involves still more paperwork. Once they have obtained the necessary capital, they must keep their investors informed about the status of the business.

– Producing the product.

The production process is, in part, a communication process. Getting an idea for a new product out of someone’s head, pushing it through the production process, and finally getting the product out the door also require communication. Designers draw plans, marketing people conduct studies, and product managers develop sales campaigns. When the time comes for full-scale production, the company prepares a manufacturing plan. Supervisors get instructions and pass them on to production workers. As production gets under way, workers report any problems that arise. Records are kept regarding raw materials, inventory levels, and product quality. Finally, arrangements are made by phone or in writing for shipping the product. Similar steps are required when a company’s product is a service such as accounting or air transportation.

– Interacting with regulatory agencies.

Government regulation and services depend on a two-way flow of information. Communication also occurs between businesses and government. With input from companies and the public, government agencies establish rules and regulations that both protect companies and ensure that they operate in the general interest. Often, companies must then demonstrate their compliance with regulations by preparing reports that describe their efforts to meet such goals as cleaning up the environment or hiring women and minorities. Should a company fail to respond to government requirements, it may get an opportunity for further communication – in a court of law.

Communication can take place between managers and employees, as well as between representative bodies, such as trade unions. Information is also passed to people and organizations outside the company. For example, company newspapers such as Ford News not only inform employees about the firm, but presents a picture to the outside world of its operations [3].

Communication can be along different routes or channels in the organization. Sometimes it can be between a manager and a subordinate (vertical) or between two departments (horizontal). As well as this formal type of communication, information is often passed informally between departments and employees. It can be communicated downwards, upwards and laterally. Communication media vary from written methods, such as annual reports, to oral methods such as discussions, to the use of information technology, such as a modem or a “fax” machine, videos and electronic mail.

Thus, within the framework of economic, social and cultural context textually organized information is permanently exchanged. As the result of textual activity different texts are produced both orally or in a written form. Nowadays texts become integral elements of human professional experience. Textual activity serves all human material wants indirectly – through the satisfaction of the most important needs of self-expression, interrelation and interaction of people.

Verbal communication is the sum total of all types of speech activity representing the receipt, processing, transmission, storage and usage of both professionally and emotionally relevant information. It is only the efficient verbal activity that leads to mutual understanding and effective business communication. Mutual understanding of people results in its turn in their successful joint material activity and wise decision-making.

For communication to be effective the correct message must be sent and received. That’s why the sender of the message should think about his or her audience, let them know what to expect, use vivid language, stick to the point, connect new ideas to familiar ones, emphasize and review key points, minimize noise, and provide opportunities for feedback [4].

Decoding a message to absorb its ideas is also a complex process. Our ability to absorb information depends on our past experiences, and over time, each of builds up a particular view of the world. Then when we learn something new, we try to fit it into our existing pattern. But if the new information doesn’t quite fit, we are inclined to distort it rather than rearrange the pattern, or we pay more attention to some ideas than to others. Therefore, when we communicate with people who share similar experiences and expectations, much what we say automatically fits into their mental framework. Interestingly enough, one person may react differently to the same words on different occasions. A message that might be perfectly clear and acceptable in one situation can lead to confusion and hostility in another, depending on the emotional relationship between receiver and sender [5].

Although any type of communication is subject to misunderstandings, business communication is particularly difficult. The material is often complex and controversial, and both the sender and the receiver may face distractions that divert their attention. Furthermore, the opportunities for feedback are often limited, making it difficult to correct misunderstandings.

To provide a good message and to understand it correctly businessmen must have:

  • professional knowledge of the subject under discussion;
  • language or linguistic competence;
  • communicative competence;
  • cross-cultural competence.

There is no need to speak here about professional skills of communicators. A businessman usually must have basic knowledge of marketing, production, finances, banking, world trade, etc.

Language competence of a native speaker is a natural phenomenon. The problem arises when businessmen conclude deals or have negotiations in a foreign language. In this case the degree of proficiency of a foreign language-user really matters.

When we speak of a communicative competence, we mean the ability of a language-user to produce not only a linguistically correct speech utterance but also a communicatively appropriate utterance as well. A certain communicative situation as a rule requires some definite language means of expression. A communicator should know which of them to use and in what situation.

Communicative competence reveals skills in business letter-writing, in telephoning, in making presentations, in conducting meetings and conferences, in advertising, etc.

Cultural background of communicators is also of great importance. It is a generally known fact that businesspeople of different nationalities sometimes have problems in understanding each other because of differences of ethnic and cultural character. Cross-cultural competence deals with religious, political, philosophical, educational, ethic aspects of communicators’ views.

Different cultures prefer different styles of social interaction. Nevertheless, it is necessary to differentiate language and culture. For example, English-speaking world is divided today into many parts from the cultural point of view. For instance, Australian English has also developed a number of features that reflect history, culture and traditions of Australia [6].

The digital era has brought with it many new means for the purpose of business communication. Today one can reach a colleague instantly with a touch of a button. Businessmen have the opportunity to check their emails and text each other at any time. It is very important for business organizations to use the latest technology for communication purposes [7].

In conclusion it should be stressed that good communication is vital for the efficient running of a business. Effective communication will only happen if information is sent, received and then understood correctly. Consequently, effective verbal communication is the basis of efficient business communication. Embracing new technology is also essential here.

Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

Список литературы / References

  1. Dance F.E.X. The “Concept” of Communication / F.E.X. Dance // Journal of Communication. – 1970. Vol. 20. – Iss. 2. – Pp. 201-210.
  2. Pass C. Collins Dictionary of Business / C. Pass. B. Lowes, A. Pendleton, L. Chadwick // Harper Collins Publishers. – 1999. – 706 p.
  3. Thill J.V. Excellence in Business Communication / John V. Thill, Courtland L. Bovee, McGraw-Hill, 12th – Pearson Paper. – 2017. – 672 p.
  4. Hall D. Business Studies / D. Hall, R. Jones, C. Raffo, A. Anderton, I. Chambers, D. Gray // Causeway Press. – 2008. – 812 p.
  5. Crystal D. Investigating English Style / D. Crystal, D. Davy. – Routledge. – 2016. – 278 p.
  6. Wierzbicka A. Cross-cultural pragmatics: The semantics of human interaction / Wierzbicka A.// Berlin. – 2003. – 416 p.
  7. Importance of business communication in modern world. [Electronic resource] URL: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/importance-of-business-communication-in-modern-world.html. (accessed: 23.09.2020)

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